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Cellular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646801/the-effects-of-exposure-to-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-on-male-fertility
#1
Mahsa Darbandi, Sara Darbandi, Ashok Agarwal, Ralf Henkle, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi
Context • People are increasingly exposed to low frequency (LF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), mainly from electricity distribution networks and electronic devices. Critics of this widespread exposure believe that it can have detrimental effects on the human body. On the other hand, many in vivo and in vitro studies have claimed that low frequency electromagnetic therapy can function as a form of alternative medicine and that therapists can treat disease by applying electromagnetic radiation or pulsed EMFs to the body or cells...
June 23, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646682/sensing-nadh-conformation-using-phasor-analysis-on-fluorescence-spectra
#2
Dylan Palo, Jeff Maltas, Laxmi Risal, Paul Urayama
Phasor analysis on fluorescence signals is a sensitive approach for analyzing multicomponent systems. Initially developed for time-resolved measurements, a spectral version has been used for the rapid identification of regions during the spectral imaging of biological systems. Here we show that quantitative information regarding conformation can be obtained from phasor analysis of fluorescence spectrum shape. Methanol denaturation of NADH and NADH binding to various dehydrogenase proteins are used as model reactions...
June 8, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646284/chd1l-expression-increases-tumor-progression-and-acts-as-a-predictive-biomarker-for-poor-prognosis-in-pancreatic-cancer
#3
Chuan Liu, Xiaowei Fu, Zhiwei Zhong, Jing Zhang, Haiyan Mou, Qiong Wu, Tianle Sheng, Bo Huang, Yeqing Zou
BACKGROUND: The chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA binding protein 1-like gene (CHD1L) plays a key role in controlling various cellular phenomena, including immune-mediated inflammation, transformation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and proliferation. METHODS: This study investigated the function and clinical significance of CHD1L protein expression in pancreatic cancer (PC). We analyzed CHD1L expression in surgical specimens from 112 PC patients. The correlation between the clinical characteristics and prognosis was also determined...
June 23, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646235/over-expression-of-long-non-coding-rna-panda-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-inhibiting-senescence-associated-inflammatory-factor-il8
#4
Chuanhui Peng, Wendi Hu, Xiaoyu Weng, Rongliang Tong, Shaobing Cheng, Chaofeng Ding, Heng Xiao, Zhen Lv, Haiyang Xie, Lin Zhou, Jian Wu, Shusen Zheng
It has been reported that long non-coding RNA PANDA was disregulated in varieties types of tumor, but its expression level and biological role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains contradictory. We detected PANDA expression in two independent cohorts (48 HCC patients following liver transplantation and 84 HCC patients following liver resection), and found that PANDA was down-regulated in HCC. Thereafter we explored its function in cancer biology by inversing its low expression. Surprisingly, overexpression of PANDA promoted HCC proliferation and carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646204/optogenetic-protein-clustering-through-fluorescent-protein-tagging-and-extension-of-cry2
#5
Hyerim Park, Na Yeon Kim, Sangkyu Lee, Nury Kim, Jihoon Kim, Won Do Heo
Protein homo-oligomerization is an important molecular mechanism in many biological processes. Therefore, the ability to control protein homo-oligomerization allows the manipulation and interrogation of numerous cellular events. To achieve this, cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) from Arabidopsis thaliana has been recently utilized for blue light-dependent spatiotemporal control of protein homo-oligomerization. However, limited knowledge on molecular characteristics of CRY2 obscures its widespread applications. Here, we identify important determinants for efficient cryptochrome 2 clustering and introduce a new CRY2 module, named ''CRY2clust'', to induce rapid and efficient homo-oligomerization of target proteins by employing diverse fluorescent proteins and an extremely short peptide...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646173/transmembrane-interactions-of-full-length-mammalian-bitopic-cytochrome-p450-cytochrome-b5-complex-in-lipid-bilayers-revealed-by-sensitivity-enhanced-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#6
Kazutoshi Yamamoto, Marc A Caporini, Sang-Choul Im, Lucy Waskell, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
The dynamic protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions of integral bitopic membrane proteins with a single membrane-spanning helix play a plethora of vital roles in the cellular processes associated with human health and diseases, including signaling and enzymatic catalysis. While an increasing number of high-resolution structural studies of membrane proteins have successfully manifested an in-depth understanding of their biological functions, intact membrane-bound bitopic protein-protein complexes pose tremendous challenges for structural studies by crystallography or solution NMR spectroscopy...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646146/optical-coherence-microscopy-as-a-novel-non-invasive-method-for-the-4d-live-imaging-of-early-mammalian-embryos
#7
Karol Karnowski, Anna Ajduk, Bartosz Wieloch, Szymon Tamborski, Krzysztof Krawiec, Maciej Wojtkowski, Maciej Szkulmowski
Imaging of living cells based on traditional fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy has delivered an enormous amount of information critical for understanding biological processes in single cells. However, the requirement for a high numerical aperture and fluorescent markers still limits researchers' ability to visualize the cellular architecture without causing short- and long-term photodamage. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is a promising alternative that circumvents the technical limitations of fluorescence imaging techniques and provides unique access to fundamental aspects of early embryonic development, without the requirement for sample pre-processing or labeling...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645931/a-potential-role-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-post-transplant-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Sandra Bodeau, Chloé Sauzay, Olivier Pluquet, Gabriel Choukroun, Antoine Galmiche
Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality in organ transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive regimen based on Cyclosporin A (CsA). Organ transplantation and chronic immunosuppression are typically associated with skin cancers (both squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Recent studies have shown that in addition to its immunosuppressive effects, accounted for by the inhibition of calcineurin and the modulation of the transcriptional programme of lymphocytes, CsA also directly stimulates the growth and aggressive behaviour of various cancer cells...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645641/homogenizing-bacterial-cell-factories-analysis-and-engineering-of-phenotypic-heterogeneity
#9
REVIEW
Dennis Binder, Thomas Drepper, Karl-Erich Jaeger, Frank Delvigne, Wolfgang Wiechert, Dietrich Kohlheyer, Alexander Grünberger
In natural habitats, microbes form multispecies communities that commonly face rapidly changing and highly competitive environments. Thus, phenotypic heterogeneity has evolved as an innate and important survival strategy to gain an overall fitness advantage over cohabiting competitors. However, in defined artificial environments such as monocultures in small- to large-scale bioreactors, cell-to-cell variations are presumed to cause reduced production yields as well as process instability. Hence, engineering microbial production toward phenotypic homogeneity is a highly promising approach for synthetic biology and bioprocess optimization...
June 20, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645637/antimicrobial-and-biological-activity-of-leachate-from-light-curable-pulp-capping-materials
#10
Maria Teresa Arias-Moliz, Cher Farrugia, Christie Y K Lung, Pierre Schembri Wismayer, Josette Camilleri
OBJECTIVES: Characterization of a number of pulp capping materials and assessment of the leachate for elemental composition, antimicrobial activity and cell proliferation and expression. METHODOLOGY: Three experimental light curable pulp-capping materials, Theracal and Biodentine were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The elemental composition of the leachate formed after 24hours was assessed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645570/quantitative-proteomics-analysis-by-itraq-revealed-underlying-changes-in-thermotolerance-of-arthrospira-platensis
#11
Rong Chang, Bingxin Lv, Bosheng Li
Growth temperature is a critical factor that affects cultivation of Arthrospira platensis which is a type of cyanobacterium widely known as Spirulina that has significant commercial value. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the thermotolerance of Spirulina, differential protein expression profiling was carried out using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis. This study only analyzed changes in thylakoids. Among the 2085 proteins quantified, 43 differentially expressed proteins were selected based on the fold change cutoff scores of ≥2 or ≤0...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645370/xenopus-laevis-as-model-system-to-study-dna-damage-response-and-replication-fork-stability
#12
Vincenzo Sannino, Federica Pezzimenti, Stefania Bertora, Vincenzo Costanzo
Although many players of the DNA damage response and DNA repair have been identified in several systems their biochemical role is still poorly understood. The use of the Xenopus laevis egg extract cell-free system allowed biochemical dissection of DNA replication and cell cycle events in a complex biological context. The possibility of manipulating the protein content by using protein depletion procedures makes egg extract a powerful system to study proteins whose inactivation results in cellular lethality...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645297/interleukin-1-receptor-type-1-is-overexpressed-in-neurons-but-not-in-glial-cells-within-the-rat-superficial-spinal-dorsal-horn-in-complete-freund-adjuvant-induced-inflammatory-pain
#13
Krisztina Holló, László Ducza, Zoltán Hegyi, Klaudia Dócs, Krisztina Hegedűs, Erzsébet Bakk, Ildikó Papp, Gréta Kis, Zoltán Mészár, Zsuzsanna Bardóczi, Miklós Antal
BACKGROUND: All known biological functions of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are mediated by type 1 interleukin receptor (IL-1R1). IL-1β-IL-1R1 signaling modulates various neuronal functions including spinal pain processing. Although the role of IL-1β in pain processing is generally accepted, there is a discussion in the literature whether IL-1β exerts its effect on spinal pain processing by activating neuronal or glial IL-1R1. To contribute to this debate, here we investigated the expression and cellular distribution of IL-1R1 in the superficial spinal dorsal horn in control animals and also in inflammatory pain...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645274/buccal-mucosa-micronuclei-counts-in-relation-to-exposure-to-low-dose-rate-radiation-from-the-chornobyl-nuclear-accident-and-other-medical-and-occupational-radiation-exposures
#14
D Bazyka, S C Finch, I M Ilienko, O Lyaskivska, I Dyagil, N Trotsiuk, N Gudzenko, V V Chumak, K M Walsh, J Wiemels, M P Little, L B Zablotska
BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation is a well-known carcinogen. Chromosome aberrations, and in particular micronuclei represent an early biological predictor of cancer risk. There are well-documented associations of micronuclei with ionizing radiation dose in some radiation-exposed groups, although not all. That associations are not seen in all radiation-exposed groups may be because cells with micronuclei will not generally pass through mitosis, so that radiation-induced micronuclei decay, generally within a few years after exposure...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645238/new-world-arenavirus-biology
#15
Nicolás Sarute, Susan R Ross
Hemorrhagic fevers caused by viruses were identified in the late 1950s in South America. These viruses have existed in their hosts, the New World rodents, for millions of years. Their emergence as infectious agents in humans coincided with changes in the environment and farming practices that caused explosions in their host rodent populations. Zoonosis into humans likely occurs because the pathogenic New World arenaviruses use human transferrin receptor 1 to enter cells. The mortality rate after infection with these viruses is high, but the mechanism by which disease is induced is still not clear...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645161/lncrna-tug1-influences-papillary-thyroid-cancer-cell-proliferation-migration-and-emt-formation-through-targeting-mir-145
#16
Hongwei Lei, Yan Gao, Xiaoying Xu
LncRNA TUG1, a tumor oncogene associated with various human cancers, has been reported to be involved in regulating various cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis and invasion through targeting multiple genes. However, its biological function in thyroid cancer cells has not been elucidated. The aim of this study is to measure TUG1 expression level and evaluate its function in thyroid cancer cells. LncRNA TUG1 expression levels in thyroid cancer tissues and three thyroid cancer cell lines (the ATC cell lines SW1736 and KAT18 and the FTC cell line FTC133) were assessed by qRT-PCR and compared with that of the human normal breast epithelial cell HGC-27...
June 22, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645112/tap63%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-np63%C3%AE-are-regulated-by-rbm38-via-mrna-stability-and-have-an-opposing-function-in-growth-suppression
#17
Wensheng Yan, Yanhong Zhang, Xinbin Chen
The p63 gene is expressed as TAp63 from the P1 promoter and as ΔNp63 from the P2 promoter. Through alternative splicing, five TA and five ΔN isoforms (α-ε) are expressed. Isoforms α-β and δ share an identical 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) whereas isoform γ has a unique 3'UTR. Recently, we found that RBM38 RNA-binding protein is a target of p63 and RBM38 in turn regulates p63α/β expression via mRNA stability. However, it is uncertain whether p63γ has a unique biological activity and whether p63γ is regulated by RBM38...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645083/graphene-oxide-nanosheets-induce-dna-damage-and-activate-the-base-excision-repair-ber-signaling-pathway-both-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#18
Chun-Jiao Lu, Xue-Feng Jiang, Muhammad Junaid, Yan-Bo Ma, Pan-Pan Jia, Hua-Bin Wang, De-Sheng Pei
Graphene oxide (GO) has widespread concerns in the fields of biological sciences and medical applications. Currently, studies have reported that excessive GO exposure can cause cellular DNA damage through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, DNA damage mediated response of the base excision repair (BER) pathway due to GO exposure is not elucidated yet. Therefore, we exposed HEK293T cells and zebrafish embryos to different concentrations of GO for 24 h, and transcriptional profiles of BER pathway genes, DNA damage, and cell viability were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644437/more-alive-than-dead-non-apoptotic-roles-for-caspases-in-neuronal-development-plasticity-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Amrita Mukherjee, Darren W Williams
Nervous systems are arguably the most fascinating and complex structures in the known universe. How they are built, changed by experience and then degenerate are some of the biggest questions in biology. Regressive phenomena, such as neuron pruning and programmed cell death, have a key role in the building and maintenance of the nervous systems. Both of these cellular mechanisms deploy the caspase family of protease enzymes. In this review, we highlight the non-apoptotic function of caspases during nervous system development, plasticity and disease, particularly focussing on their role in structural remodelling...
June 23, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644388/cellular-uptake-and-delivery-dependent-effects-of-tb-3-doped-hydroxyapatite-nanorods
#20
Yan Wei, Ying He, Xiyu Li, Haifeng Chen, Xuliang Deng
With the increasing interest in hydroxyapatite (HA) nanostructures for use in biomedicine, the systematic evaluation of their potential effects on biological systems is becoming critically important. In this work, we report the in vitro cellular uptake, in vivo tissue distributions and toxicity of Tb(3+)-doped HA (HA-Tb) after short-, intermediate-, and long-term exposure. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that HA-Tb was taken up by cells via vesicle endocytosis. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay, combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy, indicated excellent cell viability with no changes in cell morphology at the examined doses...
June 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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