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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549096/the-molecular-mechanisms-of-obesity-paradox
#1
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Dimitris Tousoulis
Clinical observations suggest a complex relationship between human obesity and cardiovascular disease. Whilst abdominal (visceral) adiposity leads to deleterious metabolic disturbances, subcutaneous fat accumulation has a benign effect on cardiometabolic risk. Notably, an accumulating body of evidence paradoxically links increased body mass index with a better prognosis in patients with established cardiovascular disease, a finding that has been termed the 'obesity paradox'. While this is now acknowledged to be an epidemiological finding, a metabolically healthy obese group associated with low cardiovascular risk has also been identified...
May 26, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548876/the-constitutive-lipid-droplet-protein-plin2-regulates-autophagy-in-liver
#2
Tsung-Huang Tsai, Elaine Chen, Lan Li, Pradip Saha, Hsiao-Ju Lee, Li-Shin Huang, Gregory S Shelness, Lawrence Chan, Benny Hung-Junn Chang
Excess triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the liver underlies fatty liver disease, a highly prevalent ailment. TG occurs in the liver sequestered in lipid droplets, the major lipid storage organelle. Lipid droplets are home to the lipid droplet proteins, the most abundant of which are the perilipins (PLINs), encoded by 5 different genes, Plin1 to Plin5. Of the corresponding gene products, PLIN2 is the only constitutive and ubiquitously expressed lipid droplet protein that has been used as a protein marker for lipid droplets...
May 26, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543963/ageing-is-associated-with-brown-adipose-tissue-remodelling-and-loss-of-white-fat-browning-in-female-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Leidyanne Ferreira Gonçalves, Thaissa Queiroz Machado, Camila Castro-Pinheiro, Nathalia Guimaraes de Souza, Karen Jesus Oliveira, Caroline Fernandes-Santos
Fat storage changes throughout life and affects body metabolism. Ageing impact on brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) deserves attention, especially in females, because they are less prone to age-induced weight gain. While in male mice the impact of ageing on adipose tissue remodelling is well characterized, the effects in female mice remain largely unclear. Thus, we investigated BAT and WAT remodelling during ageing in female C57BL/6 mice. At 3 months, body weight was 24 ± 0.3 g (mean±SD), and it increased from 6 to 9 months of age (+20%, P < 0...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542832/integrated-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-reveals-adaptive-changes-of-hibernating-retinas
#4
Yizhao Luan, Jingxing Ou, Vincent P Kunze, Fengyu Qiao, Yan Wang, Lai Wei, Wei Li, Zhi Xie
Hibernation is a seasonally adaptive strategy that allows hibernators to live through extremely cold conditions. Despite the profound reduction of blood flow to the retinas, hibernation causes no lasting retinal injury. Instead, hibernators show an increased tolerance to ischemic insults during the hibernation period. To understand the molecular changes of the retinas in response to hibernation, we applied an integrative transcriptome and metabolome analysis to explore changes in gene expression and metabolites of 13-lined ground squirrel retinas during hibernation...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540446/lipid-per-oxidation-in-mitochondria-an-emerging-target-in-the-ageing-process
#5
REVIEW
O S Ademowo, H K I Dias, D G A Burton, H R Griffiths
Lipids are essential for physiological processes such as maintaining membrane integrity, providing a source of energy and acting as signalling molecules to control processes including cell proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and apoptosis. Disruption of lipid homeostasis can promote pathological changes that contribute towards biological ageing and age-related diseases. Several age-related diseases have been associated with altered lipid metabolism and an elevation in highly damaging lipid peroxidation products; the latter has been ascribed, at least in part, to mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated ROS formation...
May 24, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538724/applying-systems-level-spectral-imaging-and-analysis-to-reveal-the-organelle-interactome
#6
Alex M Valm, Sarah Cohen, Wesley R Legant, Justin Melunis, Uri Hershberg, Eric Wait, Andrew R Cohen, Michael W Davidson, Eric Betzig, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz
The organization of the eukaryotic cell into discrete membrane-bound organelles allows for the separation of incompatible biochemical processes, but the activities of these organelles must be coordinated. For example, lipid metabolism is distributed between the endoplasmic reticulum for lipid synthesis, lipid droplets for storage and transport, mitochondria and peroxisomes for β-oxidation, and lysosomes for lipid hydrolysis and recycling. It is increasingly recognized that organelle contacts have a vital role in diverse cellular functions...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535369/packing-on-the-pounds-in-response-to-bacterial-growth-conditions
#7
Sabih Rashid, Lesley T MacNeil
Reporting in Nature Cell Biology, Lin and Wang (2017) show that bacterial methyl metabolism impacts host mitochondrial dynamics and lipid storage in C. elegans. The authors propose a model whereby bacterial metabolic products regulate a nuclear hormone receptor that promotes lipid accumulation through expression of a secreted Hedgehog-like protein.
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534500/impact-of-fat-mass-and-distribution-on-lipid-turnover-in-human-adipose-tissue
#8
Kirsty L Spalding, Samuel Bernard, Erik Näslund, Mehran Salehpour, Göran Possnert, Lena Appelsved, Keng-Yeh Fu, Kanar Alkass, Henrik Druid, Anders Thorell, Mikael Rydén, Peter Arner
Differences in white adipose tissue (WAT) lipid turnover between the visceral (vWAT) and subcutaneous (sWAT) depots may cause metabolic complications in obesity. Here we compare triglyceride age and, thereby, triglyceride turnover in vWAT and sWAT biopsies from 346 individuals and find that subcutaneous triglyceride age and storage capacity are increased in overweight or obese individuals. Visceral triglyceride age is only increased in excessively obese individuals and associated with a lower lipid removal capacity...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533326/prostaglandin-e-receptor-subtype-4-regulates-lipid-droplet-size-and-mitochondrial-activity-in-murine-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue
#9
Fan Ying, Yin Cai, Yu Cai, Yu Wang, Eva Hoi Ching Tang
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether genetic ablation of prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) affects white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling mediated by β3-adrenergic stimulation. The selective β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316243 (1 mg/kg/d, i.p.) caused a greater increase in metabolic rate in EP4-knockout mice. CL316243 fragmented the unilocular lipid droplet into multilocular lipid vacuoles and increased mitochondrial biogenesis and its activity. These changes were amplified in mice with EP4 deficiency and were selectively seen in subcutaneous WAT...
May 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532689/lipid-composition-of-microdomains-is-altered-in-neuronopathic-gaucher-disease-sheep-brain-and-spleen
#10
Leanne K Hein, Tina Rozaklis, Melissa K Adams, John J Hopwood, Litsa Karageorgos
Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in glucocerebrosidase activity that leads to accumulation of glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine. Membrane raft microdomains are discrete, highly organized microdomains with a unique lipid composition that provide the necessary environment for specific protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions to take place. In this study we purified detergent resistant membranes (DRM; membrane rafts) from the occipital cortex and spleen from sheep affected with acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease and wild-type controls...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530601/storage-stability-of-traditional-tunisian-butter-enriched-with-antioxidant-extract-from-tomato-processing-by-products
#11
Yousra Abid, Samia Azabou, Mourad Jridi, Ibtihel Khemakhem, Mohamed Bouaziz, Hamadi Attia
Traditional Tunisian butter (TTB) is one of the most appreciated dairy products in Tunisia. Herein, the storage stability of TTB enriched with antioxidants from tomato processing by-products (TPB) was evaluated during 60days of storage at 4°C. TPB extract contains significant amounts of lycopene and phenolics. TTB enriched with 400mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB revealed the lowest peroxide values at all the determination intervals. Adding 400mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB did not exhibit any undesired effect on lactic bacteria which are necessary for development of aroma and chemical properties of TTB...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530590/metabolic-profiling-of-apples-from-different-production-systems-before-and-after-controlled-atmosphere-ca-storage-studied-by-1-h-high-resolution-magic-angle-spinning-hr-mas-nmr
#12
Martina Vermathen, Mattia Marzorati, Gaëlle Diserens, Daniel Baumgartner, Claudia Good, Franz Gasser, Peter Vermathen
Determination of metabolic alterations in apples induced by such processes as different crop protection strategies or storage, are of interest to assess correlations with fruit quality or fruit disorders. Preliminary results proposed the metabolic discrimination of apples from organic (BIO), integrated (IP) and low-input (LI) production. To determine contributions of temporal metabolic developments and to define the type of metabolic changes during storage, (1)H high resolution-magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy of apple pulp was performed before and after two time points of controlled atmosphere storage...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530575/effects-of-ergothioneine-rich-mushroom-extracts-on-lipid-oxidation-and-discoloration-in-salmon-muscle-stored-at-low-temperatures
#13
Jade Pahila, Hisayuki Kaneda, Reiko Nagasaka, Tomoyuki Koyama, Toshiaki Ohshima
The effects of supplementing ergothioneine-rich mushroom extracts (ME) on discoloration and lipid oxidation in astaxanthin-pigmented salmon muscles were evaluated. ME (Flammulina velutipes) were added (in vitro) to minced Oncorhynchus mykiss muscles and stored at -10°C. During several weeks of storage, the ME-treated group showed lower lipid hydroperoxide (HPO) accumulation and higher retained astaxanthin levels than in the control group. The effects of adding concentrated ME (Pleurotus cornucopiae) to Oncorhynchus kisutch diets were also tested over a 2-month feeding trial...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529926/manipulation-of-host-cholesterol-by-obligate-intracellular-bacteria
#14
REVIEW
Dhritiman Samanta, Minal Mulye, Tatiana M Clemente, Anna V Justis, Stacey D Gilk
Cholesterol is a multifunctional lipid that plays important metabolic and structural roles in the eukaryotic cell. Despite having diverse lifestyles, the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens Chlamydia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia all target cholesterol during host cell colonization as a potential source of membrane, as well as a means to manipulate host cell signaling and trafficking. To promote host cell entry, these pathogens utilize cholesterol-rich microdomains known as lipid rafts, which serve as organizational and functional platforms for host signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528682/chemical-fixation-to-arrest-phospholipid-signaling-for-chemical-cytometry
#15
Angela Proctor, Christopher E Sims, Nancy L Allbritton
Chemical cytometry is a powerful tool for measuring biological processes such as enzymatic signaling at the single cell level. Among these technologies, single-cell capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has emerged as a powerful tool to assay a wide range of cellular metabolites. However, analysis of dynamic processes within cells remains challenging as signaling pathways are rapidly altered in response to changes in the cellular environment, including cell manipulation and storage. To address these limitations, we describe a method for chemical fixation of cells to stop the cellular reactions to preserve the integrity of key signaling molecules or reporters within the cell and to enable the cell to act as a storage reservoir for the reporter and its metabolites prior to assay by single-cell CZE...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528274/angiopoietin-like-8-angptl8-controls-adipocyte-lipolysis-and-phospholipid-composition
#16
Raghavendra Mysore, Gerhard Liebisch, You Zhou, Vesa M Olkkonen, P A Nidhina Haridas
Angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8) inhibits lipolysis in the circulation together with Angplt3 and controls post-prandial fat storage in white adipose tissue (WAT). It is strongly induced by insulin in vivo in WAT and in vitro in adipocytes. In this study we addressed the function of Angptl8 in adipocytes by its stable lentivirus-mediated knock-down in 3T3-L1 cells, followed by analyses of triglyceride (TG) storage, lipid droplet (LD) morphology, the cellular lipidome, lipolysis, and gene expression. Depletion of Angptl8 did not drastically affect the adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells but resulted in a moderate (18-19%) reduction of stored TGs...
May 17, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527945/targeting-lipid-metabolism-of-cancer-cells-a-promising-therapeutic-strategy-for-cancer
#17
Qiuping Liu, Qing Luo, Alexander Halim, Guanbin Song
One of the most important metabolic hallmarks of cancer cells is deregulation of lipid metabolism. In addition, enhancing de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis, increasing lipid uptake and lipolysis have also been considered as means of FA acquisition in cancer cells. FAs are involved in various aspects of tumourigenesis and tumour progression. Therefore, targeting lipid metabolism is a promising therapeutic strategy for human cancer. Recent studies have shown that reprogramming lipid metabolism plays important roles in providing energy, macromolecules for membrane synthesis, and lipid signals during cancer progression...
May 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527367/ysicochemical-properties-lipid-oxidation-and-sensory-attributes-of-pork-patties-with-lupin-protein-concentrate-stored-in-vacuum-modified-atmosphere-and-frozen-state
#18
Marzena Danowska-Oziewicz, Lidia Kurp
The effect of lupin protein concentrate (LPC) addition on selected physicochemical properties, lipid oxidation and sensory quality of pork patties was investigated. LPC was added at the level 1%, 2% and 3%. Patties were packed in vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) and stored 42days in a refrigerator while aerobically packed patties were stored 84days in a frozen state. Patties with LPC showed a lower cooking loss, were less cohesive and juicy, and demonstrated a non-typical flavour compared to the control samples...
May 10, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527335/dissection-of-cis-regulatory-element-architecture-of-the-rice-oleosin-gene-promoters-to-assess-abscisic-acid-responsiveness-in-suspension-cultured-rice-cells
#19
Sol Kim, Soo-Bin Lee, Chae-Seong Han, Mi-Na Lim, Sung-Eun Lee, In Sun Yoon, Yong-Sic Hwang
Oleosins are the most abundant proteins in the monolipid layer surrounding neutral storage lipids that form oil bodies in plants. Several lines of evidence indicate that they are physiologically important for the maintenance of oil body structure and for mobilization of the lipids stored inside. Rice has six oleosin genes in its genome, the expression of all of which was found to be responsive to abscisic acid (ABA) in our examination of mature embryo and aleurone tissues. The 5'-flanking region of OsOle5 was initially characterized for its responsiveness to ABA through a transient expression assay system using the protoplasts from suspension-cultured rice cells...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526981/rubisco-mutants-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-display-divergent-photosynthetic-parameters-and-lipid-allocation
#20
M G Esquível, A R Matos, J Marques Silva
Photosynthesis and lipid allocation were investigated in Rubisco small subunit mutants of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Comparative analyses were undertaken with cells grown photoheterotrophically under sulphur-replete or sulphur-depleted conditions. The Y67A Rubisco mutant, which has previously demonstrated a pronounced reduction in Rubisco levels and higher hydrogen production rates than the wild type, also shows the following divergences in photosynthetic phenotype and lipid allocation: (i) low Fv/Fm (maximum photochemical efficiency), (ii) low effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), (iii) low effectiveness at protection against high light intensities, (iv) a higher level of total lipids per pigment and (v) changes in the relative proportions of different fatty acids, with a marked decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (FAs)...
May 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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