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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432115/effects-of-exercise-on-vascular-function-structure-and-health-in-humans
#1
Daniel J Green, Kurt J Smith
Physical activity has profound impacts on the vasculature in humans. Acute exercise induces immediate changes in artery function, whereas repeated episodic bouts of exercise induce chronic functional adaptation and, ultimately, structural arterial remodeling. The nature of these changes in function and structure are dependent on the characteristics of the training load and may be modulated by other factors such as exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The clinical implications of these physiological adaptations are profound...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428977/19th-workshop-of-the-international-stroke-genetics-consortium-april-28-29-2016-boston-massachusetts-usa-2016-001-mri-defined-cerebrovascular-genomics-the-charge-consortium
#2
S Debette, Y Saba, D Vojinovic, X Jian, H Adams, G Chauhan, M Sargurupremraj, S Kaffashian, J Ding, J C Bis, P Nyquist, K Mather, C Van Duijn, L J Launer, M A Ikram, H Schmidt, W T Longstreth, M Fornage, S Seshadri
The CHARGE consortium is an investigator-initiated collaboration to facilitate meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic analyses based on next generation sequencing (NGS), among multiple large and well-phenotyped population-based cohort studies around the world (http://www.chargeconsortium.com). Within the neuro-CHARGE working group, we are presenting an update of ongoing genomic studies on MRI-markers of cerebrovascular disease. Large population-based studies have shown that the burden of cerebrovascular disease extends far beyond that of clinical stroke...
March 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428347/sugar-sweetened-and-artificially-sweetened-beverages-in-relation-to-stroke-and-dementia-are-soft-drinks-hard-on-the-brain
#3
EDITORIAL
Heike Wersching, Hannah Gardener, Ralph L Sacco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428346/sugar-and-artificially-sweetened-beverages-and-the-risks-of-incident-stroke-and-dementia-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Matthew P Pase, Jayandra J Himali, Alexa S Beiser, Hugo J Aparicio, Claudia L Satizabal, Ramachandran S Vasan, Sudha Seshadri, Paul F Jacques
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sugar- and artificially-sweetened beverage intake have been linked to cardiometabolic risk factors, which increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease and dementia. We examined whether sugar- or artificially sweetened beverage consumption was associated with the prospective risks of incident stroke or dementia in the community-based Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. METHODS: We studied 2888 participants aged >45 years for incident stroke (mean age 62 [SD, 9] years; 45% men) and 1484 participants aged >60 years for incident dementia (mean age 69 [SD, 6] years; 46% men)...
April 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417454/prevalence-and-predictors-of-anxiety-in-an-african-sample-of-recent-stroke-survivors
#5
A Ojagbemi, M Owolabi, R Akinyemi, O Arulogun, J Akinyemi, O Akpa, F S Sarfo, E Uvere, R Saulson, S Hurst, B Ovbiagele
OBJECTIVES: Studies considering emotional disturbances in the setting of stroke have primarily focused on depression and been conducted in high-income countries. Anxiety in stroke survivors, which may be associated with its own unique sets of risk factors and clinical parameters, has been rarely investigated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We assess the characteristics of anxiety and anxiety-depression comorbidity in a SSA sample of recent stroke survivors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed baseline data being collected as part of an intervention to improve one-year blood pressure control among recent (≤1 month) stroke survivors in SSA...
April 17, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410350/education-socioeconomic-status-and-intelligence-in-childhood-and-stroke-risk-in-later-life-a-meta-analysis
#6
Caroline A McHutchison, Ellen V Backhouse, Vera Cvoro, Susan D Shenkin, Joanna M Wardlaw
BACKGROUND: Stroke is the second most common cause of death, and a common cause of dependency and dementia. Adult vascular risk factors and socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with increased risk, but less is known about early life risk factors, such as education, childhood SES, or intelligence (IQ). METHODS: We comprehensively searched Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE from inception to November 2015. We included all studies reporting data on >50 strokes examining childhood/premorbid IQ, SES, and education...
April 7, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407503/parkinsonian-signs-are-a-risk-factor-for-falls
#7
Nabila Dahodwala, Chinwe Nwadiogbu, Whitney Fitts, Helen Partridge, Jason Karlawish
BACKGROUND: Parkinsonian signs are common, non-specific findings in older adults and associated with increased rates of dementia and mortality. It is important to understand which motor outcomes are associated with parkinsonian signs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of parkinsonian signs on fall rates among older adults. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of primary care patients from the University of Pennsylvania Health System...
April 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406845/heterogeneity-in-14-year-dementia-incidence-between-asian-american-subgroups
#8
Elizabeth R Mayeda, M Maria Glymour, Charles P Quesenberry, Rachel A Whitmer
BACKGROUND: Asian Americans are a rapidly growing and diverse population. Prior research on dementia among Asian Americans focused on Japanese Americans or Asian Americans overall, although marked differences in cardiometabolic conditions between subgroups have been documented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared dementia incidence among 4 Asian American subgroups (n=8384 Chinese; n=4478 Japanese; n=6210 Filipino; n=197 South Asian) and whites (n=206,490) who were Kaiser Permanente Northern California members aged 64 years and above with no dementia diagnoses as of January 1, 2000...
April 12, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405701/-diabetes-and-the-central-nervous-system
#9
F Erbguth
Diabetes increases the risk of stroke by a factor of 2-4. For primary and secondary stroke prevention, strict glycemic control alone was not superior to standard treatment. However, the risk of stroke in patients with diabetes could be reduced by multimodal risk interventions during the last 20 years by about 50%. Increased glucose levels (poststroke hyperglycemia (PSH)) which indicate a worse prognosis develop in 50% of stroke patients. The potentially beneficial effect of strict glycemic control in PSH by i...
April 12, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399220/associations-of-fat-and-muscle-tissue-with-cognitive-status-in-older-adults-the-ages-reykjavik-study
#10
Peggy J J Spauwen, Rachel A Murphy, Pálmi V Jónsson, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Melissa E Garcia, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Martin P J van Boxtel, Oscar L Lopez, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Lenore J Launer
Background/Objective: studies on the association of dementia with specific body composition (BC) components are scarce. Our aim was to investigate associations of BC measures with different levels of cognitive function in late-life. Methods: we studied 5,169 participants (mean age 76 years, 42.9% men) in the AGES-Reykjavik Study of whom 485 (9.4%) were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 307 (5.9%) with dementia. Visceral fat, abdominal and thigh subcutaneous fat, and thigh muscle were assessed by computed tomography...
March 1, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398520/injury-leads-to-the-appearance-of-cells-with-characteristics-of-both-microglia-and-astrocytes-in-mouse-and-human-brain
#11
Ulrika Wilhelmsson, Daniel Andersson, Yolanda de Pablo, Roy Pekny, Anders Ståhlberg, Jan Mulder, Nicholas Mitsios, Tibor Hortobágyi, Milos Pekny, Marcela Pekna
Microglia and astrocytes have been considered until now as cells with very distinct identities. Here, we assessed the heterogeneity within microglia/monocyte cell population in mouse hippocampus and determined their response to injury, by using single-cell gene expression profiling of cells isolated from uninjured and deafferented hippocampus. We found that in individual cells, microglial markers Cx3cr1, Aif1, Itgam, and Cd68 were co-expressed. Interestingly, injury led to the co-expression of the astrocyte marker Gfap in a subpopulation of Cx3cr1-expressing cells from both the injured and contralesional hippocampus...
April 7, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398169/paving-the-way-towards-complex-blood-brain-barrier-models-using-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Karin Lauschke, Lise Frederiksen, Vanessa J Hall
A tissue with great need to be modelled in vitro is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a tight barrier that covers all blood vessels in the brain and separates the brain microenvironment from the blood system. It consists of three cell types (neurovascular unit (NVU)) that contribute to the unique tightness and selective permeability of the BBB and has been shown to be disrupted in many diseases and brain disorders, such as, vascular dementia, stroke, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Given the progress that pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have made in the last two decades, it is now possible to produce many cell types from the BBB and even partially recapitulate this complex tissue in vitro...
April 11, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397367/continuous-glucose-monitoring-reveals-hypoglycemia-risk-in-elderly-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Takahiro Ishikawa, Masaya Koshizaka, Yoshiro Maezawa, Minoru Takemoto, Yoshiharu Tokuyama, Toshihiro Saito, Koutaro Yokote
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of type 2 diabetes is higher in elderly patients, in whom this disease is associated with dementia, falling, stroke, and death. We utilized a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device to analyze the relationship between hypoglycemia and diabetes treatments to identify risk factors for hypoglycemia (defined as a blood glucose level <70 mg/dL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We classified 170 patients aged ≥65 years with type 2 diabetes who were receiving steady-state medication (29 of whom were inpatients) into hypoglycemic and non-hypoglycemic groups, and compared their HbA1c levels, treatment types, continuous glucose monitoring data, and other parameters...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395917/-compliance-with-recommendations-in-secondary-prevention-of-stroke-in-primary-care
#14
Carmen Tamayo-Ojeda, Neus Parellada-Esquius, Betlem Salvador-González, Pilar Ángeles Oriol-Torón, M Dolores Rodríguez-Garrido, Dolores Muñoz-Segura
OBJECTIVE: Knowing compliance with secondary prevention recommendations of stroke in primary care and to identify factors associated with compliance. DESIGN: Multi-centre cross-sectional. SETTING: Health primary care centres in a metropolitan area (944,280 inhabitants). PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18years and over with ischemic brain disease diagnosis prior to 6months before the study. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Clinical history records of demographic variables, risk factors and cardiovascular comorbidity, drugs, blood pressure values (BP), LDL-cholesterol and medical visits by doctor and nurses after the event...
April 7, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389588/probable-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-and-risk-of-stroke-a-prospective-study
#15
Chaoran Ma, Milena Pavlova, Yesong Liu, Ying Liu, Chunmei Huangfu, Shouling Wu, Xiang Gao
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether probable REM sleep behavior disorder (pRBD) was associated with increased risk of developing stroke in a community-based cohort. METHODS: The study included 12,003 participants (mean age 54.0 years) of the Kailuan Study, free of stroke, cancer, Parkinson disease, dementia, and head injury at baseline (2012). We determined pRBD using a validated REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) questionnaire in 2012. Incident stroke cases were confirmed by review of medical records...
April 7, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387847/does-atrial-fibrillation-cause-cognitive-decline-and-dementia
#16
Joanna Dietzel, Karl Georg Haeusler, Matthias Endres
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and dementia are both frequent diseases with substantial socioeconomic impact. While AF has been associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia, we currently lack an exact understanding of the complex association between AF and cognitive decline. Based on an extended literature search we summarize key publications focusing on AF-related cognitive decline and dementia. Moreover, ongoing trials and potential therapeutic implications are discussed. While further prospective studies using a standardized definition of AF and cognitive decline are urgently needed, growing evidence supports the hypothesis that AF is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia in general and for Alzheimer's disease in particular...
April 6, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385160/dementia-is-a-risk-factor-for-major-adverse-cardiac-and-cerebrovascular-events-in-elderly-korean-patients-initiating-hemodialysis-a-korean-national-population-based-study
#17
Sung Min Jung, Clara Tammy Kim, Ea Wha Kang, Kyoung Hoon Kim, Shina Lee, Hyung Jung Oh, Seung-Jung Kim, Duk-Hee Kang, Kyu Bok Choi, Dong-Ryeol Ryu, Hyunwook Kim
BACKGROUND: Dementia is common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis (HD) and is associated with worse outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) in elderly patients with dementia initiating HD. METHODS: Using the database from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service, we analyzed 10,171 patients aged 65 years or older who had initiated dialysis from 2005 to 2008. MACCE was defined as a composite outcome of all-cause mortality, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, and nonfatal ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke...
April 6, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378621/response-of-the-cerebral-vasculature-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Arjang Salehi, John H Zhang, Andre Obenaus
The critical role of the vasculature and its repair in neurological disease states is beginning to emerge particularly for stroke, dementia, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, tumors and others. However, little attention has been focused on how the cerebral vasculature responds following traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI often results in significant injury to the vasculature in the brain with subsequent cerebral hypoperfusion, ischemia, hypoxia, hemorrhage, blood-brain barrier disruption and edema. The sequalae that follow TBI result in neurological dysfunction across a host of physiological and psychological domains...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377390/translating-the-who-25%C3%A3-25-goals-into-a-uk-context-the-promise-modelling-study
#19
Linda J Cobiac, Peter Scarborough
OBJECTIVE: Model the impact of targets for obesity, diabetes, raised blood pressure, tobacco use, salt intake, physical inactivity and harmful alcohol use, as outlined in the Global Non-Communicable Disease Action Plan 2013-2020, on mortality and morbidity in the UK population. DESIGN: Dynamic population modelling study. SETTING: UK population. PARTICIPANTS: Not available. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality and morbidity (years lived with disability) from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that are averted or delayed...
April 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377155/level-of-need-divertibility-and-outcomes-of-newly-admitted-nursing-home-residents
#20
Peter Tanuseputro, Amy Hsu, Kerry Kuluski, Mathieu Chalifoux, Melissa Donskov, Sarah Beach, Peter Walker
OBJECTIVES: To describe the level of need and divertibility of newly admitted nursing home residents, describe the factors that drive need, and describe the outcomes of residents across different levels of need. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A total of 640 publicly funded nursing homes (also known as long-term care facilities) in Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All newly admitted residents between January 1, 2010 and March 1, 2012...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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