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Lipid storage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818386/heterologous-expression-of-two-gpats-from-jatropha-curcas-alters-seed-oil-levels-in-transgenic-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Aparna Misra, Kasim Khan, Abhishek Niranjan, Vinod Kumar, Vidhu A Sane
Oils and fats are stored in endosperm during seed development in the form of triacylglycerols. Three acyltransferases: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophosphatidyl acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) are involved in the storage lipid biosynthesis and catalyze the stepwise acylation of glycerol backbone. In this study two members of GPAT gene family (JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2) from Jatropha seeds were identified and characterized. Sequence analysis suggested that JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 are homologous to Arabidopsis acyltransferase-1 (ATS1) and AtGPAT9 respectively...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818368/review-metabolic-engineering-of-unusual-lipids-in-the-synthetic-biology-era
#2
REVIEW
Jose A Aznar-Moreno, Timothy P Durrett
The plant kingdom produces a variety of fatty acid structures, many of which possess functional groups useful for industrial applications. The species that produce these unusual fatty acids are often not suitable for large scale commercial production. The ability to create genetically modified plants, together with emerging synthetic biology approaches, offers the potential to develop alternative oil seed crops capable of producing high levels of modified lipids. In some cases, by combining genes from different species, non-natural lipids with a targeted structure can be conceived...
October 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818066/hepatoprotective-and-antioxidant-effects-of-single-clove-garlic-against-ccl4-induced-hepatic-damage-in-rabbits
#3
Khalid Mohammed Naji, Elham Shukri Al-Shaibani, Fatima A Alhadi, Safa'a Abdulrzaq Al-Soudi, Myrene R D'souza
BACKGROUND: The increase in demand and consumption of single clove garlic or 'Solo garlic' (Allium sativum) has resulted in an increase in research on its therapeutic properties. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activities, oxidant-scavenging efficiency and preventive effects of SCG (single clove garlic) and MCG (multi clove garlic) on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in male rabbits. METHODS: For this purpose, rabbits were orally administered with 3 ml of CCl4 /kg of body weight, followed by 0...
August 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817248/attenuated-suppression-of-lipolysis-explains-increases-in-triglyceride-secretion-and-concentration-with-basal-insulin-peglispro-bil-relative-to-insulin-glargine-treatment-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#4
Rakel Fuglsang Johansen, Esben Søndergaard, Helle Linnebjerg, Parag Garhyan, Eric Chen Quin Lam, Niels Porksen, Scott J Jacober, Søren Nielsen
AIMS: In patients with type 1 diabetes, basal insulin peglispro (BIL) lowers weight and increases plasma triglycerides (TG) and hepatic fat relative to insulin glargine (GL). To explain this, we hypothesised that BIL's attenuated peripheral effects may include increased free fatty acid flux to the liver, causing increased VLDL-TG secretion and lipid oxidation, and decreased TG adipose tissue deposition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, 2-period crossover study, 14 patients with type 1 diabetes received once-daily, individualised, stable BIL or GL doses for 3 weeks...
August 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815523/endoplasmic-reticulum-plasma-membrane-crosstalk-mediated-by-the-extended-synaptotagmins
#5
Yasunori Saheki
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) possesses multiplicity of functions including protein synthesis, membrane lipid biogenesis, and Ca(2+) storage and has broad localization throughout the cell. While the ER and most other membranous organelles are highly interconnected via vesicular traffic that relies on membrane budding and fusion reactions, the ER forms direct contacts with virtually all other membranous organelles, including the plasma membrane (PM), without membrane fusion. Growing evidence suggests that these contacts play major roles in cellular physiology, including the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and signaling and control of cellular lipid homeostasis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811250/deficiency-in-perilipin-5-reduces-mitochondrial-function-and-membrane-depolarization-in-mouse-hearts
#6
Linda Andersson, Christina Drevinge, Ismena Mardani, Knut T Dalen, Marcus Ståhlman, Martina Klevstig, Annika Lundqvist, Fred Haugen, Martin Adiels, Per Fogelstrand, Jorge Asin-Cayuela, Lillemor Mattsson Hultén, Max Levin, Ewa Ehrenborg, Yun K Lee, Alan R Kimmel, Jan Borén, Malin C Levin
Myocardial triglycerides stored in lipid droplets are important in regulating the intracellular delivery of fatty acids for energy generation in mitochondria, for membrane biosynthesis, and as agonists for intracellular signaling. Previously, we showed that deficiency in the lipid droplet protein perilipin 5 (Plin5) markedly reduces triglyceride storage in cardiomyocytes and increases the flux of fatty acids into phospholipids. Here, we investigated whether Plin5 deficiency in cardiomyocytes alters mitochondrial function...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808666/lipidomic-evaluation-of-feline-neurologic-disease-after-aav-gene-therapy
#7
Heather L Gray-Edwards, Xuntian Jiang, Ashley N Randle, Amanda R Taylor, Taylor L Voss, Aime K Johnson, Victoria J McCurdy, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Daniel S Ory, Douglas R Martin
GM1 gangliosidosis is a fatal lysosomal disorder, for which there is no effective treatment. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy in GM1 cats has resulted in a greater than 6-fold increase in lifespan, with many cats remaining alive at >5.7 years of age, with minimal clinical signs. Glycolipids are the principal storage product in GM1 gangliosidosis whose pathogenic mechanism is not completely understood. Targeted lipidomics analysis was performed to better define disease mechanisms and identify markers of disease progression for upcoming clinical trials in humans...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806138/lipid-droplets-and-lipotoxicity-during-autophagy
#8
Truc B Nguyen, James A Olzmann
Lipid droplets (LDs) are neutral lipid storage organelles that provide a rapidly accessible source of fatty acids (FAs) for energy during periods of nutrient deprivation. Surprisingly, lipids released by the macroautophagic/autophagic breakdown of membranous organelles are packaged and stored in new LDs during periods of prolonged starvation. Why cells would store FAs during an energy crisis was unknown. In our recent study, we demonstrated that FAs released during MTORC1-regulated autophagy are selectively channeled by DGAT1 (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1) into triacylglycerol (TAG)-rich LDs...
August 14, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805832/encapsulation-of-flavonoids-in-liposomal-delivery-systems-the-case-of-quercetin-kaempferol-and-luteolin
#9
Meigui Huang, Erzheng Su, Fuping Zheng, Chen Tan
The instability of dietary flavonoids is currently a challenge for their incorporation in functional foods. This study investigated the protective effects of liposome encapsulation on a variety of flavonoids and their interaction mechanisms. It was found that the incorporation of flavonoids into the liposomal membrane was strongly dependent on their structure and loading concentration. Liposomes loading quercetin and luteolin exhibited a relatively small size and homogeneous suspension compared to those loading kaempferol...
August 14, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803343/sediment-lipid-biomarkers-record-phytoplankton-dynamics-of-lake-heihai-yunnan-province-sw-china-driven-by-climate-warming-since-the-1980s
#10
Yongdong Zhang, Yaling Su, Zhengwen Liu, Jinlei Yu, Miao Jin
Increased phosphorus (P) export from sediments to the overlying water column is a significant factor driving the variation of phytoplankton in productivity and community structure in lakes. However, the lack of long-term instrumental data often impeded analyses attempting to associate dynamics of phytoplankton with variation of internal P loading. Here, elements and lipid biomarkers were analyzed in a sediment core from Lake Heihai, a small, deep, and ultraoligotrophic alpine lake in Haba Mountain, Yunnan Province, SW China...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802563/metabolic-circuit-involving-free-fatty-acids-microrna-122-and-triglyceride-synthesis-in-liver-and-muscle-tissues
#11
Chofit Chai, Mila Rivkin, Liav Berkovits, Alina Simerzin, Elina Zorde-Khvalevsky, Nofar Rosenberg, Shiri Klein, Dayana Yaish, Ronen Durst, Shoshana Shpitzen, Shiran Udi, Joseph Tam, Joerg Heeren, Anna Worthmann, Christoph Schramm, Johannes Kluwe, Revital Ravid, Eran Hornstein, Hilla Giladi, Eithan Galun
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Effective treatments are needed for hepatic steatosis characterized by accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes, which leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. MicroRNA 122 (MIR122) is expressed only in the liver, where it regulates lipid metabolism. We investigated the mechanism by which free fatty acids (FFAs) regulate MIR122 expression and the effect of MIR122 on triglyceride synthesis. METHODS: We analyzed MIR122 promoter activity and validated its target mRNAs by transfection of luciferase reporter plasmids into Huh7, BNL-1ME, and HEK293 cultured cell lines...
August 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802007/characterization-of-intrinsic-material-properties-of-a-model-lipoproteic-emulsion-gel-by-oscillatory-and-creep-compliance-rheometry
#12
Kyle S Okada, Wan-Yuan Kuo, Youngsoo Lee
The effects of varying formulation and processing parameters on rheological properties in a model lipid/protein-based emulsion gel were studied. Heat-set model lipoproteic emulsion gels were prepared with varying levels of protein, lipid, and NaCl contents and high pressure homogenization treatments. Small deformation oscillatory rheometry, creep compliance, and pore size analysis experiments were used to characterize intrinsic structural properties, matrix interactions, and microstructure. Creep compliance behavior of the gel system was successfully modeled by a four-component Burgers model...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801795/storage-lipid-and-polysaccharide-metabolism-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-and-umbelopsis-isabellina
#13
Marianna Dourou, Panagiotis Mizerakis, Seraphim Papanikolaou, George Aggelis
Complex biochemical mechanisms are being involved in oleaginous microorganisms during storage lipid and polysaccharide metabolism. Detailed biochemical analyses and monitoring of key enzymes involved in carbon metabolism were performed in Yarrowia lipolytica and Umbelopsis isabellina, which are often used as model oleaginous microorganisms. It was found that during the early oleaginous phase, the carbon source (glucose) was channeled to lipid accumulation, but also to polysaccharide biosynthesis. However, during transition from the early to the late oleaginous phase, glucose was exclusively converted to lipids, while in U...
August 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799777/functional-and-therapeutic-potential-of-inulin-a-comprehensive-review
#14
Waqas Ahmed, Summer Rashid
Inulin as a heterogeneous blend of fructose polymers is diversely found in nature primarily as storage carbohydrates in plants. Besides, inulin is believed to induce certain techno-functional and associated properties in food systems. Inulin owing to its foam forming ability has been successfully used as fat replacer in quite a wide range of products as dairy and baked products. Furthermore, it is known to impart certain nutritional and therapeutic benefits that extend apart to improve health and reduce the risk of many lifestyle related diseases...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798692/change-in-the-lipid-transport-capacity-of-the-liver-and-blood-during-reproduction-in-rats
#15
Yufeng Zhang, Christine Kallenberg, Hayden W Hyatt, Andreas N Kavazis, Wendy R Hood
To support the high energetic demands of reproduction, female mammals display plasticity in many physiological processes, such as the lipid transport system. Lipids support the energy demands of females during reproduction, and energy and structural demands of the developing offspring via the placenta in utero or milk during the suckling period. We hypothesized that key proteins supporting lipid transport in reproductive females will increase during pregnancy and lactation, but drop to non-reproductive levels shortly after reproduction has ended...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797239/nutrient-supply-affects-the-mrna-expression-profile-of-the-porcine-skeletal-muscle
#16
Tainã Figueiredo Cardoso, Raquel Quintanilla, Joan Tibau, Marta Gil, Emilio Mármol-Sánchez, Olga González-Rodríguez, Rayner González-Prendes, Marcel Amills
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of muscle fat deposition in pigs is not well known. So far, we have only identified a limited number of genes involved in the absorption, transport, storage and catabolism of lipids. Such information is crucial to interpret, from a biological perspective, the results of genome-wide association analyses for intramuscular fat content and composition traits. Herewith, we have investigated how the ingestion of food changes gene expression in the gluteus medius muscle of Duroc pigs...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795382/liver-adipose-tissue-crosstalk-a-key-player-in-the-pathogenesis-of-glucolipid-metabolic-disease
#17
De-Wei Ye, Xiang-Lu Rong, Ai-Min Xu, Jiao Guo
Glucolipid metabolic disease (GLMD), a complex of interrelated disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism, has become one of the leading chronic diseases causing public and clinical problem worldwide. As the metabolism of lipid and glucose is a highly coordinated process under both physiological and diseased conditions, the impairment in the signals corresponding to the metabolism of either lipid or glucose represents the common mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of GLMD. The liver and adipose tissue are the major metabolic organs responsible for energy utilization and storage, respectively...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782814/comparative-study-of-the-influence-of-hawthorn-crataegus-monogyna-berries-ethanolic-extract-and-butylated-hydroxylanisole-bha-on-lipid-peroxidation-myoglobin-oxidation-consistency-and-firmness-of-minced-pork-during-refrigeration
#18
Camelia Papuc, Corina Nicoleta Predescu, Liliana Tudoreanu, Valentin Nicorescu, Iuliana Gajaila
BACKGROUND: Following public concern on the use of synthetic food antioxidants, there is an increasing demand for the application of mixed or purified natural antioxidants to maintain meat produces quality during storage. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of hawthorn berries' ethanolic extract compared to butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA), on lipid peroxidation, myoglobin oxidation, protein electrophoresis pattern, consistency and firmness of minced pork during refrigeration at 4 °C and to identify the relationship between chemical modifications and consistency variation...
August 7, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780515/the-concordance-between-component-tests-and-clinical-history-in-british-adults-with-suspected-pollen-food-syndrome-to-peanut-and-hazelnut
#19
Sarah C Beck, Aarnoud P Huissoon, Donna Collins, Alex G Richter, Mamidipudi T Krishna
BACKGROUND: Mild oropharyngeal symptoms to peanut/hazelnut occur in ~30% of patients with pollen-food syndrome (PFS). Component tests are considered a useful adjunct to the diagnosis and may help differentiate PFS from those at a risk of anaphylaxis due to storage protein/lipid transfer protein (LTP) sensitisation. AIMS: To assess concordance between component tests and clinical history in suspected PFS to peanut/hazelnut in a specialist clinic. METHODS: Adult patients were classified into PFS (group 1, n=69) and PFS with mild systemic symptoms (group 2, n=45) based on clinical history...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780444/tissue-specific-distribution-and-maternal-transfer-of-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-and-their-metabolites-in-adult-common-sole-solea-solea-l-over-an-entire-reproduction-cycle
#20
C Munschy, N Bely, K Héas-Moisan, N Olivier, V Loizeau
Tissue-specific accumulation and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their debrominated metabolites were studied in common sole (Solea solea) over an entire reproduction cycle. The fish were dietary-exposed to selected PBDEs in laboratory-controlled conditions for one year. Fish of both sexes were sampled throughout the reproduction cycle and their muscle, liver, viscera, carcass, skin and gonads (female) were analysed for total lipid content, PBDEs and their debrominated metabolites...
August 3, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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