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Lipid storage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353240/pip4k2a-regulates-intracellular-cholesterol-transport-through-modulating-pi-4-5-p2-homeostasis
#1
Ao Hu, Xue-Tong Zhao, Heng Tu, Ting Xiao, Ting Fu, Yan Wang, Yong Liu, Xiong-Jie Shi, Jie Luo, Bao-Liang Song
The transport of LDL-derived cholesterol from lysosomes to peroxisomes is mediated by membrane contacts, which are facilitated by the lysosomal protein synaptotagmin VII and the peroxisomal lipid phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). Here, we used RNA interference to search for regulators of PI(4,5)P2 and to study the effects of altered PI(4,5)P2 homeostasis on cholesterol transport. We found that knockdown of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase type-2 alpha (PIP4K2A) reduced peroxisomal PI(4,5)P2 levels, decreased lysosome-peroxisome membrane contacts, and increased accumulation of lysosomal cholesterol in human SV-589 fibroblasts...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351234/contribution-of-the-ratio-of-tocopherol-homologs-to-the-oxidative-stability-of-commercial-vegetable-oils
#2
Mathias Zaunschirm, Marc Pignitter, Julia Kienesberger, Natalie Hernler, Christoph Riegger, Manfred Eggersdorfer, Veronika Somoza
The antioxidant activity of tocopherols in vegetable oils was shown to chiefly depend on the amount and the tocopherol homolog present. However, the most effective ratio of tocopherol homologs with regard to the antioxidant capacity has not been elucidated so far. The present study analyzed the effect of different tocopherol concentrations, homologs and ratios of homologs on markers of lipid oxidation in the most commonly consumed vegetable oils (canola, sunflower, soybean oil) stored in a 12 h light/dark cycle at 22 ± 2 °C for 56 days under retail/household conditions...
January 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350533/development-of-pickering-emulsions-stabilized-by-gliadin-proanthocyanidins-hybrid-particles-gphps-and-the-fate-of-lipid-oxidation-and-digestion
#3
Fu-Zhen Zhou, Li Yan, Shou-Wei Yin, Chuan-He Tang, Xiao-Quan Yang
This work attempted to engineer emulsions' interface using special affinity between proline-rich gliadin and proanthocyanidins (PA), to develop surfactant-free antioxidant Pickering emulsions with digestive-resistant properties. This binding interaction between gliadin and PA benefited the interfacial adsorption of the particles to corn oil droplets. Pickering droplets as building units assembled into interconnected three-dimensional network structure, giving the emulsions viscoelasticity and ultra-stability...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348169/lipid-mediated-signals-that-regulate-mitochondrial-biology
#4
Jason R Nielson, Jared P Rutter
For decades, lipids were assumed to fulfill roles only in energy storage and membrane structure. Recent studies have discovered critical roles for phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols in many cellular pathways, including cell signaling and transcriptional regulation. Frequently, lipids from these various classes work together to achieve defined cellular outcomes. Specific mitochondrial lipids are critical for proper assembly of the electron transport chain complexes and for effective responses to mitochondrial damage, including maintenance of mitochondrial protein homeostasis, regulation of mitophagy, and induction of apoptosis...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342928/protein-oxidation-and-sensory-quality-of-brine-injected-pork-loins-added-ascorbate-or-extracts-of-green-tea-or-mat%C3%A3-during-chill-storage-in-high-oxygen-modified-atmosphere
#5
Sisse Jongberg, Mari Ann Tørngren, Leif H Skibsted
Background: Ascorbate is often applied to enhance stability and robustness of brine-injected pork chops sold for retail, but may affect protein oxidation, while plant extracts are potential substitutes. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops (weight-gain ~12%, NaCl ~0.9%) prepared with ascorbate (225 ppm), green tea extract (25 ppm gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), or maté extract (25 ppm GAE) stored (5 °C, seven days) in high-oxygen atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O₂ and 20% CO₂) were analyzed for color changes, sensory quality, and protein oxidation compared to a control without antioxidant...
January 15, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342854/impact-of-prolonged-blood-incubation-and-extended-serum-storage-at-room-temperature-on-the-human-serum-metabolome
#6
Beate Kamlage, Sebastian Neuber, Bianca Bethan, Sandra González Maldonado, Antje Wagner-Golbs, Erik Peter, Oliver Schmitz, Philipp Schatz
Metabolomics is a powerful technology with broad applications in life science that, like other -omics approaches, requires high-quality samples to achieve reliable results and ensure reproducibility. Therefore, along with quality assurance, methods to assess sample quality regarding pre-analytical confounders are urgently needed. In this study, we analyzed the response of the human serum metabolome to pre-analytical variations comprising prolonged blood incubation and extended serum storage at room temperature by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) -based metabolomics...
January 13, 2018: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342075/enrichment-and-identification-of-the-most-abundant-zinc-binding-proteins-in-developing-barley-grains-by-zinc-imac-capture-and-nano-lc-ms-ms
#7
Giuseppe Dionisio, Mohammad Nasir Uddin, Eva Vincze
Background: Zinc accumulates in the embryo, aleurone, and subaleurone layers at different amounts in cereal grains. Our hypothesis is that zinc could be stored bound, not only to low MW metabolites/proteins, but also to high MW proteins as well. Methods: In order to identify the most abundant zinc binding proteins in different grain tissues, we microdissected barley grains into (1) seed coats; (2) aleurone/subaleurone; (3) embryo; and (4) endosperm. Initial screening for putative zinc binding proteins from the different tissue types was performed by fractionating proteins according to solubility (Osborne fractionation), and resolving those via Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane blotting and dithizone staining...
January 17, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341865/evidence-of-genetic-predisposition-for-metabolically-healthy-obesity-and-metabolically-obese-normal-weight
#8
Lam Opal Huang, Ruth Loos, Tuomas Oskari Kilpeläinen
Obesity has evolved into a global pandemic, which constitutes a major threat to public health. The majority of obesity-related health care costs are due to cardiometabolic complications, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which are risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, many obese individuals, often called metabolically healthy obese (MHO), seem to be protected from these cardiometabolic complications. Conversely, there is a group of individuals who suffer from cardiometabolic complications despite being of normal weight; a condition termed metabolically obese normal weight (MONW)...
December 20, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340525/time-collection-and-storage-conditions-of-lipid-profile
#9
C N França, C C Mendes, C E S Ferreira
The stability of samples is crucial for getting reliable concentrations of many analytes, including lipid profile. Thus, the goal of this study was to analyze lipid profile under different storage and temperature conditions. This was a prospective study with 809 patients of both genders. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein were measured within 1 h from collection at room temperature, after 2-3 h of refrigeration (8°C) and after 4-5 h at room temperature...
January 11, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339813/a-new-group-of-synthetic-phenolic-containing-amphiphilic-molecules-for-multipurpose-applications-physico-chemical-characterization-and-cell-toxicity-study
#10
Sampson Anankanbil, Bianca Pérez, Iva Fernandes, Katarzyna Magdalena Widzisz, Zegao Wang, Nuno Mateus, Zheng Guo
Nine synthetic amphiphilic phenolic lipids, varied in phenolic moiety (caffeoyl/dimethylcaffeoyl) and fatty acid chain lengths (8-18) were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), temperature-ramp Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). FT-IR and DSC results revealed that the physical state and lateral packing of synthetic molecules were largely governed by fatty acyls. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of synthetic lipids was in the range of 0...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339381/cholecystokinin-is-involved-in-triglyceride-fatty-acid-uptake-by-rat-adipose-tissue
#11
Adrian Plaza, Beatriz Merino, Victoria Cano, Gema Domínguez, Javier Pérez-Castells, Maria S Fernandez-Alfonso, Coralie Sengenès, Julie A Chowen, Mariano Ruiz-Gayo
The incorporation of plasma triglyceride (TG) fatty acids to white adipose tissue (WAT) depends on lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which is regulated by angiopoietin-like protein-4 (ANGPTL-4), an unfolding molecular chaperone that converts active LPL dimers into inactive monomers. The production of ANGPTL-4 is promoted by fasting and repressed by feeding. We hypothesized that the postprandial hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) facilitates the storage of dietary TG fatty acids in WAT by regulating the activity of the LPL/ANGPTL-4 axis and that it does so by acting directly on CCK receptors in adipocytes...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339341/health-status-alterations-in-ruditapes-philippinarum-after-continuous-secondary-effluent-exposure-before-and-after-additional-tertiary-treatment-application
#12
B Díaz-Garduño, J A Perales, C Garrido-Pérez, M L Martín-Díaz
A mobile pilot plant was set up in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in southwest Spain to address potential adverse effects of effluents as a whole contaminant, which are discharging into marine environments. Ruditapes philippinarum specimens were exposed to different effluent concentrations (50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, and 3.15%) during seven days. After effluent exposure, lysosomal membrane stability alterations (LMS), changes in the energy status storage (total lipids content (TLP) and in the mitochondrial electron transport (MET), inhibition of inflammatory mechanisms (cyclooxygenase activity (COX)), and neurotoxic effects (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were determined in exposed organisms...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337355/moisture-adsorption-isotherm-and-storability-of-hazelnut-inshells-and-kernels-produced-in-oregon-usa
#13
Jooyeoun Jung, Wenjie Wang, Robert J McGorrin, Yanyun Zhao
Moisture adsorption isotherms and storability of dried hazelnut inshells and kernels produced in Oregon were evaluated and compared among cultivars, including Barcelona, Yamhill, and Jefferson. Experimental moisture adsorption data fitted to Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) model, showing less hygroscopic properties in Yamhill than other cultivars of inshells and kernels due to lower content of carbohydrate and protein, but higher content of fat. The safe levels of moisture content (MC, dry basis) of dried inshells and kernels for reaching kernel water activity (aw ) ≤0...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337185/proliposome-tablets-manufactured-using-a-slurry-driven-lipid-enriched-powders-development-characterization-and-stability-evaluation
#14
Iftikhar Khan, Sakib Yousaf, Sneha Subramanian, Mohamed Albed Alhnan, Waqar Ahmed, Abdelbary Elhissi
Proliposome powders were prepared via a slurry method using sorbitol or D-mannitol as carbohydrate carriers in 1:10 or 1:15 w/w lipid phase to carrier ratios. Soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) and cholesterol were employed as a lipid phase and Beclometasone dipropionate (BDP) was incorporated as a model drug. Direct compaction using a Minipress was applied on the lipid-enriched powder in order to manufacture proliposome tablets. Sorbitol-based proliposome tablets in a 1:15 w/w ratio were found to be the best formulation as it exhibited excellent powder flowability with an angle of repose of 25...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335450/copper-sulfide-nanoparticles-as-a-photothermal-switch-for-trpv1-signaling-to-attenuate-atherosclerosis
#15
Wen Gao, Yuhui Sun, Michelle Cai, Yujie Zhao, Wenhua Cao, Zhenhua Liu, Guanwei Cui, Bo Tang
Atherosclerosis is characterized by the accumulation of lipids within the arterial wall. Although activation of TRPV1 cation channels by capsaicin may reduce lipid storage and the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, a clinical use for capsaicin has been limited by its chronic toxicity. Here we show that coupling of copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles to antibodies targeting TRPV1 act as a photothermal switch for TRPV1 signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) using near-infrared light. Upon irradiation, local increases of temperature open thermo-sensitive TRPV1 channels and cause Ca2+ influx...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331050/exercise-counteracts-lipotoxicity-by-improving-lipid-turnover-and-lipid-droplet-quality
#16
Evelyn Zacharewicz, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Patrick Schrauwen
The incidence of obesity and metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), are rising globally. Dietary lipid over-supply leads to lipid accumulation at ectopic sites, such as skeletal muscle. Ectopic lipid storage is highly correlated with insulin resistance and T2D, likely due to a loss of metabolic flexibility - the capacity to switch between fat and glucose oxidation upon insulin stimulation - and cellular dysfunction because of lipotoxicity. However, muscle lipid levels are also elevated in endurance trained athletes, presenting a paradoxical phenotype of increased intramuscular lipids along with high insulin sensitivity - the "athletes' paradox"...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330356/metabolic-and-molecular-changes-associated-with-the-increased-skeletal-muscle-insulin-action-24-48%C3%A2-h-after-exercise-in-young-and-old-humans
#17
REVIEW
Francis B Stephens, Kostas Tsintzas
The molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying the increase in insulin sensitivity (i.e. increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake, phosphorylation and storage as glycogen) observed from 12 to 48 h following a single bout of exercise in humans remain unresolved. Moreover, whether these mechanisms differ with age is unclear. It is well established that a single bout of exercise increases the translocation of the glucose transporter, GLUT4, to the plasma membrane. Previous research using unilateral limb muscle contraction models in combination with hyperinsulinaemia has demonstrated that the increase in insulin sensitivity and glycogen synthesis 24 h after exercise is also associated with an increase in hexokinase II (HKII) mRNA and protein content, suggesting an increase in the capacity of the muscle to phosphorylate glucose and divert it towards glycogen synthesis...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329845/viscoelastic-behaviour-of-masa-from-corn-flours-obtained-by-nixtamalization-with-different-calcium-sources
#18
David Santiago-Ramos, Juan de Dios Figueroa-Cárdenas, José Juan Véles-Medina
The viscoelastic characteristics of nixtamalized corn masa were assessed by the dynamic oscillatory test. Masa samples were prepared with flours obtained by nixtamalization with different calcium sources: Ca(OH)2 (traditional), wood ashes (classic), CaCO3 (ecological), CaSO4 (ecological), CaCl2 (ecological), and Ca(C2H5COO)2 (ecological). A sample cooking without calcium source was used as control. Storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli were higher in masa from traditional and classic processes indicating a more elastic and viscous masa...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327509/proteomic-expression-profile-of-injured-rat-peripheral-nerves-revealed-biological-networks-and-processes-associated-with-nerve-regeneration
#19
D Vergara, A Romano, E Stanca, V La Pesa, A L Aloisi, S De Domenico, J Franck, I Cicalini, A M Giudetti, E Storelli, D Pieragostino, I Fournier, A Sannino, M Salzet, F Cerri, A Quattrini, M Maffia
Peripheral nerve regeneration is regulated through the coordinated spatio-temporal activation of multiple cellular pathways. In this work, an integrated proteomics and bioinformatics approach was employed to identify differentially expressed proteins at the injury-site of rat sciatic nerve at 20 days after damage. By a label-free liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach, we identified 201 differentially proteins that were assigned to specific canonical and disease and function pathways. These include proteins involved in cytoskeleton signaling and remodeling, acute phase response, and cellular metabolism...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325023/the-extending-spectrum-of-npc1-related-human-disorders-from-niemann-pick-c1-disease-to-obesity
#20
Amel Lamri, Marie Pigeyre, William S Garver, David Meyre
The Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein regulates the transport of cholesterol and fatty acids from late endosomes / lysosomes and has a central role in maintaining lipid homeostasis. NPC1 loss-of-function mutations in humans cause NPC1 disease, a rare autosomal-recessive lipid-storage disorder characterized by progressive and lethal neurodegeneration, liver and lung failure, due to cholesterol infiltration. In humans, genome wide association studies (GWAS) and post-GWAS reports highlight the implication of common variants in NPC1 in adult-onset obesity, body fat mass, and type 2 diabetes...
January 9, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
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