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Lipid storage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792311/pedf-regulates-plasticity-of-a-novel-lipid-mtoc-axis-in-prostate-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#1
Francesca Nardi, Philip Fitchev, Omar E Franco, Jelena Ivanisevic, Adrian Scheibler, Simon W Hayward, Charles B Brendler, Michael A Welte, Susan E Crawford
Prostate tumors make metabolic adaptations to ensure adequate energy and amplify cell cycle regulators such as centrosomes to sustain their proliferative capacity. It is not known whether cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) undergo metabolic re-programming. We postulated that CAFs augment lipid storage and amplify centrosomal or non-centrosomal microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) through a pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF)-dependent lipid-MTOC signaling axis. Primary normal human prostate fibroblasts (NFs) and CAFs were evaluated for lipid content, triacylglycerol-regulating proteins, MTOC number and distribution...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789435/molecular-mechanisms-preventing-senescence-in-response-to-prolonged-darkness-in-a-desiccation-tolerant-plant
#2
Meriem Durgud, Saurabh Gupta, Ivan Ivanov, Amin Omidbakhshfard, Maria Benina, Saleh Alseekh, Nikola Staykov, Mareike Hauenstein, Paul Dijkwel, Stefan Hörtensteiner, Valentina Toneva, Yariv Brotman, Alisdair R Fernie, Bernd Mueller-Roeber, Tsanko Gechev
The desiccation-tolerant plant Haberlea rhodopensis can withstand months of darkness without any visible senescence. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of this adaptation to prolonged (30 days) darkness and subsequent return to light. H. rhodopensis plants remained green and viable throughout the dark treatment. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that darkness regulated several transcription factor (TF) genes. Stress- and autophagy-related TFs such as ERF8, HSFA2b, RD26, TGA1, and WRKY33 were upregulated, while chloroplast- and flowering-related TFs such as ATH1, COL2, COL4, RL1, and PTAC7 were repressed...
May 22, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789270/surplus-fat-rapidly-increases-fat-oxidation-and-insulin-resistance-in-lipodystrophic-mice
#3
Amandine Girousse, Samuel Virtue, Dan Hart, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Peter R Murgatroyd, Etienne Mouisel, Coralie Sengenès, David B Savage
OBJECTIVE: Surplus dietary fat cannot be converted into other macronutrient forms or excreted, so has to be stored or oxidized. Healthy mammals store excess energy in the form of triacylgycerol (TAG) in lipid droplets within adipocytes rather than oxidizing it, and thus ultimately gain weight. The 'overflow hypothesis' posits that the capacity to increase the size and number of adipocytes is finite and that when this limit is exceeded, fat accumulates in ectopic sites and leads to metabolic disease...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788899/topical-nanostructured-lipid-carrier-based-hydrogel-of-mometasone-furoate-for-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#4
Navjot Kaur, Kusha Sharma, Neena Bedi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate nanostructured lipid carrier based topical hydrogel of mometasone furoate for the treatment of psoriasis. METHODS: Drug loaded NLCs were successfully developed by microemulsion technique. Pseudo ternary phase diagrams were constructed using different combinations of surfactant and co-surfactants to study the microemulsion existence range. Different compositions were selected from the phase diagram showing maximum microemulsion region and were converted into NLCs by dilution in water (1:20)...
May 22, 2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788012/allograft-inflammatory-factor-1-mediates-macrophage-induced-impairment-of-insulin-signaling-in-adipocytes
#5
Jingqi Ren, Yaqiu Lin, Junni Tang, Hua Yue, Yanying Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is an inflammatory cytokine produced mainly by macrophages within human white adipose tissue. Its expression is increased in obese subjects and positively correlated with insulin resistance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the regulatory role of AIF-1 in insulin signaling of adipocyte. METHODS: AIF-1 was over-expressed via transfection of AIF-1 cDNA into murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the constitutive expression of AIF-1 was decreased via transfection of targeting siRNA...
May 18, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787708/emerging-links-between-lipid-droplets-and-motor-neuron-diseases
#6
Giuseppa Pennetta, Michael A Welte
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous fat storage organelles and play key roles in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis; in addition, they contribute to protein storage, folding, and degradation. However, a role for LDs in the nervous system remains largely unexplored. We discuss evidence supporting an intimate functional connection between LDs and motor neuron disease (MND) pathophysiology, examining how LD functions in systemic energy homeostasis, in neuron-glia metabolic coupling, and in protein folding and clearance may affect or contribute to disease pathology...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787037/effects-of-perinatal-exposure-to-dibutyltin-chloride-on-fat-and-glucose-metabolism-in-mice-and-molecular-mechanisms-in-vitro
#7
Raquel Chamorro-García, Bassem M Shoucri, Sigal Willner, Heidi Käch, Amanda Janesick, Bruce Blumberg
BACKGROUND: The organotin dibutyltin (DBT) is used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, in construction materials, and in medical devices. Previous animal studies showed detrimental effects of DBT during in utero development at relatively high doses, but little was known about the effects of DBT exposure at environmentally relevant doses on endpoints such as obesity and metabolic disease. OBJECTIVES: We tested the potential obesogenic effects of DBT using in vitro and in vivo models...
May 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786860/effect-of-cold-plasma-on-maintaining-the-quality-of-chub-mackerel-scomber-japonicus-biochemical-and-sensory-attributes
#8
Jing Chen, Sheng-Zhe Wang, Jun-Yu Chen, Dong-Zhi Chen, Shang-Gui Deng, Bin Xu
BACKGROUND: Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) has emerged as a potential alternative to traditional methods for non-thermal food decontamination. However, little data are available about ACP treatment for seafood. In this study, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was applied to generate CP, and the aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of DBD-ACP on improving the quality of chub mackerel on the basis of chemical, microbial, and sensory characteristics. RESULTS: The effect of DBD-ACP on the quality of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) during storage was examined...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786838/edible-gum-phenolic-lipid-incorporated-gluten-films-for-food-packaging
#9
Rui Liu, Xu Cong, Yingshi Song, Tao Wu, Min Zhang
The aim of this investigation was to improve the barrier and mechanical properties of gluten films and further explore their application in the packaging of seasonings. The effects of flaxseed gum (FG), oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs), and lauric acid (LA) on the water vapor permeability (WVP), mechanical properties, and peroxide value (POV) were determined. FG and OPCs improved the WVP properties of the gluten films, whereas LA significantly improved the oxygen-barrier properties. The FG/OPCs/LA/GP composite film was then optimized, and the morphological, microstructural, and thermal properties of the composite gluten film were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, surface hydrophobicity analysis; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784585/inhibition-of-glycogen-synthase-ii-with-rnai-prevents-liver-injury-in-mouse-models-of-glycogen-storage-diseases
#10
Natalie Pursell, Jessica Gierut, Wei Zhou, Michael Dills, Rohan Diwanji, Monika Gjorgjieva, Utsav Saxena, Jr-Shiuan Yang, Anee Shah, Nandini Venkat, Rachel Storr, Boyoung Kim, Weimin Wang, Marc Abrams, Margaux Raffin, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas, Henryk Dudek, Bob D Brown, Chengjung Lai
Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) of the liver are devastating disorders presenting with fasting hypoglycemia as well as hepatic glycogen and lipid accumulation, which could lead to long-term liver damage. Diet control is frequently utilized to manage the potentially dangerous hypoglycemia, but there is currently no effective pharmacological treatment for preventing hepatomegaly and concurrent liver metabolic abnormalities, which could lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma. In this study, we demonstrate that inhibition of glycogen synthesis using an RNAi approach to silence hepatic Gys2 expression effectively prevents glycogen synthesis, glycogen accumulation, hepatomegaly, fibrosis, and nodule development in a mouse model of GSD III...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784323/changes-in-enzymatic-activities-and-functionality-of-whole-wheat-flour-due-to-steaming-of-wheat-kernels
#11
Rachana Poudel, Devin J Rose
The effects of steaming wheat kernels on lipolytic degradation of resulting whole flour was studied by quantifying enzyme activities and lipid degradation products during storage. Lipase, lipoxygenase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase activities were decreased by up to 81%, 63%, 22%, and 34%, respectively, as the time of steaming increased up to 90 s. Steaming had no effect on starch and gluten properties. Upon storage free fatty acids decreased with respect to time of steaming. Time of steaming did not affect lipid oxidation in flour; however, total carbonyls produced in dough made from stored flour were decreased with the increase in steaming duration...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784296/the-effect-of-rosemary-rosmarinus-officinalis-l-extract-on-the-oxidative-stability-of-lipids-in-cow-and-soy-milk-enriched-with-fish-oil
#12
Xujian Qiu, Charlotte Jacobsen, Ann-Dorit Moltke Sørensen
Lipid oxidation of fish oil enriched cow milk and soy milk supplemented with rosemary extract stored at 2 °C was studied. Both peroxide value and volatile secondary lipid oxidation products were determined to monitor the progress of lipid oxidation. Rosemary extract inhibited lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched cow milk. In contrast, soy milk samples having much higher unsaturated fatty acid content showed higher lipid oxidation stability compared to cow milk. Reduction in the content of chlorogenic acid during storage suggested that this compound may contribute to the lipid oxidation stability of fish oil enriched soy milk product...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784041/lipid-metabolism-reprogramming-and-its-potential-targets-in-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Chunming Cheng, Feng Geng, Xiang Cheng, Deliang Guo
Reprogramming of lipid metabolism is a newly recognized hallmark of malignancy. Increased lipid uptake, storage and lipogenesis occur in a variety of cancers and contribute to rapid tumor growth. Lipids constitute the basic structure of membranes and also function as signaling molecules and energy sources. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors in the endoplasmic reticulum, play a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Recent studies have revealed that SREBPs are highly up-regulated in various cancers and promote tumor growth...
May 21, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783939/a-genome-wide-association-study-reveals-novel-genomic-regions-and-positional-candidate-genes-for-fat-deposition-in-broiler-chickens
#14
Gabriel Costa Monteiro Moreira, Clarissa Boschiero, Aline Silva Mello Cesar, James M Reecy, Thaís Fernanda Godoy, Priscila Anchieta Trevisoli, Maurício E Cantão, Mônica Corrêa Ledur, Adriana Mércia Guaratini Ibelli, Jane de Oliveira Peixoto, Ana Silvia Alves Meira Tavares Moura, Dorian Garrick, Luiz Lehmann Coutinho
BACKGROUND: Excess fat content in chickens has a negative impact on poultry production. The discovery of QTL associated with fat deposition in the carcass allows the identification of positional candidate genes (PCGs) that might regulate fat deposition and be useful for selection against excess fat content in chicken's carcass. This study aimed to estimate genomic heritability coefficients and to identify QTLs and PCGs for abdominal fat (ABF) and skin (SKIN) traits in a broiler chicken population, originated from the White Plymouth Rock and White Cornish breeds...
May 21, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782940/defining-osteoblast-and-adipocyte-lineages-in-the-bone-marrow
#15
J L Pierce, D L Begun, J J Westendorf, M E McGee-Lawrence
Bone is a complex endocrine organ that facilitates structural support, protection to vital organs, sites for hematopoiesis, and calcium homeostasis. The bone marrow microenvironment is a heterogeneous niche consisting of multipotent musculoskeletal and hematopoietic progenitors and their derivative terminal cell types. Amongst these progenitors, bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) may differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, and chondrogenic lineages to support musculoskeletal development as well as tissue homeostasis, regeneration and repair during adulthood...
May 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779757/neutral-lipid-storage-disease-with-myopathy-further-phenotypic-characterization-of-a-rare-pnpla2-variant
#16
Caitlin S Latimer, Jennifer Schleit, Adam Reynolds, Desiree A Marshall, Benjamin Podemski, Leo H Wang, Luis F Gonzalez-Cuyar
Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is a rare disorder of lipid metabolism caused by variants in the Patatin-Like Phospholipase Domain Containing 2 (PNPLA2) gene. Diagnosis is often delayed due to variable presentations, which is of concern due to increased risk of cardiomyopathy. Better phenotype-genotype characterization is necessary to improve speed and accuracy of diagnosis. Here, we describe a 32-year-old woman of Hmong descent with progressive muscle pain and weakness who had a muscle biopsy with characteristic features of a lipid storage myopathy...
April 19, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779155/prioritising-risk-factors-for-type-2-diabetes-causal-inference-through-genetic-approaches
#17
REVIEW
Laura B L Wittemans, Luca A Lotta, Claudia Langenberg
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Causality has been demonstrated for few of the many putative risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) emerging from observational epidemiology. Genetic approaches are increasingly being used to infer causality, and in this review, we discuss how genetic discoveries have shaped our understanding of the causal role of factors associated with T2D. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic discoveries have led to the identification of novel potential aetiological factors of T2D, including the protective role of peripheral fat storage capacity and specific metabolic pathways, such as the branched-chain amino acid breakdown...
May 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777855/polymer-lipid-hybrid-nanoparticles-as-enhanced-indomethacin-delivery-systems
#18
Annalisa Dalmoro, Sabrina Bochicchio, Shamil F Nasibullin, Paolo Bertoncin, Gaetano Lamberti, Anna Angela Barba, Rouslan I Moustafine
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i.e. indomethacin used for rheumatoid arthritis and non-rheumatoid inflammatory diseases, are known for their injurious actions on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Mucosal damage can be avoided by using nanoscale systems composed by a combination of liposomes and biodegradable natural polymer, i.e. chitosan, for enhancing drug activity. Aim of this study was to prepare chitosan-lipid hybrid delivery systems for indomethacin dosage through a novel continuous method based on microfluidic principles...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775611/reduced-adiposity-by-compensatory-wat-browning-upon-ibat-removal-in-mice
#19
Zhengyu Piao, Baiqiang Zhai, Xiaoxiao Jiang, Meng Dong, Changguo Yan, Jun Lin, Wanzhu Jin
The strong effects of classic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and recruited beige adipocytes in treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome have been attracting increasing research interest. Cold treatment is an effective, convenient approach to stimulate BAT activity and induce white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Here, we utilized prolonged cold exposure (from 2 h to 2 weeks in a 4° cold chamber) to elucidate dynamic changes in BAT and in WAT browning during acute and chronic cold exposure in mice. BAT mass decreased quickly, with reduced lipid droplet sizes within 8 h of cold exposure owing to the utilization of BAT pre-storage triglycerides, and subsequently increased during prolonged cold exposure...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773840/rna-seq-and-uhplc-q-tof-ms-based-lipidomics-study-in-lysiphlebia-japonica
#20
Xueke Gao, Junyu Luo, Limin Lü, LiJuan Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Jinjie Cui
Lipids play an important role in energy storage, membrane structure stabilization and signaling. Parasitoids are excellent models to study lipidomics because a majority of them do not accumulate during their free-living life-stage. Studies on parasitoids have mostly focused on the changes in the lipids and gene transcripts in hosts and little attention has been devoted to lipidomics and transcriptomics changes in parasitoids. In this study, a relative quantitative analysis of lipids and their gene transcripts in 3-days-old Lysiphlebia japonica larva (3 days after spawning) and pupae were performed using liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and RNA-seq...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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