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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933767/hemin-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-lipid-metabolism-in-cultured-hepatocytes-and-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#1
Yi Luan, Fang Zhang, Yalan Cheng, Jun Liu, Rui Huang, Menghong Yan, Yuangao Wang, Zhishui He, Hejin Lai, Hui Wang, Hao Ying, Feifan Guo, Qiwei Zhai
Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear, and whether hemin directly affects cellular insulin sensitivity is yet to be elucidated. Here we show that hemin enhances insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptors, Akt, Gsk3β, FoxO1 and cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 in cultured primary hepatocytes under insulin-resistant conditions...
July 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933361/lysosomal-storage-disorders-and-malignancy
#2
REVIEW
Gregory M Pastores, Derralynn A Hughes
Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are infrequent to rare conditions caused by mutations that lead to a disruption in the usual sequential degradation of macromolecules or their transit within the cell. Gaucher disease (GD), a lipidosis, is among the most common LSD, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 40,000 among the Caucasian, non-Jewish population. Studies have indicated an increased frequency of polyclonal and monoclonal gammopathy among patients with GD. It has been shown that two major sphingolipids that accumulate in GD, namely, β-glucosylceramide 22:0 (βGL1-22) and glucosylsphingosine (LGL1), can be recognized by a distinct subset of CD1d-restricted human and murine type II natural killer T (NKT) cells...
February 27, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929610/identification-of-bottlenecks-in-the-accumulation-of-cyclic-fatty-acids-in-camelina-seed-oil
#3
Xiao-Hong Yu, Rebecca E Cahoon, Patrick J Horn, Hai Shi, Richa Rawat Prakash, Yuanheng Cai, Maegan Hearney, Kent D Chapman, Edgar B Cahoon, Jorg Schwender, John Shanklin
Modified fatty acids (mFA) have diverse uses, e.g., cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) are feedstocks for producing coatings, lubricants, plastics, and cosmetics. The expression of mFA-producing enzymes in crop and model plants generally results in lower levels of mFA accumulation than in their natural-occurring source plants. Thus, to further our understanding of metabolic bottlenecks that limit mFA accumulation, we generated transgenic Camelina sativa lines co-expressing Escherichia coli cyclopropane synthase (EcCPS) and Sterculia foetida lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (SfLPAT)...
September 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928755/different-preclimacteric-events-in-apple-cultivars-with-modified-ripening-physiology
#4
Vikram Singh, Asya Weksler, Haya Friedman
"Anna" is an early season apple cultivar exhibiting a fast softening and juiciness loss during storage, in comparison to two mid-late season cultivars "Galaxy" and "GD." The poor storage capacity of "Anna" was correlated with high lipid oxidation-related autoluminescence, high respiration and ethylene production rates, associated with high expression of MdACO1, 2, 4, 7, and MdACS1. All cultivars at harvest responded to exogenous ethylene by enhancing ethylene production, typical of system-II. The contribution of pre-climacteric events to the poor storage capacity of "Anna" was examined by comparing respiration and ethylene production rates, response to exogenous ethylene, expression of genes responsible for ethylene biosynthesis and response, and developmental regulators in the three cultivars throughout fruit development...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928524/volatiles-formation-in-gelled-emulsions-enriched-in-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-storage-type-of-oil-and-antioxidant
#5
Lucía Gayoso, Candelaria Poyato, María Isabel Calvo, Rita Yolanda Cavero, Diana Ansorena, Iciar Astiasarán
Gelled emulsions with carrageenan are a novel type of emulsion that could be used as a carrier of unsaturated fatty acids in functional foods formulations. Lipid degradation through volatile compounds was studied in gelled emulsions which were high in polyunsaturated oils (sunflower or algae oil) after 49 days of storage. Aqueous Lavandula latifolia extract was tested as a natural antioxidant. Analysis of the complete volatile profile of the samples resulted in a total of 40 compounds, classified in alkanes, alkenes, aldehydes, ketones, acids, alcohols, furans, terpenes and aromatic hydrocarbons...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925902/adipose-triglyceride-lipase-regulation-an-overview
#6
Ines Katrin Cerk, Lisa Wechselberger, Monika Oberer
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the key-enzyme for the release of fatty acids (FAs) from triacylglycerol (TG) stores during intracellular lipolysis producing FAs used for energy production. There is growing evidence that the products and intermediates from lipolytic breakdown during the FA mobilization process also have fundamental regulatory functions affecting cell signaling, gene expression, metabolism, cell growth, cell death, and lipotoxicity. Regulation of ATGL is therefore vital for maintaining a defined balance between lipid storage and mobilization...
September 18, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925545/methane-delays-the-senescence-and-browning-in-daylily-buds-by-re-established-redox-homeostasis
#7
Huali Hu, Dan Liu, Pengxia Li
BACKGROUND: During the postharvest senescence of fruits and vegetables, redox imbalance occurs. Although the release of methane (CH4 ) has been observed for a long time and its antioxidant properties have recently been demonstrated in animals and plants, the corresponding physiological role of CH4 in regulating plant senescence has not yet been elucidated. RESULTS: Here, our results indicate that the postharvest deterioration of daylily buds during storage is greatly ameliorated by the exogenous application of CH4 , particularly in the inhibition of tissue browning...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925477/the-study-on-the-effect-of-hyperglycemia-on-offspring-fatty-tissue-metabolism-during-pregnancy
#8
H-P Dong, M-Z Tan, Q-J Liu, J Wang, S-B Zhong
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we adopted maternal diabetes model on rats, which induced by streptozotocin to explore the metabolism changes of rat adipose tissue during the neonatal period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The female rats were induced as diabetes models by streptozotocin (STZ), and mated with the normal male rats when they entered into adulthood. The chosen male offspring rats were executed at week 12 and the epididymis and subcutaneous fat pad were obtained...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923247/effects-of-plant-and-animal-based-high-fat-diets-on-lipid-storage-and-distribution-in-environmental-bacteria-colonized-gnotobiotic-mice
#9
Yi-Hsun Chen, Chien-Chao Chiu, Shao-Wen Hung, Ju-Yun Liu, Yu-Chih Wang, Qiang Lv, Cheng-Chih Hsu, Yi-Wen Huang, Wen-Ching Huang, Hsiao-Li Chuang, Ter-Hsin Chen
Different edible oils such as lard and soybean oil have been reported to interact with the gut microbiota, affecting host lipid metabolism. However, whether bacteria derived from the environment influence host lipid metabolism remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the roles of environmental bacteria in host lipid storage and distribution with various edible oils. Gnotobiotic C57BL/6JNarl mice were inoculated with Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus and Paenibacillus azoreducens and then fed either a normal diet (LabDiet 5010, control group) or a diet containing 60% lard (L-group) or soybean oil (S-group) for 18 months...
September 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921786/lipid-production-and-characterization-by-mortierella-umbelopsis-isabellina-cultivated-on-lignocellulosic-sugars
#10
Chryssavgi Gardeli, Maria Athenaki, Evangelos Xenopoulos, Athanasios Mallouchos, Apostolis A Koutinas, George Aggelis, Seraphim Papanikolaou
AIMS: To study and characterize the lipids produced by Mortierella (Umbelopsis) isabellina, during its growth on mixtures of glucose and xylose. METHODS AND RESULTS: Glucose and xylose were utilized as carbon sources, solely or in blends, under nitrogen limited conditions, in batch-flask trials (initial sugars at 80 g l(-1) ). Significant lipid production (maximum lipid 17.8 g l(-1) ; lipid in DCW 61.0% w/w; lipid on glucose consumed 0.23 g g(-1) ) occurred on glucose employed solely, while glucose concentration in the growth medium was conversely correlated with lipid accumulation...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914857/-characteristics-of-lipid-metabolism-and-the-cardiovascular-system-in-glycogenosis-types-i-and-iii
#11
N V Polenova, T V Strokova, A V Starodubova
Glycogen storage disease (GSD) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by early childhood lipid metabolic disturbances with potentially proatherogenic effects. The review outlines the characteristics of impaired lipid composition and other changes in the cardiovascular system in GSD types I and III. It analyzes the factors enabling and inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis in patients with GSD. The review describes the paradox of vascular resistance to the development of early atherosclerosis despite the proatherogenic composition of lipids in the patients of this group...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914566/a-novel-etfdh-mutation-in-an-adult-patient-with-late-onset-riboflavin-responsive-multiple-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#12
Min Chen, Jing Peng, Wei Wei, Wang, Hongliang Xu, Hongbo Liu
We report a novel mutation in the electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) gene in an adult patient with late-onset riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) characterized by muscle weakness and hypoglycemia as main clinical presentation. At the age of 34 years, the patient experienced progressive muscle weakness and short of breath. Blood creatine kinase level was significantly higher than normal. The blood glucose was significantly lower than normal. The muscle biopsy revealed lipid storage myopathy...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905241/photostability-issues-in-pharmaceutical-dosage-forms-and-photostabilization
#13
REVIEW
Karthik Yadav Janga, Tamara King, Nan Ji, Sandeep Sarabu, Gauri Shadambikar, Sagar Sawant, Pengchong Xu, Michael A Repka, S Narasimha Murthy
Photodegradation is one of the major pathways of the degradation of drugs. Some therapeutic agents and excipients are highly sensitive to light and undergo significant degradation, challenging the quality and the stability of the final product. The adequate knowledge of photodegradation mechanisms and kinetics of photosensitive therapeutic entities or excipients is a pivotal aspect in the product development phase. Hence, various pharmaceutical regulatory agencies, across the world, mandated the industries to assess the photodegradation of pharmaceutical products from manufacturing stage till storage, as per the guidelines given in the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH)...
September 13, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904344/perturbed-cholesterol-and-vesicular-trafficking-associated-with-dengue-blocking-in-wolbachia-infected-aedes-aegypti-cells
#14
Vincent Geoghegan, Kirsty Stainton, Stephanie M Rainey, Thomas H Ant, Adam A Dowle, Tony Larson, Svenja Hester, Philip D Charles, Benjamin Thomas, Steven P Sinkins
Wolbachia are intracellular maternally inherited bacteria that can spread through insect populations and block virus transmission by mosquitoes, providing an important approach to dengue control. To better understand the mechanisms of virus inhibition, we here perform proteomic quantification of the effects of Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti mosquito cells and midgut. Perturbations are observed in vesicular trafficking, lipid metabolism and in the endoplasmic reticulum that could impact viral entry and replication...
September 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902170/lipase-activity-in-the-larval-midgut-of-rhynchophorus-palmarum-biochemical-characterization-and-the-effects-of-reducing-agents
#15
Camilla Camerino Santana, Leandro A Barbosa, Irinaldo Diniz Basílio Júnior, Ticiano Gomes do Nascimento, Camila Braga Dornelas, Luciano A M Grillo
Lipases have key roles in insect lipid acquisition, storage, and mobilization and are also fundamental to many physiological processes in insects. Lipids are an important component of insect diets, where they are hydrolyzed in the midgut lumen, absorbed, and used for the synthesis of complex lipids. The South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum is one of the most important pests on commercial palm plantations. However, there are few studies about lipid digestion for this insect. In this work, we have described the biochemical characterization of the lipase activity in the posterior midgut of the R...
September 13, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901468/apolipoprotein-a5-regulates-intracellular-triglyceride-metabolism-in-adipocytes
#16
Xiao-Yan Zheng, Bi-Lian Yu, Yu-Fei Xie, Shui-Ping Zhao, Chen-Lu Wu
It has previously been demonstrated that apolipoprotein A5 (apoA5) can be internalized by human adipocytes and significantly decreases intracellular triglyceride content. In the present study, endocytosis of apoA5 by adipocytes under different conditions, and the underlying mechanism by which apoA5 regulates cellular triglyceride storage, was investigated. The results revealed that the apoA5 protein was detected in human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues. In addition, the uptake of apoA5 was attenuated in human obese adipose tissues and in cultured adipocytes with hypertrophy or insulin resistance...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898754/antioxidant-potential-of-haematococcus-pluvialis-extract-rich-in-astaxanthin-on-colour-and-oxidative-stability-of-raw-ground-pork-meat-during-refrigerated-storage
#17
Ewelina Pogorzelska, Jolanta Godziszewska, Marta Brodowska, Agnieszka Wierzbicka
Astaxanthin is proven to be one of the most potent, naturally occurring antioxidants. A rich source of astaxanthin is algae Haematoccocus pluvialis (H. pluvialis). The aim of the study was to investigate antioxidant effect of H. pluvalis extract added in different levels (0.15, 0.3 or 0.45g/kg of meat) on colour and oxidative stability of raw ground pork meat during refrigerated storage (7days). Obtained data revealed that DPPH scavenging activity of the extract at the concentration of 0.45g/kg of meat was as high as 85%...
September 5, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898395/endogenous-lipid-antigens-for-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-hold-the-reins-in-adipose-tissue-homeostasis
#18
REVIEW
Robert J van Eijkeren, Olga Krabbe, Marianne Boes, Henk S Schipper, Eric Kalkhoven
The global obesity epidemic and its associated co-morbidities, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers, have drawn attention to the pivotal role of adipocytes in health and disease. Besides their 'classical' function in energy storage and release, adipocytes interact with adipose-tissue resident immune cells, among which lipid-responsive invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells. iNKT cells are activated by lipid antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells (APC) as CD1d/lipid complexes...
September 12, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898055/a-carbon-nanotube-optical-reporter-maps-endolysosomal-lipid-flux
#19
Prakrit V Jena, Daniel Roxbury, Thomas V Galassi, Leila Akkari, Christopher P Horoszko, David B Iaea, Januka Budhathoki-Uprety, Nina Pipalia, Abigail S Haka, Jackson D Harvey, Jeetain Mittal, Frederick R Maxfield, Johanna A Joyce, Daniel A Heller
Lipid accumulation within the lumen of endolysosomal vesicles is observed in various pathologies including atherosclerosis, liver disease, neurological disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, and cancer. Current methods cannot measure lipid flux specifically within the lysosomal lumen of live cells. We developed an optical reporter, composed of a photoluminescent carbon nanotube of a single chirality, that responds to lipid accumulation via modulation of the nanotube's optical band gap. The engineered nanomaterial, composed of short, single-stranded DNA and a single nanotube chirality, localizes exclusively to the lumen of endolysosomal organelles without adversely affecting cell viability or proliferation or organelle morphology, integrity, or function...
September 12, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894292/partitioning-of-adipose-lipid-metabolism-by-altered-expression-and-function-of-ppar-isoforms-after-bariatric-surgery
#20
C Jahansouz, H Xu, A V Hertzel, S Kizy, K A Steen, R Foncea, F J Serrot, N Kvalheim, G Luthra, K Ewing, D B Leslie, S Ikramuddin, D A Bernlohr
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment for reducing adiposity and eliminating type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanism(s) responsible have remained elusive. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) encompass a family of nuclear hormone receptors that upon activation exert control of lipid metabolism, glucose regulation and inflammation. Their role in adipose tissue following bariatric surgery remains undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and serum were obtained and evaluated from time of surgery and on postoperative day 7 in patients randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n=13) or matched caloric restriction (n=14), as well as patients undergoing vertical sleeve gastrectomy (n=33)...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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