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Lipid storage cancer

Heba Zahid, Evan R Simpson, Kristy A Brown
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of estrogen-dependent breast cancer after menopause. Adipose tissue undergoes important changes in obesity due to excess storage of lipids, leading to adipocyte cell death and the recruitment of macrophages. The resultant state of chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the activation of NFkB signaling and elevated levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. This occurs not only in the visceral and subcutaneous fat, but also in the breast fat...
November 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Kyoohyun Kim, SeoEun Lee, Jonghee Yoon, JiHan Heo, Chulhee Choi, YongKeun Park
Lipid droplets (LDs) are subcellular organelles with important roles in lipid storage and metabolism and involved in various diseases including cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Conventional methods, however, have limited ability to provide quantitative information on individual LDs and have limited capability for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of LDs in live cells especially for fast acquisition of 3-D dynamics. Here, we present an optical method based on 3-D quantitative phase imaging to measure the 3-D structural distribution and biochemical parameters (concentration and dry mass) of individual LDs in live cells without using exogenous labelling agents...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ana Del Pozo-Rodríguez, María Ángeles Solinís, Alicia Rodríguez-Gascón
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) have been recognized, among the large number of non-viral vectors for gene transfection, as an effective and safety alternative to potentially treat both genetic and not genetic diseases. A key feature is the possibility to be designed to overcome the numerous challenges for successful gene delivery. Lipid nanoparticles (LNs) are able to overcome the main biological barriers for cell transfection, including degradation by nucleases, cell internalization intracellular trafficking, and selectively targeting to a specific cell type...
December 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
M El Khalifi, J Bentin, E Duverger, T Gharbi, H Boulahdour, F Picaud
The behavior of confined anticancer carboplatin (CPT) molecules in a single (10, 10) boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Our study revealed a very large storage capacity of BNNT. Analysis of the energy profiles depending on the number of confined molecules, and on their spatial organization allowed us to quantify the ability of BNNT to vectorize CPT. Indeed, BNNT despite its small radius presented a large inner volume that favored stable encapsulation of multiple active anticancer molecules...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Woo Jung Shin, Hyun Jong Noh, Young-Woock Noh, Sohyun Kim, Soong Ho Um, Yong Taik Lim
A novel powder-form combination adjuvant system containing two immunostimulatory compounds was firstly developed and evaluated as a therapeutic intervention for cancer immunotherapy. With the help of hyaluronic acid (HA), water insoluble monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), QS21 and imiquimod (R837), could be easily dispersed in aqueous solution and lyophilized as powder-form, which have an advantage in room-temperature storage stability compared with those conventional liquid formulation that requires cold storage...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Stephanie M Wood, Anthony J Gill, Alexander S Brodsky, Shaolei Lu, Kenneth Friedman, Galina Karashchuk, Kara Lombardo, Dongfang Yang, Murray B Resnick
Fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1) is an intracellular protein responsible for the transportation of long chain fatty acids. Aside from its functions in lipid metabolism and cellular differentiation, FABP1 also plays a role in inflammation through its interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Previously, we compared expression of colonic epithelium genes in a subset of microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal carcinomas (medullary carcinomas) to normal colonic mucosa and found that FABP1 expression was markedly decreased in the tumors...
September 30, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Yang Jin, Keyan Chen, Zongying Wang, Yan Wang, Jianzhi Liu, Li Lin, Yong Shao, Lihua Gao, Huihui Yin, Cong Cui, Zhaoli Tan, Liejun Liu, Chuanhua Zhao, Gairong Zhang, Ru Jia, Lijuan Du, Yuling Chen, Rongrui Liu, Jianming Xu, Xianwen Hu, Youliang Wang
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, can be secreted by most cell types and released in perhaps all biological fluids. EVs contain multiple proteins, specific lipids and several kinds of nucleic acids such as RNAs and DNAs. Studies have found that EVs contain double-stranded DNA and that genetic information has a certain degree of consistency with tumor DNA. Therefore, if genes that exist in exosomes are stable, we may be able to use EVs genetic testing as a new means to monitor gene mutation...
September 23, 2016: BMC Cancer
Lu-Lu Wang, Shuai Huang, Hui-Hui Guo, Yan-Xing Han, Wen-Sheng Zheng, Jian-Dong Jiang
In situ administration of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) "thermosensitive" gel effectively reduced systemic side effects in treating colon rectal cancer; however, the penetration efficacy of the formulation was considerably low due to the poor lipid solubility of 5FU. The aim of this study was to develop thermosensitive gel-mediated 5FU water-in-oil microemulsion (TG-5FU-ME) for improving the infiltration of 5FU. An in vitro release test showed that TG-5FU-ME sustained the drug's release up to 10 hours. TG-5FU-ME exhibited good stability, and the microemulsion entrapped did not show any change in morphology and 5FU content during the 4-month storage...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Maria Conte, Claudio Franceschi, Marco Sandri, Stefano Salvioli
Perilipin 2 (Plin2), a protein associated with the metabolism of intracellular lipid droplets (LDs), has long been considered only for its role in lipid storage. However, the manipulation of its expression affects the severity of a variety of metabolic and age-related diseases, such as fatty liver, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, sarcopenia, and cancer, suggesting that this protein may play a role in these pathological conditions. In particular, its downregulation in mice prevents or mitigates some of the above mentioned diseases...
September 19, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Florian Röhrig, Almut Schulze
Lipid metabolism, in particular the synthesis of fatty acids (FAs), is an essential cellular process that converts nutrients into metabolic intermediates for membrane biosynthesis, energy storage and the generation of signalling molecules. This Review explores how different aspects of FA synthesis promote tumorigenesis and tumour progression. FA synthesis has received substantial attention as a potential target for cancer therapy, but strategies to target this process have not yet translated into clinical practice...
September 23, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Nadia Lobello, Flavia Biamonte, Maria Elena Pisanu, Maria Concetta Faniello, Žiga Jakopin, Emanuela Chiarella, Emilia Dora Giovannone, Rita Mancini, Gennaro Ciliberto, Giovanni Cuda, Francesco Costanzo
OBJECTIVES: Ferritin is the major intracellular iron storage protein essential for maintaining the cellular redox status. In recent years ferritin heavy chain (FHC) has been shown to be involved also in the control of cancer cell growth. Analysis of public microarray databases in ovarian cancer revealed a correlation between low FHC expression levels and shorter survival. To better understand the role of FHC in cancer, we have silenced the FHC gene in SKOV3 cells. RESULTS: FHC-KO significantly enhanced cell viability and induced a more aggressive behaviour...
August 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Christie A Bader, Tetyana Shandala, Elizabeth A Carter, Angela Ivask, Taryn Guinan, Shane M Hickey, Melissa V Werrett, Phillip J Wright, Peter V Simpson, Stefano Stagni, Nicolas H Voelcker, Peter A Lay, Massimiliano Massi, Sally E Plush, Douglas A Brooks
Lipids have an important role in many aspects of cell biology, including membrane architecture/compartment formation, intracellular traffic, signalling, hormone regulation, inflammation, energy storage and metabolism. Lipid biology is therefore integrally involved in major human diseases, including metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, heart disease, immune disorders and cancers, which commonly display altered lipid transport and metabolism. However, the investigation of these important cellular processes has been limited by the availability of specific tools to visualise lipids in live cells...
2016: PloS One
Ying Liu, Xue-Min Yu, Rui-Jie Sun, Xin-Liang Pan
Aim of the investigation was to develop folate-functionalized lipid nanoemulsion (LNE) comprising chemo-radiotherapeutics for targeted delivery to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Soy lecithin nanoemulsion of doxorubicin (Dox) and yittrium-90 (90Y) was prepared by nanoprecipitation using ultrasonic homogenization technique followed by folic acid conjugation. Nanoemulsion (Dox-LNE) was characterized as positively charged (zeta potential), spherical shape (transmission electron microscopy) nano-droplets of uniform size distribution (polydispersity index)...
August 12, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Andrew Dandridge Frugé, Mallory Gamel Cases, Joellen Martha Schildkraut, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
OBJECTIVE: Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. METHODS: Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants...
2016: Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders
Antonio Simone Laganà, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Angela Nigro, Vincenza Sofo, Francesca Maria Salmeri, Paola Rossetti, Agnese Maria Chiara Rapisarda, Sandro La Vignera, Rosita Angela Condorelli, Gianluca Rizzo, Massimo Buscema
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have demonstrated a lot of important effects in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism and in the correct functioning of adipose tissue. Recently, many studies have evaluated a possible effect of PPARs on tumor cells. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of PPARs, their action and their future prospective; METHODS: Narrative review aimed to synthesize cutting-edge evidence retrieved from searches of computerized databases; RESULTS: PPARs play a key role in metabolic diseases, which include several cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, impaired immunity and the increasing risk of cancer; in particular, PPARα and PPARβ/δ mainly enable energy combustion, while PPARγ contributes to energy storage by enhancing adipogenesis; CONCLUSION: PPAR agonists could represent interesting types of molecules that can treat not only metabolic diseases, but also inflammation and cancer...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fangrong Zhang, Xiaoyi Wang, Xiangting Xu, Min Li, Jianping Zhou, Wei Wang
In the past decades, reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL) has been successfully developed as a drug carrier since the enhanced HDL-lipids uptake is demonstrated in several human cancers. In this paper, rHDL, for the first time, was utilized to co-encapsulate two hydrophobic drugs: an anticancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX), and a new reversal agent for P-gp (P-glycoprotein)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer, N-cyano-1-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-N'-octyl-2(1H)-isoquinoline-carboximidamide (HZ08)...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ibrahim A Aljuffali, Chia-Lang Fang, Chun-Han Chen, Jia-You Fang
BACKGROUND: Of the >140 anticancer drugs approved since 1940 and available for clinical application, >60% can be traced to a natural product. Of the small molecules among them, 67% are natural in origin. Nanocarriers can be effective anticancer drug delivery systems for preventing and treating cancers. It has been demonstrated that nanoparticles used for drug therapy provide some advantages over conventional formulations, including increased solubility, enhanced storage stability, improved permeability and bioavailability, prolonged half-life, tissue targeting, and minimal side effects...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Aditya P Nayak, Tom Mills, Ian Norton
Curcumin is one of the principle bioactive compounds used in the ayurvedic medicine system that has the history of over 5000 years for human use. Curcumin an "Indian Gold" is used to treat simple ailments like the common cold to severe life threatening diseases like cancer, and HIV. Though its contribution is immense for the health protection and disease prevention, its clinical use is limited due to its susceptible nature to alkaline pH, high temperature, presence of oxygen and light. Hence it becomes extremely difficult to maintain its bioactivity during processing, storage and consumption...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Deborah L Johnson, Bangyan L Stiles
PTEN is a critical tumor suppressor whose dysregulation leads to metabolic disease and cancer. How these diseases are linked at a molecular level is poorly understood. Maf1 is a novel PTEN target that connects PTEN's ability to repress intracellular lipid accumulation with its tumor suppressor function. Maf1 represses the expression of rRNAs and tRNAs to restrain biosynthetic capacity and oncogenic transformation. Recent studies demonstrate that Maf1 also controls intracellular lipid accumulation. In animal models, dysregulation of RNA polymerase I- and III-dependent transcription, and subsequent upregulation of rRNAs and tRNAs, leads to altered lipid metabolism and storage...
October 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Raju Bandu, Hyuck Jun Mok, Kwang Pyo Kim
Lipids, particularly phospholipids (PLs), are key components of cellular membrane. PLs play important and diverse roles in cells such as chemical-energy storage, cellular signaling, cell membranes, and cell-cell interactions in tissues. All these cellular processes are pertinent to cells that undergo transformation, cancer progression, and metastasis. Thus, there is a strong possibility that some classes of PLs are expected to present in cancer cells and tissues in cellular physiology. The mass spectrometric soft-ionization techniques, electrospray ionization (ESI), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) are well-established in the proteomics field, have been used for lipidomic analysis in cancer research...
June 8, 2016: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
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