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Cellular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346760/single-cell-transcriptional-profiling-reveals-cellular-diversity-and-intercommunication-in-the-mouse-heart
#1
Daniel A Skelly, Galen T Squiers, Micheal A McLellan, Mohan T Bolisetty, Paul Robson, Nadia A Rosenthal, Alexander R Pinto
Characterization of the cardiac cellulome, the network of cells that form the heart, is essential for understanding cardiac development and normal organ function and for formulating precise therapeutic strategies to combat heart disease. Recent studies have reshaped our understanding of cardiac cellular composition and highlighted important functional roles for non-myocyte cell types. In this study, we characterized single-cell transcriptional profiles of the murine non-myocyte cardiac cellular landscape using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq)...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346724/structural-and-biophysical-characterization-of-human-extl3-domain-organisation-glycosylation-and-solution-structure
#2
Wael Awad, Sven Kjellstrom, Gabriel Svensson Birkedal, Katrin Mani, Derek Thomas Logan
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are proteins substituted with one or more heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides, found in abundance at cell surfaces. HS chains influence the activity of many biologically important molecules involved in cellular communication and signaling. The exostosin (EXT) proteins are glycosyltransferases in the Golgi apparatus that assemble HS chains on HSPGs. The EXTL3 enzyme mainly works as an initiator in HS biosynthesis. In this work, human lumenal N-glycosylated EXTL3 (EXTL3ΔN) was cloned, expressed in human embryonic kidney cells and purified...
January 18, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346651/bipartite-network-analysis-of-gene-sharings-in-the-microbial-world
#3
Eduardo Corel, Raphaël Méheust, Andrew K Watson, James O McInerney, Philippe Lopez, Eric Bapteste
Extensive microbial gene flows affect how we understand virology, microbiology, medical sciences, genetic modification and evolutionary biology. Phylogenies only provide a narrow view of these gene flows: plasmids and viruses, lacking core genes, cannot be attached to cellular life on phylogenetic trees. Yet viruses and plasmids have a major impact on cellular evolution, affecting both the gene content and the dynamics of microbial communities. Using bipartite graphs that connect up to 149,000 clusters of homologous genes with 8217 related and unrelated genomes, we can in particular show patterns of gene sharing that do not map neatly with the organismal phylogeny...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346617/riboswitching-with-ciprofloxacin-development-and-characterization-of-a-novel-rna-regulator
#4
Florian Groher, Cristina Bofill-Bosch, Christopher Schneider, Johannes Braun, Sven Jager, Katharina Geißler, Kay Hamacher, Beatrix Suess
RNA molecules play important and diverse regulatory roles in the cell. Inspired by this natural versatility, RNA devices are increasingly important for many synthetic biology applications, e.g. optimizing engineered metabolic pathways, gene therapeutics or building up complex logical units. A major advantage of RNA is the possibility of de novo design of RNA-based sensing domains via an in vitro selection process (SELEX). Here, we describe development of a novel ciprofloxacin-responsive riboswitch by in vitro selection and next-generation sequencing-guided cellular screening...
January 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346265/halfway-between-2d-and-animal-models-are-3d-cultures-the-ideal-tool-to-study-cancer-microenvironment-interactions
#5
REVIEW
Jessica Hoarau-Véchot, Arash Rafii, Cyril Touboul, Jennifer Pasquier
An area that has come to be of tremendous interest in tumor research in the last decade is the role of the microenvironment in the biology of neoplastic diseases. The tumor microenvironment (TME) comprises various cells that are collectively important for normal tissue homeostasis as well as tumor progression or regression. Seminal studies have demonstrated the role of the dialogue between cancer cells (at many sites) and the cellular component of the microenvironment in tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346132/enzymatic-sources-and-physio-pathological-functions-of-soluble-pro-renin-receptor
#6
Qing Zhu, Tianxin Yang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) belongs to type I transmembrane receptor family and binds both prorenin and renin, representing a potential regulator of the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. Soluble form of PRR (sPRR) is generated by intracellular protease-mediated cleavage of full-length PRR. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of action and production of sPRR. RECENT FINDINGS: It has recently been demonstrated that site-1-protease (S1P) plays a dominant role in the generation of sPRR...
January 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346034/coagulopathy-in-severe-sepsis-interconnectivity-of-coagulation-and-the-immune-system
#7
Jason M Samuels, Hunter B Moore, Ernest E Moore
BACKGROUND: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) remains a challenging complication of infection with inadequate treatment and significant morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS: Review of the English-language literature. RESULTS: Disseminated intravascular coagulation arises from the immune system's response to microbial invasion, as well as the byproducts of cell death that result from severe sepsis. This response triggers the coagulation system through an interconnected network of cellular and molecular signals, which developed originally as an evolutionary mechanism intended to isolate micro-organisms via fibrin mesh formation...
January 18, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345976/synthetic-biology-immunotherapy-by-design
#8
Matthew J Brenner, Jang Hwan Cho, Nicole M L Wong, Wilson W Wong
Cellular immunotherapy holds great promise for the treatment of human disease. Clinical evidence suggests that T cell immunotherapies have the potential to combat cancers that evade traditional immunotherapy. Despite promising results, adverse effects leading to fatalities have left scientists seeking tighter control over these therapies, which is reflected in the growing body of synthetic biology literature focused on developing tightly controlled, context-independent parts. In addition, researchers are adapting these tools for other uses, such as for the treatment of autoimmune disease, HIV infection, and fungal interactions...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345467/cyclic-acyl-disulfides-and-acyl-selenylsulfides-as-the-precursors-for-persulfides-rssh-selenylsulfides-rsesh-and-hydrogen-sulfide-h2s
#9
Jianming Kang, Aaron J Ferrell, Wei Chen, Difei Wang, Ming Xian
The reactions of three model compounds (1-3) for cyclic acyl disulfides and cyclic acyl selenylsulfides are studied. These compounds were found to be effective precursors for persulfides (RSSH) and selenylsulfides (RSeSH) upon reacting with nucleophilic species. They could also act as H2S donors when interacting with cellular thiols. The most interesting discovery was the generation of RSeSH from compound 3 under mild conditions. Selenylsulfides (RSeSH) are expected to be important regulating molecules involved in Sec-related redox signaling...
January 18, 2018: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344964/recent-advances-and-opportunities-in-proteomic-analyses-of-tumor-heterogeneity
#10
REVIEW
Nicholas W Bateman, Thomas P Conrads
Solid tumor malignancies comprise a highly variable admixture of tumor and non-tumor cellular populations, forming a complex cellular ecosystem and tumor microenvironment. This tumor heterogeneity is not incidental and is known to correlate with poor patient prognosis for many cancer types. Indeed, non-malignant cell populations, such as vascular endothelial and immune cells, are known to play key roles supporting and, in some cases, driving aggressive tumor biology and represent targets of emerging therapeutics, such as anti-angiogenesis and immune checkpoint inhibitors...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344894/systems-biology-approaches-in-cancer-pathology
#11
Aaron DeWard, Rebecca J Critchley-Thorne
The complex network of the tissue system, in both pre-neoplastic tissues and tumors, demonstrates the need for a systems biology approach to cancer pathology, in which quantification of key tissue system processes is combined with informatics tools to produce actionable scores to aid clinical decision-making. A systems biology approach to cancer pathology enables integration of key system features that are relevant to diagnoses, patient outcomes, and responses to therapies. Key tissue system features relevant to cancer pathology include molecular and morphologic abnormalities in epithelia, cellular changes in the stroma such as immune infiltrates, and relationships between components of the system, such as interactions and spatial relationships between epithelial and stromal components, and also between specific immune cell subsets...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344827/molecular-imaging-of-cardiac-remodelling-after-myocardial-infarction
#12
REVIEW
Daniel Curley, Begoña Lavin Plaza, Ajay M Shah, René M Botnar
Myocardial infarction and subsequent heart failure is a major health burden associated with significant mortality and morbidity in western societies. The ability of cardiac tissue to recover after myocardial infarction is affected by numerous complex cellular and molecular pathways. Unbalance or failure of these pathways can lead to adverse remodelling of the heart and poor prognosis. Current clinical cardiac imaging modalities assess anatomy, perfusion, function, and viability of the myocardium, yet do not offer any insight into the specific molecular pathways involved in the repair process...
January 17, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344431/noncoding-rnas-in-wound-healing-a-new-and-vast-frontier
#13
REVIEW
Anna Luan, Michael S Hu, Tripp Leavitt, Elizabeth A Brett, Kevin C Wang, Michael T Longaker, Derrick C Wan
Significance: Wound healing requires a highly orchestrated coordination of processes that are not yet fully understood. Therefore, available clinical therapies are thus far limited in their efficacy in preventing and treating both chronic wounds and scars. Current gene-based therapeutics is largely based on our understanding of the protein-coding genome and proteins involved in known wound healing pathways. Recent Advances: Noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs have recently been found to be significant modulators of gene expression in diverse cellular pathways...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344181/l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-expression-is-upregulated-and-associated-with-cellular-proliferation-in-colorectal-cancer
#14
Suguru Hayase, Kensuke Kumamoto, Katsuharu Saito, Yasuhide Kofunato, Yu Sato, Hirokazu Okayama, Kotaro Miyamoto, Shinji Ohki, Seiichi Takenoshita
Previous studies have shown that the L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is highly expressed in many types of cancer. Upregulated LAT1 expression is considered to be associated with cancer cell proliferation. In the present study, we investigated LAT1 expression in 210 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and 40 patients with colonic adenoma using an immunohistochemical method, and analyzed the associations between LAT1 expression and clinicopathological factors and prognosis. The biological significance of LAT1 was also examined under conditions with sub-normal amounts of essential amino acids using colon cancer cell lines...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343827/targeted-nudt5-inhibitors-block-hormone-signaling-in-breast-cancer-cells
#15
Brent D G Page, Nicholas C K Valerie, Roni H G Wright, Olov Wallner, Rebecka Isaksson, Megan Carter, Sean G Rudd, Olga Loseva, Ann-Sofie Jemth, Ingrid Almlöf, Jofre Font-Mateu, Sabin Llona-Minguez, Pawel Baranczewski, Fredrik Jeppsson, Evert Homan, Helena Almqvist, Hanna Axelsson, Shruti Regmi, Anna-Lena Gustavsson, Thomas Lundbäck, Martin Scobie, Kia Strömberg, Pål Stenmark, Miguel Beato, Thomas Helleday
With a diverse network of substrates, NUDIX hydrolases have emerged as a key family of nucleotide-metabolizing enzymes. NUDT5 (also called NUDIX5) has been implicated in ADP-ribose and 8-oxo-guanine metabolism and was recently identified as a rheostat of hormone-dependent gene regulation and proliferation in breast cancer cells. Here, we further elucidate the physiological relevance of known NUDT5 substrates and underscore the biological requirement for NUDT5 in gene regulation and proliferation of breast cancer cells...
January 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343644/identification-of-genes-required-for-mycobacterium-abscessus-growth-in-vivo-with-a-prominent-role-of-the-esx-4-locus
#16
Laura Laencina, Violaine Dubois, Vincent Le Moigne, Albertus Viljoen, Laleh Majlessi, Justin Pritchard, Audrey Bernut, Laura Piel, Anne-Laure Roux, Jean-Louis Gaillard, Bérengère Lombard, Damarys Loew, Eric J Rubin, Roland Brosch, Laurent Kremer, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Fabienne Girard-Misguich
Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) and an opportunistic human pathogen, is responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from pulmonary to skin and soft tissue infections. This intracellular organism can resist the bactericidal defense mechanisms of amoebae and macrophages, an ability that has not been observed in other RGM. M. abscessus can up-regulate several virulence factors during transient infection of amoebae, thereby becoming more virulent in subsequent respiratory infections in mice...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343610/cyp2j2-expression-in-adult-ventricular-myocytes-protects-against-external-and-drug-induced-ros-toxicity
#17
Eric A Evangelista, Rozenn Lemaitre, Nona Sotoodehnia, Sina Gharib, Rheem A Totah
CYP2J2 is a drug metabolizing enzyme that is highly expressed in adult ventricular myocytes. It is responsible for the bioactivation of arachidonic acid (AA) into epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). EETs are biologically active signaling compounds that protect against disease progression, particularly in cardiovascular diseases. As a drug-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2J2 is susceptible to drug interactions that could lead to cardiotoxicity. Previously, CYP2J2 has been shown to be resistant to induction by canonical CYP inducers such as phenytoin and rifampin...
January 17, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343584/human-herpesvirus-8-interferon-regulatory-factors-1-and-3-mediate-replication-and-latency-activities-via-interactions-with-usp7-deubiquitinase
#18
Qiwang Xiang, Hyunwoo Ju, Qian Li, Szu-Chieh Mei, Daming Chen, Young Bong Choi, John Nicholas
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) encodes four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs 1-4) that likely function to suppress innate immune and cellular stress responses through inhibitory interactions with various cellular proteins involved in these activities. It is notable that vIRFs 1 and 4 have been reported to interact with the deubiquitinase USP7, substrates of which include p53 and p53-targeting and destabilizing ubiquitin E3 ligase MDM2. Structural studies of vIRF-1 and vIRF-4 USP7-binding sequences in association with USP7 have been reported; both involve interactions with N-terminal domain residues of USP7, via EGPS and ASTS motifs in vIRF-1 and vIRF-4, respectively, but vIRF-4 residues also contact the catalytic site...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343504/canonical-and-non-canonical-actions-of-arabidopsis-histone-deacetylases-in-ribosomal-rna-processing
#19
Xiangsong Chen, Li Lu, Shuiming Qian, Mark Scalf, Lloyd M Smith, Xuehua Zhong
Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental process required for all cellular activities. Histone deacetylases play critical roles in many biological processes including transcriptional repression and rDNA silencing. However, their function in pre-rRNA processing remains poorly understood. Here, we discovered a previously uncharacterized role of Arabidopsis thaliana histone deacetylase HD2C in pre-rRNA processing via both canonical and non-canonical manners. HD2C interacts with another histone deacetylase HD2B and forms homo- and/or hetero-oligomers in the nucleolus...
January 17, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343499/a-population-phylogenetic-view-of-mitochondrial-heteroplasmy
#20
Peter R Wilton, Arslan Zaidi, Kateryna Makova, Rasmus Nielsen
The mitochondrion has recently emerged as an active player in a myriad of cellular processes. Additionally, it was recently shown that more than 200 diseases are known to be linked to variants in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes interacting with mitochondria. This has reinvigorated interest in its biology and population genetics. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy, or genotypic variation of mitochondria within an individual, is now understood to be common in humans and important in human health. However, it is still not possible to make quantitative predictions about the inheritance of heteroplasmy and its proliferation within the body, partly due to the lack of an appropriate model...
January 17, 2018: Genetics
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