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Lipid storage cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784041/lipid-metabolism-reprogramming-and-its-potential-targets-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Chunming Cheng, Feng Geng, Xiang Cheng, Deliang Guo
Reprogramming of lipid metabolism is a newly recognized hallmark of malignancy. Increased lipid uptake, storage and lipogenesis occur in a variety of cancers and contribute to rapid tumor growth. Lipids constitute the basic structure of membranes and also function as signaling molecules and energy sources. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors in the endoplasmic reticulum, play a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Recent studies have revealed that SREBPs are highly up-regulated in various cancers and promote tumor growth...
May 21, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779155/prioritising-risk-factors-for-type-2-diabetes-causal-inference-through-genetic-approaches
#2
REVIEW
Laura B L Wittemans, Luca A Lotta, Claudia Langenberg
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Causality has been demonstrated for few of the many putative risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) emerging from observational epidemiology. Genetic approaches are increasingly being used to infer causality, and in this review, we discuss how genetic discoveries have shaped our understanding of the causal role of factors associated with T2D. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic discoveries have led to the identification of novel potential aetiological factors of T2D, including the protective role of peripheral fat storage capacity and specific metabolic pathways, such as the branched-chain amino acid breakdown...
May 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755288/roles-of-perilipins-in-diseases-and-cancers
#3
Pengpeng Zhang, Lian Meng, Lingxie Song, Juan Du, Shutong Du, Wenwen Cui, Chunxia Liu, Feng Li
Perilipins, an ancient family of lipid droplet-associated proteins, are embedded in a phospho-lipid monolayer of intracellular lipid droplets. The core of lipid droplets is composed of neutral fat, which mainly includes triglyceride and cholesterol ester. Perilipins are closely related to the function of lipid droplets, and they mediate lipid metabolism and storage. Therefore, perilipins play an important role in the development of obesity, diabetes, cancer, hepatic diseases, atherosclerosis, and carcinoma, which are caused by abnormal lipid metabolism...
May 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754178/ev-microvesicles-micrornas-and-stem-cells-in-cancer
#4
Jacob A Tickner, Derek J Richard, Kenneth J O'Byrne
The role of extracellular vesicles (EV) in carcinogenesis has become the focus of much research. These microscopic messengers have been found to regulate immune system function, particularly in tumorigenesis, as well as conditioning future metastatic sites for the attachment and growth of tumor tissue. Through an interaction with a range of host tissues, EVs are able to generate a pro-tumor environment that is essential for tumorigenesis. These small nanovesicles are an ideal candidate for a non-invasive indicator of pathogenesis and/or disease progression as they can display individualized nucleic acid, protein, and lipid expression profiles that are often reflective of disease state, and can be easily detected in bodily fluids, even after extended cryo-storage...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748690/untargeted-lipidomic-analysis-of-primary-human-epidermal-melanocytes-acutely-and-chronically-exposed-to-uv-radiation
#5
Núria Dalmau, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Romà Tauler, Carmen Bedia
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation present in sunlight has been related to harmful effects on skin such as premature aging and skin cancer. In order to study the effects of UV radiation on skin, many investigations have been carried out at transcriptomic and proteomic levels. However, studies on the effects of UV radiation on lipid composition are scarce. In this work, primary cultures of melanocytes were exposed to UV radiation in a similar UVA/UVB ratio to that found in solar light. The UV exposure was carried out twice a week and different endpoints were investigated at 0...
May 11, 2018: Molecular omics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719821/the-physiopathological-role-of-the-exchangers-belonging-to-the-slc37-family
#6
REVIEW
Anna Rita Cappello, Rosita Curcio, Rosamaria Lappano, Marcello Maggiolini, Vincenza Dolce
The human SLC37 gene family includes four proteins SLC37A1-4, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. They have been grouped into the SLC37 family due to their sequence homology to the bacterial organophosphate/phosphate (Pi) antiporter. SLC37A1-3 are the less characterized isoforms. SLC37A1 and SLC37A2 are Pi-linked glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) antiporters, catalyzing both homologous (Pi/Pi) and heterologous (G6P/Pi) exchanges, whereas SLC37A3 transport properties remain to be clarified. Furthermore, SLC37A1 is highly homologous to the bacterial glycerol 3-phosphate permeases, so it is supposed to transport also glycerol-3-phosphate...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691812/excipient-selection-and-aerodynamic-characterization-of-nebulized-lipid-based-nanoemulsion-loaded-with-docetaxel-for-lung-cancer-treatment
#7
Azren Aida Asmawi, Norazlinaliza Salim, Cheng Loong Ngan, Haslina Ahmad, Emilia Abdulmalek, Mas Jaffri Masarudin, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman
Docetaxel has demonstrated extraordinary anticancer effects on lung cancer. However, lack of optimal bioavailability due to poor solubility and high toxicity at its therapeutic dose has hampered the clinical use of this anticancer drug. Development of nanoemulsion formulation along with biocompatible excipients aimed for pulmonary delivery is a potential strategy to deliver this poorly aqueous soluble drug with improved bioavailability and biocompatibility. In this work, screening and selection of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients at their minimal optimal concentration have been conducted...
April 24, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616249/anti-aging-potential-of-tree-nuts-with-a-focus-on-the-phytochemical-composition-molecular-mechanisms-and-thermal-stability-of-major-bioactive-compounds
#8
REVIEW
Marius Emil Rusu, Ana-Maria Gheldiu, Andrei Mocan, Laurian Vlase, Daniela-Saveta Popa
Tree nuts, complete functional foods, contain macro- and micronutrients of high biological value. These bioactive compounds have a synergistic effect in preventing and delaying many age-related pathologies (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus, certain types of cancer, and several neurodegenerative diseases). Tree nuts are low in carbohydrates, but they abound in healthy fatty acids, in optimal proportion for a good plasma lipid profile, and are a good source of proteins, rich in proteinogenic amino acids...
April 4, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535219/visualization-of-breast-cancer-metabolism-using-multimodal-nonlinear-optical-microscopy-of-cellular-lipids-and-redox-state
#9
Jue Hou, Joshua Williams, Elliot L Botvinick, Eric O Potma, Bruce J Tromberg
Label-free nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) from cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD+ ) is widely used for high-resolution cellular redox imaging. In this work, we combined three label-free NLOM imaging methods to quantitatively characterize breast cancer cells and their relative invasive potential: (i) TPEF optical redox ratio (ORR = FAD+ /NADH + FAD+ ), (ii) coherent Raman scattering of cellular lipids, and (iii) second harmonic generation of extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478771/lipid-droplets-as-immune-modulators-in-myeloid-cells
#10
REVIEW
Martijn H den Brok, Tonke K Raaijmakers, Estel Collado-Camps, Gosse J Adema
Lipid droplets (LDs) were initially described as fat storage organelles in adipocytes, but are increasingly recognized as dynamic players in lipid metabolism, with important roles not only in diseases such as diabetes and cancer, but also in immune regulation. Alterations in immune cell function, such as myeloid cell activation, are connected to profound changes in LD numbers and LD protein composition. Thus, these organelles appear to be essential to metabolically support immune responses, and have a vital role in antigen crosspresentation, interferon (IFN) responses, production of inflammatory mediators, and pathogen clearance...
May 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472527/hints-on-atgl-implications-in-cancer-beyond-bioenergetic-clues
#11
REVIEW
Rolando Vegliante, Luca Di Leo, Fabio Ciccarone, Maria Rosa Ciriolo
Among metabolic rearrangements occurring in cancer cells, lipid metabolism alteration has become a hallmark, aimed at sustaining accelerated proliferation. In particular, fatty acids (FAs) are dramatically required by cancer cells as signalling molecules and membrane building blocks, beyond bioenergetics. Along with de novo biosynthesis, free FAs derive from dietary sources or from intracellular lipid droplets, which represent the storage of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme of lipolysis, catalysing the first step of intracellular TAGs hydrolysis in several tissues...
February 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446627/ultrabright-and-fluorogenic-probes-for-multicolor-imaging-and-tracking-of-lipid-droplets-in-cells-and-tissues
#12
Mayeul Collot, Tkhe Kyong Fam, Pichandi Ashokkumar, Orestis Faklaris, Thierry Galli, Lydia Danglot, Andrey S Klymchenko
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular lipid-rich organelles that regulate the storage of neutral lipids and were recently found to be involved in many physiological processes, metabolic disorders, and diseases including obesity, diabetes, and cancers. Herein we present a family of new fluorogenic merocyanine fluorophores based on an indolenine moiety and a dioxaborine barbiturate derivative. These so-called StatoMerocyanines (SMCy) fluoresce from yellow to the near-infrared (NIR) in oil with an impressive fluorescence enhancement compared to aqueous media...
April 25, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442632/a-facile-way-to-increase-the-cellular-uptake-efficiency-of-hybrid-nanoparticles
#13
Yihua Yang, Yingcai Meng, Enbo Zhang, Jinsong Ding
Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles composed of polymer cores and lipid shells have been intensively studied as cancer drug delivery systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of phosphatidylcholine (PC) on physicochemical properties, stability and cellular uptake of lipid-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) hybrid nanoparticles. Coumarin-6 (cou-6) loaded hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using PC with different alkyl chain lengths from C12 to C18, and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and encapsulation efficiency (EE)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408473/curcumin-marinosomes-as-promising-nano-drug-delivery-system-for-lung-cancer
#14
Shaimaa Ibrahim, Tatsuaki Tagami, Toshihiro Kishi, Tetsuya Ozeki
Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Curcumin attracted attention due to its promising anti-cancer properties, however its poor aqueous solubility and bioavailability have to be overcome. In the current study curcumin is encapsulated in krill lipids-based liposomes (marinosomes) to develop a potential anticancer therapy from low-cost and readily available nutraceuticals. Reflux followed by thin drug-lipid film method is used successfully to incorporate the drug into the liposomal membrane at high encapsulation efficiency (EE)...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382104/action-of-phytochemicals-on-insulin-signaling-pathways-accelerating-glucose-transporter-glut4-protein-translocation
#15
REVIEW
Abu Sadat Md Sayem, Aditya Arya, Hamed Karimian, Narendiran Krishnasamy, Ameya Ashok Hasamnis, Chowdhury Faiz Hossain
Diabetes is associated with obesity, generally accompanied by a chronic state of oxidative stress and redox imbalances which are implicated in the progression of micro- and macro-complications like heart disease, stroke, dementia, cancer, kidney failure and blindness. All these complications rise primarily due to consistent high blood glucose levels. Insulin and glucagon help to maintain the homeostasis of glucose and lipids through signaling cascades. Pancreatic hormones stimulate translocation of the glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from an intracellular location to the cell surface and facilitate the rapid insulin-dependent storage of glucose in muscle and fat cells...
January 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312541/energy-metabolism-in-glioblastoma-stem-cells-ppar%C3%AE-a-metabolic-adaptor-to-intratumoral-microenvironment
#16
Alessia Fidoamore, Loredana Cristiano, Chiara Laezza, Renato Galzio, Elisabetta Benedetti, Benedetta Cinque, Andrea Antonosante, Michele d'Angelo, Vanessa Castelli, Maria Grazia Cifone, Rodolfo Ippoliti, Antonio Giordano, Annamaria Cimini
Glioblastoma (GB), the most-common cancer in the adult brain, despite surgery and radio/ chemotherapy, is to date almost incurable. Many hypoxic tumors, including GB, show metabolic reprogramming to sustain uncontrolled proliferation, hypoxic conditions and angiogenesis. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors (PPAR), particularly the α isotype, have been involved in the control of energetic metabolism. Herein, we characterized patient-derived GB neurospheres focusing on their energetic metabolism and PPARα expression...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303993/endolysosomal-cation-channels-and-cancer-a-link-with-great-potential
#17
REVIEW
Christian Grimm, Karin Bartel, Angelika M Vollmar, Martin Biel
The endolysosomal system (ES) consists of lysosomes; early, late, and recycling endosomes; and autophagosomes. It is a key regulator not only of macromolecule degradation and recycling, plasma membrane repair, homeostasis, and lipid storage, but also of antigen presentation, immune defense, cell motility, cell death signaling, tumor growth, and cancer progression. In addition, it plays a critical role in autophagy, and the autophagy-lysosome pathway is intimately associated with the hallmarks of cancer, such as escaping cell death pathways, evading immune surveillance, and deregulating metabolism...
January 5, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296211/global-lipidomics-identified-plasma-lipids-as-novel-biomarkers-for-early-detection-of-lung-cancer
#18
Zongtao Yu, Hankui Chen, Junmei Ai, Yong Zhu, Yan Li, Jeffrey A Borgia, Jin-Song Yang, Jicai Zhang, Bin Jiang, Wei Gu, Youping Deng
Purpose: Lipids play roles in membrane structure, energy storage, and signal transduction as well as in human cancers. Here we adopt lipidomics to identify plasma lipid markers for early screening and detection of lung cancer. Experimental Design: Using mass spectrometry, we profiled 390 individual lipids using training and validation strategy in a total of 346 plasma samples from 199 early NSCLC patients, including 113 adenocacinoma and 86 squamous cell cancers (SqCC), and from 147 healthy controls...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258509/chemotherapy-diminishes-lipid-storage-capacity-of-adipose-tissue-in-a-preclinical-model-of-colon-cancer
#19
Maryam Ebadi, Catherine J Field, Richard Lehner, Vera C Mazurak
BACKGROUND: Accelerated loss of adipose tissue in cancer is associated with shorter survival, and reduced quality of life. Evidence is emerging suggesting tumour association with alterations in adipose tissue, but much less is known about drug-related mechanisms contributing to adipose atrophy. Identification of mechanisms by which tumour and cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, affect adipose tissue are required to develop appropriate therapeutic interventions to prevent fat depletion in cancer...
December 19, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211796/reprogramming-pancreatic-stellate-cells-via-p53-activation-a-putative-target-for-pancreatic-cancer-therapy
#20
Maya Saison-Ridinger, Kathleen E DelGiorno, Tejia Zhang, Annabelle Kraus, Randall French, Dawn Jaquish, Crystal Tsui, Galina Erikson, Benjamin T Spike, Maxim N Shokhirev, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans, Alan Saghatelian, Andrew M Lowy, Geoffrey M Wahl
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an extremely dense fibrotic stroma, which contributes to tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. During tumorigenesis, quiescent pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are activated and become major contributors to fibrosis, by increasing growth factor signaling and extracellular matrix deposition. The p53 tumor suppressor is known to restrict tumor initiation and progression through cell autonomous mechanisms including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and senescence...
2017: PloS One
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