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Lipid storage cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107086/interaction-between-lipid-droplets-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-in-human-atherosclerotic-plaques
#1
Ida Perrotta
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that are found in nearly all cell types, where they serve fundamental roles in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis. Traditionally considered as simple lipid storage deposits, these dynamic and remarkable organelles have recently been implicated in a number of other cellular functions, ranging from protein storage and degradation to virus replication. Intracellular accumulation of LDs is also a hallmark feature of diverse human diseases including diabetes type II, obesity, hepatosteatosis, cancer, and atherosclerosis...
January 20, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076839/chemotherapy-can-induce-weight-normalization-of-morbidly-obese-mice-despite-undiminished-ingestion-of-high-fat-diet
#2
Cheryl E Myers, Dominique B Hoelzinger, Tiffany N Truong, Lindsey A Chew, Arpita Myles, Leena Chaudhuri, Jan B Egan, Jun Liu, Sandra J Gendler, Peter A Cohen
Morbidly obese patients who accomplish substantial weight loss often display a long-term decline in their resting metabolism, causing even relatively restrained caloric intake to trigger a relapse to the obese state. Paradoxically, we observed that morbidly obese mice receiving chemotherapy for cancer experienced spontaneous weight reduction despite unabated ingestion of their high fat diet (HFD). This response to chemotherapy could also be achieved in morbidly obese mice without cancer. Optimally dosed methotrexate (MTX) or cyclophosphamide (CY) enabled the mice to completely and safely normalize their body weight despite continued consumption of obesogenic quantities of HFD...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025106/effect-of-lysosomotropic-molecules-on-cellular-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Omer F Kuzu, Mesut Toprak, M Anwar Noory, Gavin P Robertson
Weak bases that readily penetrate through the lipid bilayer and accumulate inside the acidic organelles are known as lysosomotropic molecules. Many lysosomotropic compounds exhibit therapeutic activity and are commonly used as antidepressant, antipsychotic, antihistamine, or antimalarial agents. Interestingly, studies also have shown increased sensitivity of cancer cells to certain lysosomotropic agents and suggested their mechanism of action as a promising approach for selective destruction of cancer cells...
December 23, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965166/construction-and-evaluation-of-ph-sensitive-immunoliposomes-for-enhanced-delivery-of-anticancer-drug-to-erbb2-over-expressing-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Tianshu Li, Takuya Amari, Kentaro Semba, Tadashi Yamamoto, Shinji Takeoka
1,5-Dihexadecyl N,N-diglutamyl-lysyl-L-glutamate (GGLG) liposomes were previously developed to enhance drug delivery efficiency in tumor cells owing to its pH-responsive properties. Herein, we report the modification of GGLG liposomes by conjugating a Fab' fragment of an ErbB2 antibody to the terminus of PEG (polyethylene glycol)-lipid (Fab'-GGLG liposomes). The conjugation of Fab' fragments did not affect the antibody activity, drug (doxorubicin, DOX) encapsulation efficiency, stability during storage or pH-sensitivity...
December 10, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928516/antioxidant-and-antiproliferative-activities-of-purslane-seed-oil
#5
Gai Guo, Li Yue, Shaoli Fan, Siqun Jing, Liang-Jun Yan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of PSO in vitro and its application in horse oil storage. We determined the reducing power of PSO and its scavenging effects on hydroxyl (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) and tested its stabilizing effects on horse oil storage. The results showed that PSO had remarkable, dose-dependent antioxidant activities, and it effectively prevented horse oil lipid oxidation. We treated cervical cancer HeLa cells, esophageal cancer Eca-109 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with PSO using non-neoplastic monkey kidney Vero cells as controls...
June 2016: Journal of Hypertension: Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916803/advances-in-lipidomics-for-cancer-biomarkers-discovery
#6
REVIEW
Francesca Perrotti, Consuelo Rosa, Ilaria Cicalini, Paolo Sacchetta, Piero Del Boccio, Domenico Genovesi, Damiana Pieragostino
Lipids play critical functions in cellular survival, proliferation, interaction and death, since they are involved in chemical-energy storage, cellular signaling, cell membranes, and cell-cell interactions. These cellular processes are strongly related to carcinogenesis pathways, particularly to transformation, progression, and metastasis, suggesting the bioactive lipids are mediators of a number of oncogenic processes. The current review gives a synopsis of a lipidomic approach in tumor characterization; we provide an overview on potential lipid biomarkers in the oncology field and on the principal lipidomic methodologies applied...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875786/inflammation-dysregulated-metabolism-and-aromatase-in-obesity-and-breast-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Heba Zahid, Evan R Simpson, Kristy A Brown
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of estrogen-dependent breast cancer after menopause. Adipose tissue undergoes important changes in obesity due to excess storage of lipids, leading to adipocyte cell death and the recruitment of macrophages. The resultant state of chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the activation of NFkB signaling and elevated levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. This occurs not only in the visceral and subcutaneous fat, but also in the breast fat...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874018/three-dimensional-label-free-imaging-and-quantification-of-lipid-droplets-in-live-hepatocytes
#8
Kyoohyun Kim, SeoEun Lee, Jonghee Yoon, JiHan Heo, Chulhee Choi, YongKeun Park
Lipid droplets (LDs) are subcellular organelles with important roles in lipid storage and metabolism and involved in various diseases including cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Conventional methods, however, have limited ability to provide quantitative information on individual LDs and have limited capability for three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of LDs in live cells especially for fast acquisition of 3-D dynamics. Here, we present an optical method based on 3-D quantitative phase imaging to measure the 3-D structural distribution and biochemical parameters (concentration and dry mass) of individual LDs in live cells without using exogenous labelling agents...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789356/applications-of-lipid-nanoparticles-in-gene-therapy
#9
Ana Del Pozo-Rodríguez, María Ángeles Solinís, Alicia Rodríguez-Gascón
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) have been recognized, among the large number of non-viral vectors for gene transfection, as an effective and safety alternative to potentially treat both genetic and not genetic diseases. A key feature is the possibility to be designed to overcome the numerous challenges for successful gene delivery. Lipid nanoparticles (LNs) are able to overcome the main biological barriers for cell transfection, including degradation by nucleases, cell internalization intracellular trafficking, and selectively targeting to a specific cell type...
December 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711377/encapsulation-capacity-and-natural-payload-delivery-of-an-anticancer-drug-from-boron-nitride-nanotube
#10
M El Khalifi, J Bentin, E Duverger, T Gharbi, H Boulahdour, F Picaud
The behavior of confined anticancer carboplatin (CPT) molecules in a single (10, 10) boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Our study revealed a very large storage capacity of BNNT. Analysis of the energy profiles depending on the number of confined molecules, and on their spatial organization allowed us to quantify the ability of BNNT to vectorize CPT. Indeed, BNNT despite its small radius presented a large inner volume that favored stable encapsulation of multiple active anticancer molecules...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702491/hyaluronic-acid-supported-combination-of-water-insoluble-immunostimulatory-compounds-for-anti-cancer-immunotherapy
#11
Woo Jung Shin, Hyun Jong Noh, Young-Woock Noh, Sohyun Kim, Soong Ho Um, Yong Taik Lim
A novel powder-form combination adjuvant system containing two immunostimulatory compounds was firstly developed and evaluated as a therapeutic intervention for cancer immunotherapy. With the help of hyaluronic acid (HA), water insoluble monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), QS21 and imiquimod (R837), could be easily dispersed in aqueous solution and lyophilized as powder-form, which have an advantage in room-temperature storage stability compared with those conventional liquid formulation that requires cold storage...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687006/fatty-acid-binding-protein-1-is-preferentially-lost-in-microsatellite-instable-colorectal-carcinomas-and-is-immune-modulated-via-the-interferon-%C3%AE-pathway
#12
Stephanie M Wood, Anthony J Gill, Alexander S Brodsky, Shaolei Lu, Kenneth Friedman, Galina Karashchuk, Kara Lombardo, Dongfang Yang, Murray B Resnick
Fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1) is an intracellular protein responsible for the transportation of long chain fatty acids. Aside from its functions in lipid metabolism and cellular differentiation, FABP1 also plays a role in inflammation through its interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Previously, we compared expression of colonic epithelium genes in a subset of microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal carcinomas (medullary carcinomas) to normal colonic mucosa and found that FABP1 expression was markedly decreased in the tumors...
January 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662833/dna-in-serum-extracellular-vesicles-is-stable-under-different-storage-conditions
#13
Yang Jin, Keyan Chen, Zongying Wang, Yan Wang, Jianzhi Liu, Li Lin, Yong Shao, Lihua Gao, Huihui Yin, Cong Cui, Zhaoli Tan, Liejun Liu, Chuanhua Zhao, Gairong Zhang, Ru Jia, Lijuan Du, Yuling Chen, Rongrui Liu, Jianming Xu, Xianwen Hu, Youliang Wang
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, can be secreted by most cell types and released in perhaps all biological fluids. EVs contain multiple proteins, specific lipids and several kinds of nucleic acids such as RNAs and DNAs. Studies have found that EVs contain double-stranded DNA and that genetic information has a certain degree of consistency with tumor DNA. Therefore, if genes that exist in exosomes are stable, we may be able to use EVs genetic testing as a new means to monitor gene mutation...
September 23, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660416/in-situ-delivery-of-thermosensitive-gel-mediated-5-fluorouracil-microemulsion-for-the-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer
#14
Lu-Lu Wang, Shuai Huang, Hui-Hui Guo, Yan-Xing Han, Wen-Sheng Zheng, Jian-Dong Jiang
In situ administration of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) "thermosensitive" gel effectively reduced systemic side effects in treating colon rectal cancer; however, the penetration efficacy of the formulation was considerably low due to the poor lipid solubility of 5FU. The aim of this study was to develop thermosensitive gel-mediated 5FU water-in-oil microemulsion (TG-5FU-ME) for improving the infiltration of 5FU. An in vitro release test showed that TG-5FU-ME sustained the drug's release up to 10 hours. TG-5FU-ME exhibited good stability, and the microemulsion entrapped did not show any change in morphology and 5FU content during the 4-month storage...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659144/perilipin-2-and-age-related-metabolic-diseases-a-new-perspective
#15
Maria Conte, Claudio Franceschi, Marco Sandri, Stefano Salvioli
Perilipin 2 (Plin2), a protein associated with the metabolism of intracellular lipid droplets (LDs), has long been considered only for its role in lipid storage. However, the manipulation of its expression affects the severity of a variety of metabolic and age-related diseases, such as fatty liver, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, sarcopenia, and cancer, suggesting that this protein may play a role in these pathological conditions. In particular, its downregulation in mice prevents or mitigates some of the above mentioned diseases...
September 19, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658529/the-multifaceted-roles-of-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-cancer
#16
Florian Röhrig, Almut Schulze
Lipid metabolism, in particular the synthesis of fatty acids (FAs), is an essential cellular process that converts nutrients into metabolic intermediates for membrane biosynthesis, energy storage and the generation of signalling molecules. This Review explores how different aspects of FA synthesis promote tumorigenesis and tumour progression. FA synthesis has received substantial attention as a potential target for cancer therapy, but strategies to target this process have not yet translated into clinical practice...
November 2016: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566559/ferritin-heavy-chain-is-a-negative-regulator-of-ovarian-cancer-stem-cell-expansion-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#17
Nadia Lobello, Flavia Biamonte, Maria Elena Pisanu, Maria Concetta Faniello, Å Iga Jakopin, Emanuela Chiarella, Emilia Dora Giovannone, Rita Mancini, Gennaro Ciliberto, Giovanni Cuda, Francesco Costanzo
OBJECTIVES: Ferritin is the major intracellular iron storage protein essential for maintaining the cellular redox status. In recent years ferritin heavy chain (FHC) has been shown to be involved also in the control of cancer cell growth. Analysis of public microarray databases in ovarian cancer revealed a correlation between low FHC expression levels and shorter survival. To better understand the role of FHC in cancer, we have silenced the FHC gene in SKOV3 cells. RESULTS: FHC-KO significantly enhanced cell viability and induced a more aggressive behaviour...
September 20, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551717/a-molecular-probe-for-the-detection-of-polar-lipids-in-live-cells
#18
Christie A Bader, Tetyana Shandala, Elizabeth A Carter, Angela Ivask, Taryn Guinan, Shane M Hickey, Melissa V Werrett, Phillip J Wright, Peter V Simpson, Stefano Stagni, Nicolas H Voelcker, Peter A Lay, Massimiliano Massi, Sally E Plush, Douglas A Brooks
Lipids have an important role in many aspects of cell biology, including membrane architecture/compartment formation, intracellular traffic, signalling, hormone regulation, inflammation, energy storage and metabolism. Lipid biology is therefore integrally involved in major human diseases, including metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, heart disease, immune disorders and cancers, which commonly display altered lipid transport and metabolism. However, the investigation of these important cellular processes has been limited by the availability of specific tools to visualise lipids in live cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520563/folate-functionalized-lipid-nanoemulsion-to-deliver-chemo-radiotherapeutics-together-for-the-effective-treatment-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#19
Ying Liu, Xue-Min Yu, Rui-Jie Sun, Xin-Liang Pan
Aim of the investigation was to develop folate-functionalized lipid nanoemulsion (LNE) comprising chemo-radiotherapeutics for targeted delivery to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Soy lecithin nanoemulsion of doxorubicin (Dox) and yittrium-90 (90Y) was prepared by nanoprecipitation using ultrasonic homogenization technique followed by folic acid conjugation. Nanoemulsion (Dox-LNE) was characterized as positively charged (zeta potential), spherical shape (transmission electron microscopy) nano-droplets of uniform size distribution (polydispersity index)...
August 12, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478857/associations-between-obesity-body-fat-distribution-weight-loss-and-weight-cycling-on-serum-pesticide-concentrations
#20
Andrew Dandridge Frugé, Mallory Gamel Cases, Joellen Martha Schildkraut, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
OBJECTIVE: Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. METHODS: Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants...
2016: Journal of Food & Nutritional Disorders
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