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Grounded theory

Enid Schatz, Lucia Knight
South Africa has a Universal Test and Treat (UTT) policy in place to ensure that everyone tests for HIV and can access treatment if they test positive. The aim of this study is to document the pathways that older South Africans who are living with HIV take to access testing and treatment in this context. Despite the aging of the HIV epidemic in South Africa and clear evidence that testing older persons (over age 50) is necessary, very little is known about the circumstances under which older persons test for HIV or their motivations for doing so...
2018: PloS One
Oliver Sng, Steven L Neuberg, Michael E W Varnum, Douglas T Kenrick
Recent work has documented a wide range of important psychological differences across societies. Multiple explanations have been offered for why such differences exist, including historical philosophies, subsistence methods, social mobility, social class, climactic stresses, and religion. With the growing body of theory and data, there is an emerging need for an organizing framework. We propose here that a behavioral ecological perspective, particularly the idea of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, can provide an overarching framework for thinking about psychological variation across cultures and societies...
April 23, 2018: Psychological Review
Johannes Fiedler, Clas Persson, Mathias Boström, Stefan Yoshi Buhmann
Dispersion forces, especially van der Waals forces as interactions between neutral and polarisable particles act at small distances between two objects. Their theoretical origin lies in the electromagnetic interaction between induced dipole moments caused by the vacuum fluctuations of the ground-state electromagnetic field. The resulting theory well describes the experimental situation in the limit of the point dipole assumption. At smaller distances, where the finite size of the particles has to be taken into account, this description fails and has to be corrected by higher orders of the multipole expansion, such as quadrupole moments and so on...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Carolyn Lauckner
OBJECTIVES: To examine the experiences with, opinions of, and reactions to online cancer information of loved ones of people with cancer. SAMPLE & SETTING: 10 loved ones of people with cancer recruited from a pool of participants who completed a survey about cancer website experiences. METHODS & VARIABLES: Qualitative, semistructured interview questions concerned the perceived value of and reactions to online cancer information...
May 1, 2018: Oncology Nursing Forum
Y Fu, E McNichol, K Marczewski, S José Closs
Supporting patients in forming partnerships with health professionals is the key of effective self-management. This study aimed to explore the nature of patient-professional partnerships and its related factors that create facilitators and barriers to patients' self-management ability. A constructivist grounded theory approach was undertaken. Three main themes emerged: interaction and communication, integrated care, and service and system. A theoretical model was generated that posits effective communication, individualized integrated care, and high-quality service as key influences on the successful development of patient-professional partnerships and patients' ability to self-manage...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Julia Park, David E Cunningham
Introduction Practice-Based Small Group Learning (PBSGL) is a learning programme widely adopted by primary healthcare professions (general practitioners, general practice nurses and pharmacists) in Scotland and other countries in the UK. PBSGL groups recruit members and decide on meeting dates and venues. Study aims To determine how groups recruit new members and discern what are the important attributes of the new members. Method A grounded theory approach was used with purposive sampling to recruit PBSGL groups to the study...
April 23, 2018: Education for Primary Care
Ingrid Handlovsky, Vicky Bungay, John Oliffe, Joy Johnson
Gay men experience marked health disparities compared to heterosexual men, associated with profound discrimination. Resilience as a concept has received growing attention to increase understanding about how gay men promote and protect their health in the presence of adversity. Missing in this literature are the perspectives and experiences of gay men over 40 years. This investigation, drawing on grounded theory methods, examined how gay men over 40 years of age develop resilience over the course of their lives to promote and protect their health...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Elizabeth R E Burner, Michael D Menchine, Katrina Kubicek, Marisela Robles, Marjorie Kagawa Singer, Sanjay Arora
BACKGROUND: Diabetes disproportionately affects the US Latino population, due to socioeconomic pressures, genetics, reduced access to care and cultural practices. While efforts to improve self-care through interventions incorporating family are highly rated by Latinos, family can be both supportive and obstructive. To develop effective interventions, this role needs clarification. METHODS: We conducted group interviews in Spanish and English with 24 participants with diabetes from a mobile health diabetes self-care intervention...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Carlo Gatti, Giovanni Macetti, Russell J Boyd, Chérif F Matta
The source function (SF) decomposes the electron density at any point into contributions from all other points in the molecule, complex, or crystal. The SF "illuminates" those regions in a molecule that most contribute to the electron density at a point of reference. When this point of reference is the bond critical point (BCP), a commonly used surrogate of chemical bonding, then the SF analysis at an atomic resolution within the framework of Bader's Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules returns the contribution of each atom in the system to the electron density at that BCP...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Megan E Gonzalez, Juergen Eckert, Adelia J A Aquino, Bill Poirier
Progress in the hydrogen fuel field requires a clear understanding and characterization of how materials of interest interact with hydrogen. Due to the inherently quantum mechanical nature of hydrogen nuclei, any theoretical studies of these systems must be treated quantum dynamically. One class of material that has been examined in this context are dihydrogen complexes. Since their discovery by Kubas in 1984, many such complexes have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. This particular study examines the rotational dynamics of the dihydrogen ligand in the Fe(H)2 (H2 )(PEtPh2 )3 complex, allowing for full motion in both the rotational degrees of freedom and treating the quantum dynamics (QD) explicitly...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Rachel Parker
OBJECTIVES: Grounded theory analysis of secondary school staff and pupil perceptions about the barriers to preventative work for adolescent self-harm within the secondary school setting in Wales. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative and grounded theory. METHODS: Two secondary schools in Wales were purposefully sampled for variation. Four group interviews took place using qualitative research methods (Participatory Rapid Appraisal) with six school-based professionals and six students aged more than 16 years...
April 18, 2018: Public Health
M F Aarnoutse, S Brinkkemper, M de Mul, M Askari
In this study we aimed to assess the perceived effectiveness of clinical pathway management software for healthcare professionals. A case study on the clinical pathway management software program Check-It was performed in three departments at an academic medical center. Four months after the implementation of the software, interviews were held with healthcare professionals who work with the system. The interview questions were posed in a semi-structured interview format and the participant were asked about the perceived positive or negative effects of Check-It, and whether they thought the software is effective for them...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Geon Hyeong Lee, Young Sik Kim
Novel thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials with benzofuro[2,3-b]pyridine (BFPd) as an electron acceptor and carbazole derivatives [carbazole (Cz), 1,3,6,8-tetramethyl-9H-carbazole (tmCz), and 9'H-9,3':6',9''-tercarbazole (terCz)] as electron donors are designed, and their electronic and optical properties are investigated theoretically for a deep blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED). We obtain the energies of the first singlet (S1) and first triplet (T1) excited states of TADF materials by performing density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations on the ground state by using the dependence on charge transfer amounts for the optimal Hartree-Fock percentage in the exchange-correlation of TD-DFT...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
F N N Pansini, F A L de Souza, C T Campos
A detailed analysis of the electronic structure of the ground and first excited spin state of three diatomic molecules ( N2, BH and CO) under static applied electric field is performed at CCSD(T), DFT, MRCI and MRCI(Q) levels of theory. Our findings have revealed that by boosting the applied field one induces changes in the occupation numbers of molecular orbitals, giving rise to changes in the equilibrium geometry and in the HOMO-LUMO energy gap. Specifically, singlet to triplet spin transition can be induced by increasing the applied electric field beyond a critical value...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Andrew R Hatala, Kelley Bird-Naytowhow, Tamara Pearl, Jen Peterson, Sugandhi Del Canto, Eddie Rooke, Stryker Calvez, Ryan Meili, Michael Schwandt, Jason Mercredi, Patti Tait
Saskatoon has nearly half of the diagnoses of HIV in Saskatchewan, Canada, with an incidence rate among Indigenous populations within inner-city contexts that is 3 times higher than national rates. Previous research does not adequately explore the relations between HIV vulnerabilities within these contexts and the experiences of illness disclosure that are informed by identity transformations, experiences of stigma, and social support. From an intersectionality framework and a constructivist grounded theory approach, this research involved in-depth, semistructured interviews with 21 Indigenous people living with HIV and/or AIDS in Saskatoon, both male and female...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Stefanie S Sebok-Syer, Saad Chahine, Christopher J Watling, Mark Goldszmidt, Sayra Cristancho, Lorelei Lingard
INTRODUCTION: Our ability to assess independent trainee performance is a key element of competency-based medical education (CBME). In workplace-based clinical settings, however, the performance of a trainee can be deeply entangled with others on the team. This presents a fundamental challenge, given the need to assess and entrust trainees based on the evolution of their independent clinical performance. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to understand what faculty members and senior postgraduate trainees believe constitutes independent performance in a variety of clinical specialty contexts...
April 19, 2018: Medical Education
Nandini D P Sarkar, Joske Bunders-Aelen, Bart Criel
RATIONALE: Increasing research and reflections on quality of healthcare across the perinatal period slowly propels the global community to lobby for improved standards of quality perinatal healthcare, especially in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this qualitative study was to obtain a deeper understanding of how interpersonal dimensions of the quality of care relate to real-life experiences of perinatal care, in a resource-constrained local health system...
March 21, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Katherine R Sherrill, Elizabeth R Chrastil, Irem Aselcioglu, Michael E Hasselmo, Chantal E Stern
The ability to update position and orientation to reach a goal is crucial to spatial navigation and individuals vary considerably in this ability. The current structural MRI study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis to relate individual differences in human brain morphology to performance in an active navigation task that relied on updating position and orientation in a landmark-free environment. Goal-directed navigation took place from either a first person perspective, similar to a person walking through the landmark-free environment, or Survey perspective, a bird's eye view...
April 16, 2018: Neuroscience
Sandra VanderKaay, Lori Letts, Bonny Jung, Sandra E Moll
BACKGROUND: Ethical decision-making is an important aspect of reasoning in occupational therapy practice. However, the process of ethical decision-making within the broader context of reasoning is yet to be clearly explicated. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to advance a theoretical understanding of the process by which occupational therapists make ethical decisions in day-to-day practice. METHOD: A constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted, incorporating in-depth semi-structured interviews with 18 occupational therapists from a range of practice settings and years of experience...
April 20, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy
Anna Norlander, Susanne Iwarsson, Ann-Cathrin Jönsson, Arne Lindgren, Eva Månsson Lexell
OBJECTIVE: To explore conditions influencing long-term participation in social and leisure activities among people who have had a stroke. METHODS: This study had a qualitative design, using a grounded theory methodology. Data collection was based on in-depth interviews performed 15 years after a first-ever stroke with 10 persons recruited from a population-based stroke cohort in Sweden. The study also included four family members. FINDINGS: Over time, the stroke meant a changed but gradually normalised life situation...
April 19, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
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