Read by QxMD icon Read

Cellular Biology

Hussain Mohamad Awwad, Juergen Geisel, Rima Obeid
BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced in the liver from trimethylamine (TMA) and is an important cellular osmolyte and potential atherogenic factor. Taurine is involved in cholesterol metabolism and also serves as a cellular osmolyte. Given their significant biological functions, the development of reliable measurement techniques is crucial to further study their role in health and disease METHODS: A new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TMA, TMAO, and taurine in plasma and urine...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
I C Haznedaroglu, U Y Malkan
The existence of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) specific to the hematopoietic bone marrow (BM) microenvironment had been proposed two decades ago. Most of the RAS molecules including ACE, ACE2, AGT, AGTR1, AGTR2, AKR1C4, AKR1D1, ANPEP, ATP6AP2, CMA1, CPA3, CTSA, CTSD, CTSG, CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, DPP3, EGFR, ENPEP, GPER, HSD11B1, HSD11B2, IGF2R, KLK1, LNPEP, MAS1, MME, NR3C1, NR3C2, PREP, REN, RNPEP, and THOP1 are locally present in the BM microenvironment. Local BM RAS peptides control the hematopoietic niche, myelopoiesis, erythropoiesis, thrombopoiesis and the development of other cellular lineages...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Michael J Waring, Huawei Chen, Alfred A Rabow, Graeme Walker, Romel Bobby, Scott Boiko, Rob H Bradbury, Rowena Callis, Edwin Clark, Ian Dale, Danette L Daniels, Austin Dulak, Liz Flavell, Geoff Holdgate, Thomas A Jowitt, Alexey Kikhney, Mark McAlister, Jacqui Méndez, Derek Ogg, Joe Patel, Philip Petteruti, Graeme R Robb, Matthew B Robers, Sakina Saif, Natalie Stratton, Dmitri I Svergun, Wenxian Wang, David Whittaker, David M Wilson, Yi Yao
Proteins of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family, in particular bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), are of great interest as biological targets. BET proteins contain two separate bromodomains, and existing inhibitors bind to them monovalently. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of probe compound biBET, capable of engaging both bromodomains simultaneously in a bivalent, in cis binding mode. The evidence provided here was obtained in a variety of biophysical and cellular experiments...
October 24, 2016: Nature Chemical Biology
Vjekoslav Tomaić
Approximately 200 human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial cells, of which the alpha and beta types have been the most extensively studied. Alpha HPV types mainly infect mucosal epithelia and a small group of these causes over 600,000 cancers per year worldwide at various anatomical sites, especially anogenital and head-and-neck cancers. Of these the most important is cervical cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in many parts of the world. Beta HPV types infect cutaneous epithelia and may contribute towards the initiation of non-melanoma skin cancers...
October 19, 2016: Cancers
Brennan S Dirk, Logan R Van Nynatten, Jimmy D Dikeakos
Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM) have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell-cell transmission and cell-free viral transmission...
October 19, 2016: Viruses
Srikanth Dasari, Swati Singh, Sri Sivakumar, Ashis K Patra
Dual-photosensitized stable Eu(ΙΙΙ) and Tb(ΙΙΙ) complexes, namely [Eu(dpq)(tfnb)3 ] (1) and [Tb(dpq)(tfnb)3 ] (2), in which dpq=dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline and Htfnb=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-napthyl)-1,3-butanedione, were designed as bioimaging and light-responsive therapeutic agents. Their X-ray structures, photophysical properties, biological interactions, photoinduced DNA damage, photocytotoxicity, and cellular uptake properties were studied. Discrete mononuclear complexes adopt an eight-coordinated {LnN2 O6 } distorted square antiprism geometry with bidentate N,N-donor dpq and O,O-donor tfnb ligands...
October 24, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Raj Kumar Koninti, Sandeep Palvai, Sagar Satpathi, Sudipta Basu, Partha Hazra
Mesoporous silica nano-channel (MCM-41) based molecular switching of a biologically important anticancer drug, namely, ellipticine (EPT) has been utilized to probe its efficient loading onto MCM-41, and its subsequent release to intra-cellular biomolecules, like DNA. By exploiting various spectroscopic techniques (like, steady state fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence and circular dichroism), it has been shown that EPT can be easily translocated from MCM-41 to DNA without using any external stimulant. Blue emission of EPT in a polar aprotic solvent, i...
October 24, 2016: Nanoscale
A Dokala, S S Thakur
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity involved in regulation of cellular multiplication, survival, differentiation and metastasis. Our knowledge about function and complex management of these receptors has driving the development of specific and targeted treatment modalities for human cancers in the last 20 years. EGFR is the first receptor target against which monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been evolved for cancer treatment. Here we review the biology of ErbB receptors, including their architecture, signaling, regulation and therapeutic strategies and the mechanisms of resistances offered by the receptors against small-molecule tyrosine kinases and resistance overcome implications of mAbs...
October 24, 2016: Oncogene
Hui Liu, Fan Zhang, Shital Kumar Mishra, Shuigeng Zhou, Jie Zheng
Modeling of signaling pathways is crucial for understanding and predicting cellular responses to drug treatments. However, canonical signaling pathways curated from literature are seldom context-specific and thus can hardly predict cell type-specific response to external perturbations; purely data-driven methods also have drawbacks such as limited biological interpretability. Therefore, hybrid methods that can integrate prior knowledge and real data for network inference are highly desirable. In this paper, we propose a knowledge-guided fuzzy logic network model to infer signaling pathways by exploiting both prior knowledge and time-series data...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jie Li, Yonghong Gao, Xiaomeng Ren, Yanda Li, Lijun Wu, Xinyu Yang, Jie Wang, Hongcai Shang, Xingjiang Xiong, Yanwei Xing
Autophagy, a highly conserved starvation response mechanism with both defensive and protective effects in eukaryotic cells, is a lysosome-mediated degradation process for non-essential or damaged cellular constituents. It plays an important role in the cell survival, differentiation and development to maintain homeostasis. Autophagy is involved in cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disease, as well as tumours. Thus, modulating autophagy may provide potential therapeutic strategies...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Keren Bachi, Salvador Sierra, Nora D Volkow, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
Drug-addiction may trigger early onset of age-related disease, due to drug-induced multi-system toxicity and perilous lifestyle, which remains mostly undetected and untreated. We present the literature on pathophysiological processes that may hasten aging and its relevance to addiction, including: oxidative stress and cellular aging, inflammation in periphery and brain, decline in brain volume and function, and early onset of cardiac, cerebrovascular, kidney, and liver disease. Timely detection of accelerated aging in addiction is crucial for the prevention of premature morbidity and mortality...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
D Digles, B Zdrazil, J-M Neefs, H Van Vlijmen, C Herhaus, A Caracoti, J Brea, B Roibás, M I Loza, N Queralt-Rosinach, L I Furlong, A Gaulton, L Bartek, S Senger, C Chichester, O Engkvist, C T Evelo, N I Franklin, D Marren, G F Ecker, E Jacoby
Phenotypic screening is in a renaissance phase and is expected by many academic and industry leaders to accelerate the discovery of new drugs for new biology. Given that phenotypic screening is per definition target agnostic, the emphasis of in silico and in vitro follow-up work is on the exploration of possible molecular mechanisms and efficacy targets underlying the biological processes interrogated by the phenotypic screening experiments. Herein, we present six exemplar computational protocols for the interpretation of cellular phenotypic screens based on the integration of compound, target, pathway, and disease data established by the IMI Open PHACTS project...
June 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Boris Pinchuk, Thorsten von Drathen, Viktoria Opel, Christian Peifer
Dabrafenib (Tafinlar) was approved in 2013 by the FDA as a selective single agent treatment for patients with BRAF(V600E) mutation-positive advanced melanoma. One year later, a combination of dabrafenib and trametinib was used for treatment of BRAF(V600E/K) mutant metastatic melanoma. In the present study, we report on hitherto not described photosensitivity of dabrafenib both in organic and aqueous media. The half-lives for dabrafenib degradation were determined. Moreover, we revealed photoinduced chemical conversion of dabrafenib to its planar fluorescent derivative dabrafenib_photo 2...
October 13, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Bilal N Sheikh, Donald Metcalf, Anne K Voss, Tim Thomas
Chromatin plays a central role in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells and during their stepwise differentiation. While a large number of histone modifications and chromatin modifying enzymes have been identified, how these act in concert to produce specific phenotypic outcomes remains to be established. MOZ (KAT6A) is a lysine acetyltransferase and enhances transcription at target gene loci. In contrast, the polycomb group protein BMI1 (PCGF4) is part of the transcriptionally repressive PRC1 complex. Despite their opposing effects on transcription, MOZ and BMI1 regulate biological systems in a similar manner...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Hematology
Lionel Sacconnay, Pierre-Alain Carrupt, Alessandra Nurisso
In recent years, sirtuins (SIRTs), members of histone deacetylases (HDACs) class III, have been found to modulate cellular processes related to the development of human aging-related pathologies (i.e. cancer, neurodegeneration, metabolic disorders). Several crystallographic structures and computational studies have shed light into their catalytic mechanism of action, identifying also the structural elements for the design of selective drug candidates. In this review, we first aim at summarizing the structural features characterizing human SIRTs...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Shanshan Guo, Xiaoying Zhu, Xian Jun Loh
Controlling the adhesion of mammalian and bacterial cells at the interfaces between synthetic materials and biological environments is a real challenge in the biomedical fields such as tissue engineering, antibacterial coating, implantable biomaterials and biosensors. The surface properties of materials are known to profoundly influence the adhesion processes. To mediate the adhesion processes, polymeric coatings have been used to functionalize surfaces to introduce diverse physicochemical properties. The polyelectrolyte multilayer films built via the layer-by-layer (LbL) method, introduced by Moehwald, Decher, and Lvov 20years ago, has led to significant developments ranging from the fundamental understanding of cellular processes to controlling cell adhesion for biomedical applications...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Hongjie Chen, Chunli Wang, Xiao Yang, Zhanwen Xiao, Xiangdong Zhu, Kai Zhang, Yujiang Fan, Xingdong Zhang
A simple approach to fabricating hydroxyxapatite/titanium dioxide (HA/TiO2) coating on porous titanium (Ti) scaffolds was developed in the present study. Surface TiO2 layer was firstly formed on porous Ti scaffolds with multi-scale pores by acid-alkali (AA) treatment. The outer HA layer was then formed on the TiO2 layer by subsequent pulse electrochemical deposition (ED) technique. All the three main process parameters, i.e. deposition times, current density and mass transfer mode affected the properties of the HA coating notably...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Christopher A Reid, Michael S Hildebrand, Saul A Mullen, Joanne M Hildebrand, Samuel F Berkovic, Steven Petrou
Zn(2+) , the second most prevalent trace element in the body, is essential for supporting a wide range of biological functions. While the majority of Zn(2+) in the brain is protein-bound, a significant proportion of free Zn(2+) is found co-localized with glutamate in synaptic vesicles and is released in an activity-dependent manner. Clinical studies have shown Zn(2+) levels are significantly lower in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of children that suffer febrile seizures. Likewise, investigations in multiple animal models demonstrate that low levels of brain Zn(2+) increase seizure susceptibility...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Silvia Honda Takada, Juliane Midori Ikebara, Erica de Sousa, Débora Sterzeck Cardoso, Rodrigo Ribeiro Resende, Henning Ulrich, Martin Rückl, Sten Rüdiger, Alexandre Hiroaki Kihara
It is well known that calcium (Ca(2+)) is involved in the triggering of neuronal death. Ca(2+) cytosolic levels are regulated by Ca(2+) release from internal stores located in organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. Indeed, Ca(2+) transit from distinct cell compartments follows complex dynamics that are mediated by specific receptors, notably inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs). Ca(2+) release by IP3Rs plays essential roles in several neurological disorders; however, details of these processes are poorly understood...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Camila Cristina Guimarães Nobre, Josélio Maria Galvão de Araújo, Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros Fernandes, Ricardo Ney Oliveira Cobucci, Daniel Carlos Ferreira Lanza, Vânia Sousa Andrade, José Veríssimo Fernandes
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) emerged in recent years as an important inflammation mediator, playing a prominent role in the pathogenesis of various types of malignant neoplasm. MIF is a glycoprotein that presents a wide spectrum of biological activities and exerts a complex interaction with various cellular signaling pathways, causing imbalance of homeostasis. Experimental and clinical studies show that high levels of MIF are found in almost all types of human cancers and are implicated in seemingly all stages of development of the tumors...
October 23, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"