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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523941/lifestyle-as-medicine-the-case-for-a-true-health-initiative
#1
David L Katz, Elizabeth P Frates, Jonathan P Bonnet, Sanjay K Gupta, Erkki Vartiainen, Richard H Carmona
The power of lifestyle as medicine was perceived thousands of years ago. There is now consistent and compelling science to support the important influence of lifestyle on health. Approximately 80% of chronic disease and premature death could be prevented by not smoking, being physically active, and adhering to a healthful dietary pattern. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, dementia, and cancer are all influenced by lifestyle choices. Despite the ample evidence about what behaviors promote health, confusion still prevails among the general population...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522230/cortical-microinfarcts-in-patients-with-middle-cerebral-artery-stenosis
#2
Xinyi Leng, Hui Fang, Yuehua Pu, Xinying Zou, Yuesong Pan, Yannie O Y Soo, Yuming Xu, Chunxue Wang, Xingquan Zhao, Yilong Wang, Yongjun Wang, David S Liebeskind, Lawrence K S Wong, Thomas W Leung, Liping Liu
BACKGROUND: Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) have been correlated to cognitive decline and dementia. It was previously considered only visible on microscope, but was recently reported to be visible on 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and linked to presence of intracranial stenosis. We aimed to investigate CMIs on 3.0 Tesla MRI in patients with M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA-M1) stenosis. METHODS: Patients with a recent non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and an atherosclerotic MCA-M1 stenosis were recruited...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521701/unexpected-effects-of-acetylcholine-precursors-on-pilocarpine-seizure-induced-neuronal-death
#3
Minwoo Lee, Bo Young Choi, Sang Won Suh
Choline alfoscerate (α-GPC) and Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline) are both acetylcholine precursors and are considered to act as pro-cholinergic nootropic agents. Acetylcholine precursors have also recently found frequent use in the neurology clinic. Stroke and many types of dementia have been shown to respond favorably after treatment with these agents, not only in terms of cognitive dysfunction but also behavioral and psychological symptoms. The primary mechanisms of Acetylcholine precursors are the following: 1) Acetylcholine precursors themselves are used in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and 2) byproducts like glycerophosphate have protective functions for neuronal phospholipids...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515342/clinical-presentations-and-epidemiology-of-vascular-dementia
#4
REVIEW
Eric E Smith
Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases cause vascular brain injury that can lead to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). VCI is the second most common neuropathology of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), accounting for up to one-third of the population risk. It is frequently present along with other age-related pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Multiple etiology dementia with both VCI and AD is the single most common cause of later life dementia. There are two main clinical syndromes of VCI: post-stroke VCI in which cognitive impairment is the immediate consequence of a recent stroke and VCI without recent stroke in which cognitive impairment is the result of covert vascular brain injury detected only on neuroimaging or neuropathology...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509397/sex-differences-in-metabolic-risk-indicator-of-dementia-in-an-elderly-urban-korean-population-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#5
Yeon-Ha Kim, Nam Hoon Kim, Moon-Hee Jung, Hee-Jin Kim
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the age-specific prevalence of dementia, and develop a metabolic risk indicator for dementia according to sex. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out from September 2007 through December 2012 with 19 935 elderly participants in metropolitan Seoul, Korea. Multiphase assessments were used to measure metabolic risk factors and confirm dementia according to sex. Specifically, multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify how elderly men and women differed in regard to metabolic risk indicators of dementia...
May 16, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501273/cerebral-white-matter-lesions-after-pre-eclampsia
#6
P Soma-Pillay, F E Suleman, J D Makin, R C Pattinson
BACKGROUND: Women who have had pre-eclampsia in their previous pregnancies demonstrate a greater prevalence of cerebral white matter lesions several years after the pregnancy than women who have been normotensive during their pregnancy. Both the pathophysiology and the timing of development of these lesions are uncertain. White matter lesions, in the general population, are associated with an increased risk of stroke, dementia and death. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of cerebral white matter lesions amongst women with severe pre-eclampsia at delivery, 6months and 1year postpartum and to establish the possible pathophysiology and risks factors...
April 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499951/effects-of-task-specific-rehabilitation-training-on-tau-modification-in-rat-with-photothrombotic-cortical-ischemic-damage
#7
Kyung-Lim Joa, Sohee Moon, Ji-Hye Kim, Dong Wun Shin, Kyoung-Hee Lee, Seon Jung, Myeong-Ok Kim, Chang-Hwan Kim, Han-Young Jung, Ju-Hee Kang
Although stroke elicits progressive cognitive decline and is a leading cause of dementia, molecular interplay between stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, studies on the effects of post-stroke rehabilitation on AD pathology are limited. We evaluated the acute effect of stroke on tau modification, and the molecular effects of task-specific training (TST) on tau modification using a model of photochemically-induced thrombosis (PIT)-induced cortical infarction...
May 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499387/evolution-of-the-fourth-stage-of-epidemiologic-transition-in-people-aged-80%C3%A2-years-and-over-population-based-cohort-study-using-electronic-health-records
#8
Nisha C Hazra, Martin Gulliford
BACKGROUND: In the "fourth stage" of epidemiological transition, the distribution of non-communicable diseases is expected to shift to more advanced ages, but age-specific changes beyond 80 years of age have not been reported. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate demographic and health transitions in a population aged 80 years and over in the United Kingdom from 1990 to 2014, using primary care electronic health records. Epidemiological analysis of chronic morbidities and age-related impairments included a cohort of 299,495 participants, with stratified sampling by five-year age group up to 100 years and over...
May 12, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498386/atorvastatin-inhibits-cholesterol-induced-caspase-3-cleavage-through-down-regulation-of-p38-and-up-regulation-of-bcl-2-in-the-rat-carotid-artery
#9
Roshanak Bayatmakoo, Nadereh Rashtchizadeh, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Mehdi Farhoudi, Pouran Karimi
AIM: Atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid arteries lead to a broad range of cerebrovascular disorders such as vascular dementia and ischaemic stroke. Recent studies have verified the beneficial role of atorvastatin (AV) in atherosclerosis. Despite a large body of studies, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been completely explained. In this study, several experiments were performed on atherosclerotic rat models to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of AV in the carotid artery...
May 5, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490880/protective-efficacy-of-a-single-salvianolic-acid-a-treatment-on-photothrombosis-induced-sustained-spatial-memory-impairments
#10
Chun-Xiang Jiao, Heng Zhou, Chun-Xian Yang, Chen Ma, Yue-Xiong Yang, Rong-Rong Mao, Lin Xu, Qi-Xin Zhou
With respect to the high burden of ischemic stroke and the absence of pharmacological treatment for promoting rehabilitation, promising candidates with specific effects on long-term functional recovery are highly desired. Candidates need reasonable experimental paradigms to evaluate the long-term functional outcome focused on ischemia-induced sensorimotor and memory deficits. "Danshen", a traditional Chinese herb, has long been used to treat coronary and cerebral vascular diseases as well as dementia. Salvianolic acid A (SAA), one of the major active ingredients of Danshen, was demonstrated to be effective in protecting against cerebral ischemic injury...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489419/when-is-a-novel-psychometric-measure-needed-a-preliminary-analysis-regarding-the-cognitive-assessment-for-stroke-patients-casp-battery-compared-with-mmse-and-moca
#11
Davide Crivelli, Maria Teresa Angelillo, Elisabetta Grippa, Antonia Colucci, Roberto Nardulli, Michela Balconi
The need for quick tools to sketch an early but accurate cognitive profile of patients who suffered brain damage or head trauma is of primary importance. Nonetheless, in the Italian context, the most-diffused screening tools are still those originally devised to diagnose dementia. The present pilot study then aimed at investigating the potential and feasibility of a novel screening battery, the Cognitive Assessment for Stroke Patients (CASP), in a sample of Italian patients by comparing it to Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tests...
May 10, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489413/two-year-outcomes-of-poststroke-writing-and-reading-disorders
#12
Sanela Zukic, Osman Sinanovic, Lejla Zonic
Poststroke language disorders are frequent and include aphasia, alexia, agraphia, and acalculia. These disorders refer to an acquired inability to read, write and calculate. In this study, we evaluated the two year outcomes of writing and reading disorders in poststroke patients, the natural course, recovery and mortality. We evaluated all the patients with stroke who were admitted to the Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla in period of six months, who developed poststroke alexia, agraphia, acalculia, or different combinations of these language disorders...
May 10, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488208/erythropoietin-rescues-memory-impairment-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-via-the-epo-r-jak2-stat5-pi3k-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway
#13
Shengli Ma, Juwu Chen, Chen Chen, Na Wei, Jingjing Xu, Guohui Yang, Nan Wang, Yu Meng, Jia Ren, Zongchao Xu
Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of dementia in older people and is characterized by the sudden onset of impairments in thinking skills and behavior, which generally occur following a stroke. Unfortunately, effective therapy for vascular dementia remains inadequate. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production. Recently, a prominent role for EPO has been defined in the nervous system, and there is growing interest in the potential therapeutic use of EPO for neuroprotection...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478812/migraine-white-matter-hyperintensities-and-cerebral-microinfarcts-are-silent-cryptogenic-strokes-and-relate-to-dementia
#14
Arnold E Eggers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473002/surrogate-prediction-of-quality-of-life-and-desire-for-treatment-a-guess-of-a-guess
#15
Scott Snyder, Halima Amjad
In conditions, such as dementia, stroke, or critical illness, clinicians often rely on substituted judgment through a surrogate to assist in medical decision making. Surrogates may face tough decisions regarding whether to pursue or forego surgery, tube feeding, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Surrogates often have little confidence in their decision (Majesko et al., 2012), though substituted judgment relies on the surrogate to determine the decision that the patient would have made. Prior studies suggest that surrogates predict patient preferences with only 68% accuracy (Shalowitz et al...
May 5, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469657/fermented-chinese-formula-shuan-tong-ling-attenuates-ischemic-stroke-by-inhibiting-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#16
Zhi-Gang Mei, Ling-Jing Tan, Jin-Feng Wang, Xiao-Li Li, Wei-Feng Huang, Hua-Jun Zhou
The fermented Chinese formula Shuan-Tong-Ling is composed of radix puerariae (Gegen), salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), radix curcuma (Jianghuang), hawthorn (Shanzha), salvia chinensis (Shijianchuan), sinapis alba (Baijiezi), astragalus (Huangqi), panax japonicas (Zhujieshen), atractylodes macrocephala koidz (Baizhu), radix paeoniae alba (Baishao), bupleurum (Chaihu), chrysanthemum (Juhua), rhizoma cyperi (Xiangfu) and gastrodin (Tianma), whose aqueous extract was fermented with lactobacillus, bacillus aceticus and saccharomycetes...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467996/increased-risk-of-bullous-pemphigoid-after-first-ever-stroke-a-population-based-study
#17
Ai-Ling Shen, Hsiu-Li Lin, Hsiu-Chen Lin, Yuan-Fu Tseng, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Che-Yi Chou
BACKGROUND: We hypothesize that autoantibodies are induced after the blood-brain barrier is damaged by stroke and the risk of bullous pemphigoid (BP) is increased after stroke. We assess the risk of BP after first-ever stroke in a nationwide population-based cohort of first-ever stroke patients. METHODS: We extracted data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 and identified patients with first-ever stroke as well as control patients matched for age, gender, and year of enrollment...
May 4, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465455/coronary-artery-calcium-and-risk-of-dementia-in-mesa-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#18
Akira Fujiyoshi, David R Jacobs, Annette L Fitzpatrick, Alvaro Alonso, Daniel A Duprez, A Richey Sharrett, Teresa Seeman, Michael J Blaha, José A Luchsinger, Stephen R Rapp
BACKGROUND: Studies suggest a link between vascular injuries and dementia. Only a few studies, however, examined a longitudinal relation of subclinical vascular disease with dementia. We tested whether baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC), a biomarker of subclinical vascular disease, is associated with incident dementia independent of vascular risk factors and APOE-ε4 genotype in a community-based sample. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 6293 participants of MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), aged 45 to 84 years at baseline (2000-2002), initially free of cardiovascular disease and noticeable cognitive deficit...
May 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463236/depression-as-a-modifiable-factor-to-decrease-the-risk-of-dementia
#19
O P Almeida, G J Hankey, B B Yeap, J Golledge, L Flicker
Depression is an accepted risk factor for dementia, but it is unclear if this relationship is causal. This study investigated whether dementia associated with depression decreases with antidepressant use and is independent of the time between exposure to depression and the onset of dementia. We completed a 14-year longitudinal study of 4922 cognitively healthy men aged 71-89 years, and collected information about history of past depression, current depression and severity of depressive symptoms. Other measures included use of antidepressants, age, education, smoking and history of diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke...
May 2, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461128/cognitive-emotional-and-neural-benefits-of-musical-leisure-activities-in-aging-and-neurological-rehabilitation-a-critical-review
#20
REVIEW
Teppo Särkämö
Music has the capacity to engage auditory, cognitive, motor, and emotional functions across cortical and subcortical brain regions and is relatively preserved in aging and dementia. Thus, music is a promising tool in the rehabilitation of aging-related neurological illnesses, such as stroke and Alzheimer disease. As the population ages and the incidence and prevalence of these illnesses rapidly increases, music-based interventions that are enjoyable and effective in the everyday care of the patients are needed...
April 28, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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