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Cellular Biology

Marino Arroyo, Xavier Trepat
The animal body is largely made of water. A small fraction of body water is freely flowing in blood and lymph, but most of it is trapped in hydrogels such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), the cytoskeleton, and chromatin. Besides providing a medium for biological molecules to diffuse, water trapped in hydrogels plays a fundamental mechanical role. This role is well captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which explains how any deformation applied to a hydrogel causes pressure gradients and water flows, much like compressing a sponge squeezes water out of it...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Sacha Escamez, Hannele Tuominen
Plant development requires specific cells to be eliminated in a predictable and genetically regulated manner referred to as programmed cell death (PCD). However, the target cells do not merely die but they also undergo autolysis to degrade their cellular corpses. Recent progress in understanding developmental cell elimination suggests that distinct proteins execute PCD sensu stricto and autolysis. In addition, cell death alone and cell dismantlement can fulfill different functions. Hence, it appears biologically meaningful to distinguish between the modules of PCD and autolysis during plant development...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Qiannan Weng, Zequn Liu, Bojiang Li, Kaiqing Liu, Wangjun Wu, Honglin Liu
The c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) plays an important role in the regulation of cell apoptosis. Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors are involved in diverse biological processes, including cellular metabolism, cell apoptosis, and cell cycle. However, the JNK/FoxO1 pathway involved in the process of apoptosis induced by oxidative stress remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that the JNK activity significantly increased in response to oxidative stress in mouse follicular granulosa cells (MGCs)...
2016: PloS One
Pete Chandrangsu, John D Helmann
Transition metal ions (Zn(II), Cu(II)/(I), Fe(III)/(II), Mn(II)) are essential for life and participate in a wide range of biological functions. Cellular Zn(II) levels must be high enough to ensure that it can perform its essential roles. Yet, since Zn(II) binds to ligands with high avidity, excess Zn(II) can lead to protein mismetallation. The major targets of mismetallation, and the underlying causes of Zn(II) intoxication, are not well understood. Here, we use a forward genetic selection to identify targets of Zn(II) toxicity...
December 9, 2016: PLoS Genetics
Jingchao Li, Hongli Mao, Naoki Kawazoe, Guoping Chen
Multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in biomedical applications because of their versatile properties. The properties of NPs should be well designed and controlled according to various applications because they may directly affect the functions and performances of NPs in biological systems. Cellular uptake is a prerequisite for the success of NP-based biomedical applications. However, the internalized NPs inside cells may have some adverse effects. Therefore, the interactions between NPs and cells should be thoroughly investigated and elucidated...
December 9, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Purnima S Kompella, Alan M Moses, Sergio G Peisajovich
The cellular concentrations of key components of signaling networks are tightly regulated, as deviations from their optimal ranges can have negative effects on signaling function. For example, overexpression of the yeast mating pathway mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Fus3 decreases pathway output, in part by sequestering individual components away from functional multi-protein complexes. Using a synthetic biology approach, we investigated potential mechanisms by which selection could compensate for a decrease in signaling activity caused by overexpression of Fus3...
December 9, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Yantao Zhao, Xiantong Hu, Zhonghai Li, Fuli Wang, Yang Xia, Shuxun Hou, Hongbin Zhong, Feimin Zhang, Ning Gu
Allografts eliminate the disadvantages associated with autografts and synthetic scaffolds but are associated with a disease-transmission risk. Therefore, allograft sterilisation is crucial. We aimed to determine whether polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (PVP-I) can be used for sterilisation and as a new wet-preservation method. PVP-I-sterilised and preserved allografts demonstrated improved mechanical property, osteogenesis, and excellent microbial inhibition. A thigh muscle pouch model of nude mice showed that PVP-I-preserved allografts demonstrated better ectopic formation than Co60-sterilised allografts (control) in vivo (P < 0...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Cuixia Li, Jing Zuo, Li Zhang, Yulei Chang, Youlin Zhang, Langping Tu, Xiaomin Liu, Bin Xue, Qiqing Li, Huiying Zhao, Hong Zhang, Xianggui Kong
Accurate quantitation of intracellular pH (pHi) is of great importance in revealing the cellular activities and early warning of diseases. A series of fluorescence-based nano-bioprobes composed of different nanoparticles or/and dye pairs have already been developed for pHi sensing. Till now, biological auto-fluorescence background upon UV-Vis excitation and severe photo-bleaching of dyes are the two main factors impeding the accurate quantitative detection of pHi. Herein, we have developed a self-ratiometric luminescence nanoprobe based on förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) for probing pHi, in which pH-sensitive fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were served as energy acceptor and donor, respectively...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tomáš Pluskal, Mitsuhiro Yanagida
Metabolomics is a modern field of chemical biology that strives to simultaneously quantify hundreds of cellular metabolites. Techniques for metabolomic analysis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe have only recently been developed. Here we introduce methods that provide a complete workflow for metabolomic analysis in S. pombe Based on available literature, we estimate the yeast metabolome to comprise on the order of several thousand different metabolites. We discuss the feasibility of extraction and detection of such a large number of metabolites, and the influences of various parameters on the results...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Liberty Francois-Moutal, Myriam M Ouberai, Ofelia Maniti, Mark E Welland, Agnieszka Strzelecka-Kiliszek, Marcin Wos, Slawomir Pikula, Joanna Bandorowicz-Pikula, Olivier Marcillat, Thierry Granjon
Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are crucial elements in a wide array of cellular physiological or pathophysiological processes such as apoptosis, proliferation, or metastasis formation. Among the NDPK isoenzymes, NDPK-B, a cytoplasmic protein, was reported to be associated with several biological membranes such as plasma or endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Using several membrane models (liposomes, lipid monolayers, and supported lipid bilayers) associated with biophysical approaches, we show that lipid membrane binding occurs in a two-step process: first, initiation by a strong electrostatic adsorption process and followed by shallow penetration of the protein within the membrane...
December 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Hideaki Nakamura, Eva Koziolová, Petr Chytil, Kenji Tsukigawa, Jun Fang, Mamoru Haratake, Karel Ulbrich, Tomáš Etrych, Hiroshi Maeda
Many conjugates of water-soluble polymers with biologically active molecules were developed during the last two decades. Although, therapeutic effects of these conjugates are affected by the properties of carriers, the properties of the attached drugs appear more important than the same carrier polymer in this case. Pirarubicin (THP), a tetrahydropyranyl derivative of doxorubicin (DOX), demonstrated more rapid cellular internalization and potent cytotoxicity than DOX. Here, we conjugated the THP or DOX to N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer via a hydrazone bond...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Neta Varsano, Tali Dadosh, Sergey Kapishnikov, Eva Pereiro, Eyal Shimoni, Xueting Jin, Howard S Kruth, Leslie Leiserowitz, Lia Addadi
We have developed a high resolution correlative method involving cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), which provides information in three dimensions on large cellular volumes at 70 nm resolution. Cryo-SXT morphologically identified and localized aggregations of carbon-rich materials. STORM identified specific markers on the desired epitopes, enabling colocalization between the identified objects, in this case cholesterol crystals, and the cellular environment...
November 16, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xiaowei Xu, Kai Zhang, Liang Zhao, Chen Li, Wenhuan Bu, Yuqin Shen, Zhongyi Gu, Bei Chang, Changyu Zheng, Chongtao Lin, Hongchen Sun, Bai Yang
The emerging photoluminescent carbon-based nanomaterials are promising in various fields besides cell imaging and carrier transport. Carbon nanomaterials with specific biological functions, however, are rarely investigated. Aspirin is a very common anti-inflammatory medication to relieve aches and pains. In this study, we have tried to create a carbon nanoparticle with aspirin, and we expect that this new carbon nanoparticle will have both anti-inflammatory and fluorescent biomarker functions. Fluorescent aspirin-based carbon dots (FACDs) were synthesized by condensing aspirin and hydrazine through a one-step microwave-assisted method...
December 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marina Serebryakova, Darya Tsibulskaya, Olga Mokina, Alexey Kulikovsky, Manesh Nautiyal, Arthur Van Aerschot, Konstantin Severinov, Svetlana Dubiley
Microcin C and related antibiotics are Trojan-horse peptide-adenylates. The peptide part is responsible for facilitated transport inside the sensitive cell, where it gets processed to release a toxic warhead-a nonhydrolyzable aspartyl-adenylate, which inhibits aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. Adenylation of peptide precursors is carried out by MccB THIF-type NAD/FAD adenylyltransferases. Here, we describe a novel microcin C-like compound from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The B. amyloliquefaciens MccB demonstrates an unprecedented ability to attach a terminal cytidine monophosphate to cognate precursor peptide in cellular and cell free systems...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jordi Gràcia, Maria Antonia Buil, Jordi Castro, Peter Eichhorn, Manel Ferrer, Amadeu Gavaldà, Begoña Hernández, Victor Segarra, Martin D Lehner, Imma Moreno, Lluís Pagès, Richard S Roberts, Jordi Serrat, Sara Sevilla, Joan Taltavull, Miriam Andrés, Judit Cabedo, Dolors Vilella, Elena Calama, Carla Carcasona, Montserrat Miralpeix
Cyclic nucleotide cAMP is a ubiquitous secondary messenger involved in a plethora of cellular responses to biological agents involving activation of adenylyl cyclase. Its intracellular levels are tightly controlled by a family of cyclic nucleotide degrading enzymes, the PDEs. In recent years, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) has aroused scientific attention as a suitable target for anti-inflammatory therapy in respiratory diseases, particularly in the management of asthma and COPD. Here we describe our efforts to discover novel, highly potent inhaled inhibitors of PDE4...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Johanna M Smeekens, Haopeng Xiao, Ronghu Wu
Protein secretion is essential for numerous cellular activities, and secreted proteins in bodily fluids are a promising and non-invasive source of biomarkers for disease detection. Systematic analysis of secreted proteins and glycoproteins will provide insight into protein function and cellular activities. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is an excellent model system for eukaryotic cells, but global analysis of secreted proteins and glycoproteins in yeast is challenging due to the low abundances of secreted proteins and contamination from high-abundance intracellular proteins...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Tanmoy Saha, Amitosh Gautam, Arnab Mukherjee, Mayurika Lahiri, Pinaki Talukdar
Despite the great interest in artificial ion channel design, only a small number of channel-forming molecules are currently available for addressing challenging problems, particularly in the biological systems. Recent advances in chloride-mediated cell death, aided by synthetic ion carriers, encouraged us to develop chloride selective supramolecular ion channels. The present work describes vicinal diols, tethered to a rigid 1,3-diethynylbenzene core, as pivotal moieties for the barrel-rosette ion channel formation, and the activity of such channels was tuned by controlling the lipophilicity of designed monomers...
December 9, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Evan Wells, Anne Skaja Robinson
Recombinant proteins offer many therapeutic advantages unavailable in traditional small molecule drugs, but the need for cellular versus chemical synthesis complicates production. Avenues for producing therapeutic biologics are continuously expanding, and developments in biochemistry, cell biology, and bioengineering fuel new discoveries that promise safer, more efficient, and cheaper drugs for consumers. Numerous approaches to express recombinant proteins exist, but Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and mammalian systems (e...
December 9, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
Soledad Astrada, Yolanda Gomez, Exequiel Barrera, Gonzalo Obal, Otto Pritsch, Sergio Pantano, Maribel G Vallespí, Mariela Bollati-Fogolín
Because of resistance development by cancer cells against current anticancer drugs, there is a considerable interest in developing novel antitumor agents. We have previously demonstrated that CIGB-552, a novel cell-penetrating synthetic peptide, was effective in reducing tumor size and increasing lifespan in tumor-bearing mice. Studies of protein-peptide interactions have shown that COMMD1 protein is a major mediator of CIGB-552 antitumor activity. Furthermore, a typical serine-protease degradation pattern for CIGB-552 in BALB/c mice serum was identified, yielding peptides which differ from CIGB-552 in size and physical properties...
November 2016: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
N Hamasaki-Katagiri, B C Lin, J Simon, R C Hunt, T Schiller, E Russek-Cohen, A A Komar, H Bar, C Kimchi-Sarfaty
INTRODUCTION: Mutational analysis is commonly used to support the diagnosis and management of haemophilia. This has allowed for the generation of large mutation databases which provide unparalleled insight into genotype-phenotype relationships. Haemophilia is associated with inversions, deletions, insertions, nonsense and missense mutations. Both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations influence the base pairing of messenger RNA (mRNA), which can alter mRNA structure, cellular half-life and ribosome processivity/elongation...
December 9, 2016: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
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