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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103067/why-peer-crowds-matter-incorporating-youth-subcultures-and-values-in-health-education-campaigns
#1
Meghan Bridgid Moran, Matthew W Walker, Tesfa N Alexander, Jeffrey W Jordan, Dana E Wagner
Grounded on research showing that peer crowds vary in risk behavior, several recent health behavior interventions, including the US Food and Drug Administration's Fresh Empire campaign, have targeted high-risk peer crowds. We establish the scientific foundations for using this approach. We introduce peer crowd targeting as a strategy for culturally targeting health behavior interventions to youths. We use social identity and social norms theory to explicate the theoretical underpinnings of this approach. We describe Fresh Empire to demonstrate how peer crowd targeting functions in a campaign and critically evaluate the benefits and limitations of this approach...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101983/working-to-define-professionalism-in-pediatric-anesthesiology-a-qualitative-study-of-domains-of-the-expert-pediatric-anesthesiologist-as-valued-by-interdisciplinary-stakeholders
#2
Justin L Lockman, Alan Jay Schwartz, Peter F Cronholm
BACKGROUND: Unprofessional behavior is a significant problem throughout graduate medical education programs and medical centers. Some authors have suggested that professionalism curricula should be focused toward faculty, not trainees, to interrupt the modeling of unprofessionalism. Developing such curricula requires a needs assessment and is challenging given data indicating that the definition of professionalism varies based on medical specialty. Thus, a specialty-specific definition of professionalism is needed as a first step in any curriculum development...
February 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099465/impact-of-a-multi-strategy-community-intervention-to-reduce-maternal-and-child-health-inequalities-in-india-a-qualitative-study-in-haryana
#3
Madhu Gupta, Hans Bosma, Federica Angeli, Manmeet Kaur, Venkatesan Chakrapani, Monica Rana, Onno C P van Schayck
A multi-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), was implemented in India from 2005 to 2012. By improving the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, the aim was to reduce maternal and child health (MCH) inequalities. This study was planned to explore the perceptions and beliefs of stakeholders about extent of implementation and effectiveness of NRHM's health sector plans in improving MCH status and reducing inequalities. A total of 33 in-depth interviews (n = 33) with program managers, community representatives, mothers and 8 focus group discussions (n = 42) with health service providers were conducted from September to December 2013, in Haryana, post NRHM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098984/red-emitting-ruthenium-ii-and-iridium-iii-complexes-as-phosphorescent-probes-for-methylglyoxal-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Wenzhu Zhang, Feiyue Zhang, Yong-Lei Wang, Bo Song, Run Zhang, Jingli Yuan
Transition-metal complexes, ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) complexes in particular, with fascinating triplet emissions are rapidly emerging as important phosphorescent dyes for application in the sensing and imaging of biological makers in live cells and organisms. In this contribution, two red-emitting transition-metal complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(DA-phen)](PF6)2 and [Ir(ppy)2(DA-phen)](PF6) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, DA-phen = 4,5-diamino-1,10-phenanthroline, and ppy = 2-phenylpyridine), were designed and synthesized as phosphorescent probes for the highly sensitive and selective detection of methylglyoxal (MGO), an essential biomarker in the etiopathogenesis of several diseases...
January 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098456/ultrafast-electronic-relaxation-through-a-conical-intersection-nonadiabatic-dynamics-disentangled-through-an-oscillator-strength-based-diabatization-framework
#5
Gregory R Medders, Ethan C Alguire, Amber Jain, Joseph E Subotnik
We employ surface hopping trajectories to model the short-time dynamics of gas phase and partially solvated 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzonitrile (DMABN), a dual fluorescent molecule that is known to undergo a nonadiabatic transition through a conical intersection. To compare theory vs. time-resolved fluorescence measurements, we calculate the mixed quantum-classical density matrix and the ensemble averaged transition dipole moment. We introduce a diabatization scheme based on the oscillator strength to convert the TDDFT adiabatic states into diabatic states of La and Lb character...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097433/early-integration-of-palliative-supportive-cancer-care-healthcare-professionals-perspectives-on-the-support-needs-of-cancer-patients-and-their-caregivers-across-the-cancer-treatment-trajectory
#6
Amy Rohrmoser, Martina Preisler, Konrad Bär, Anne Letsch, Ute Goerling
PURPOSE: Delivering palliative/supportive cancer care (PSCC) early in the course of cancer care can enhance patients' and caregivers' quality of life, reduce anxiety and depression, and prolong patients' lives. However, their support needs are analyzed insufficiently from viewpoints other than their own. The goal of this study was to explore the perspectives of healthcare professionals on desirable standards of support for tumor patients and caregivers across the cancer treatment trajectory...
January 17, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095933/understanding-older-adults-resilience-during-the-brisbane-floods-social-capital-life-experience-and-optimism
#7
Lauren Brockie, Evonne Miller
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore how social capital or the impact of life and previous disaster experience facilitated resilience in older adults who experienced the 2011 and 2013 floods in Brisbane, Australia. METHODS: Data were drawn from in-depth interviews of 10 older adults from Brisbane who were evacuated in both the 2011 and 2013 floods. A combined qualitative approach drawing from the methods of constructivist grounded theory and narrative inquiry was applied and the data were analyzed by using (inductive) line-by-line and axial coding...
January 18, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095028/time-matters-framing-antismoking-messages-using-current-smokers-preexisting-perceptions-of-temporal-distance-to-smoking-related-health-risks
#8
Kyongseok Kim, Hyang-Sook Kim
This study examined the effects of temporal framing used in messages about the future likelihood of developing smoking-related diseases on intention to quit smoking. Based on construal level theory (CLT), a causal model delineating the relationships among four variables-perceived temporal distance, personal relevance, perceived susceptibility, and behavioral intention-was proposed. The model was validated by an online experiment with a sample of 222 current smokers, revealing the effects of perceived temporal distance on behavioral intention via personal relevance and perceived susceptibility...
January 17, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095000/the-challenge-of-abstract-concepts
#9
Anna M Borghi, Ferdinand Binkofski, Cristiano Castelfranchi, Felice Cimatti, Claudia Scorolli, Luca Tummolini
concepts ("freedom") differ from concrete ones ("cat"), as they do not have a bounded, identifiable, and clearly perceivable referent. The way in which abstract concepts are represented has recently become a topic of intense debate, especially because of the spread of the embodied approach to cognition. Within this framework concepts derive their meaning from the same perception, motor, and emotional systems that are involved in online interaction with the world. Most of the evidence in favor of this view, however, has been gathered with regard to concrete concepts...
January 16, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094988/multi-reference-perturbation-theory-with-cholesky-decomposition-for-the-density-matrix-renormalization-group
#10
Leon Freitag, Stefan Knecht, Celestino Angeli, Markus Reiher
We present a second-order N-electron valence state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) based on a density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) reference wave function that exploits a Cholesky decomposition of the two-electron repulsion integrals (CD-DMRG-NEVPT2). With a parameter-free multireference perturbation theory approach at hand, the latter allows us to efficiently describe static and dynamic correlation in large molecular systems. We demonstrate the applicability of CD-DMRG-NEVPT2 for spin-state energetics of spin-crossover complexes involving calculations with more than 1000 atomic basis functions...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094939/unimolecular-decomposition-mechanism-of-1-2-dioxetanedione-concerted-or-biradical-that-is-the-question
#11
Pooria Farahani, Wilhelm Josef Baader
Determination of the ground and excited state unimolecular decomposition mechanisms of 1,2-dioxetanedione gives a level of insight into bimolecular decomposition reactions of this kind for which some experimental results are reported. Although, a few studies have put some effort to describe a biradical mechanism of this decomposition, there is still no systematic study which proves an existence of a biradical character. In the present study, state-of-the-art high-level multistate multiconfigurational reference second-order perturbation theory calculations are performed to describe the reaction mechanism of 1,2-dioxetanedione, in detail...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094887/exploring-the-influence-of-aggregation-on-the-structure-and-fluorescent-properties-of-a-tetraphenylethylene-derivative-a-theoretical-study
#12
Ying-Chen Duan, Yong Wu, Jun-Ling Jin, Dong-Mei Gu, Yun Geng, Min Zhang, Zhongmin Su
The case that aggregation brings a huge influence on the structure and fluorescent property of 5-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)thiophene-2-carbaldehyde (P4TA) was detailedly investigated here by employing both quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics. Besides the isolated molecule, the aggregated molecule both in water and crystal state was studied by focusing on the comparison of photoelectronic properties, including the geometrical and electronic structures at ground and excited states, emission and internal conversation properties...
January 17, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093833/cracking-the-code-residents-interpretations-of-written-assessment-comments
#13
Shiphra Ginsburg, Cees Pm van der Vleuten, Kevin W Eva, Lorelei Lingard
CONTEXT: Interest is growing in the use of qualitative data for assessment. Written comments on residents' in-training evaluation reports (ITERs) can be reliably rank-ordered by faculty attendings, who are adept at interpreting these narratives. However, if residents do not interpret assessment comments in the same way, a valuable educational opportunity may be lost. OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to explore residents' interpretations of written assessment comments using mixed methods...
January 16, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092379/structure-fragmentation-patterns-and-magnetic-properties-of-small-nickel-oxide-clusters
#14
R H Aguilera-Del-Toro, F Aguilera-Granja, L C Balbás, A Vega
We report a comprehensive theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of neutral and charged nickel oxide clusters, NinOm(0/±) (n = 3-8 and m = 1-10), in the context of recent experiments of photodissociation and Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry. By means of density functional theory calculations in the generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation, we determined the putative ground states as well as the low-energy structural- and spin-isomers which were then used to explore the favorable fragmentation channels of the nickel oxide cationic clusters, and the resulting most abundant products, in good qualitative agreement with photodissociation measurements...
January 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092296/qualitative-analysis-of-parental-observations-on-quality-of-life-in-australian-children-with-down-syndrome
#15
Nada Murphy, Amy Epstein, Helen Leonard, Elise Davis, Dinah Reddihough, Andrew Whitehouse, Peter Jacoby, Jenny Bourke, Katrina Williams, Jenny Downs
OBJECTIVE: There are many challenges to health, functioning, and participation for children with Down syndrome; yet, the quality-of-life (QOL) domains important for this group have never been clearly articulated. This study investigated parental observations to identify QOL domains in children with Down syndrome and determined whether domains differed between children and adolescents. METHODS: The sample comprised 17 families whose child with Down syndrome was aged 6 to 18 years...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090438/exploring-mental-health-providers-interest-in-using-web-and-mobile-based-tools-in-their-practices
#16
Stephen M Schueller, Jason J Washburn, Matthew Price
A growing number of Internet sites and mobile applications are being developed intended for use in clinical practice. However, during the development process (e.g., creating features and determining use cases), the needs and interests of providers are often overlooked. We explored providers' interests using a mixed-methods approach incorporating both qualitative and quantitative research methods. A first study used an interview approach to identify the challenges providers faced, tools they used, and any use of computers and apps specifically...
May 2016: Internet Interventions: the Application of Information Technology in Mental and Behavioural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088863/detection-of-multi-configurational-states-of-hydrogen-passivated-silicene-nano-clusters
#17
Ricardo Pablo-Pedro, Hector Lopez-Rios, Serguei Fomine, Mildred S Dresselhaus
Utilizing density functional theory (DFT) and a complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) approach, we study the electronic properties of rectangle silicene nano clusters with hydrogen passivated edges denoted by H-SiNRs(nz,na), with nz and na representing the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. The results show that in the nz direction, the H-SiNRs prefer to be in a singlet (S=0) ground state for nz > na. However, a transition from a singlet to a triplet (S=1) ground state is revealed for na> nz...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086845/the-social-determinants-of-tuberculosis-treatment-adherence-in-a-remote-region-of-papua-new-guinea
#18
Tanya Diefenbach-Elstob, David Plummer, Robert Dowi, Sinba Wamagi, Bisato Gula, Keyanato Siwaeya, Daniel Pelowa, Peter Siba, Jeffrey Warner
BACKGROUND: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a diverse and culturally-rich country with severe infrastructural and health problems. Tuberculosis (TB) is widespread, and the number of cases with drug resistance is rising. Treatment adherence is known to be important for both effective treatment and limiting the emergence of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to construct a matrix of the factors that act as facilitators or barriers to TB treatment adherence in a remote region of PNG. METHODS: The study was based in the Balimo region of the Western Province...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086837/systemic-and-individual-factors-in-the-buprenorphine-treatment-seeking-process-a-qualitative-study
#19
Valerie M Hewell, Angel R Vasquez, Inna D Rivkin
BACKGROUND: Opioid use is a significant problem in Alaska. Medication-assisted treatment for opioid use, including buprenorphine, reduces withdrawal symptoms and the harm associated with opioid abuse. Understanding consumers' treatment-seeking process is important for addressing barriers to treatment, facilitating effective service utilization, and informing policy. METHODS: To understand treatment-seeking behavior, we examined the attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of those who would benefit from the medication-assisted treatment (MAT) buprenorphine...
January 11, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079906/4d-and-5d-bimetal-doped-tubular-silicon-clusters-si12m2-with-m-nb-ta-mo-and-w-a-bimetallic-configuration-model
#20
Hung Tan Pham, Devashis Majumdar, Jerzy Leszczynski, Minh Tho Nguyen
Geometries and electronic properties related to the ground state stabilities of several Si12M2 clusters (M: second-row (Nb and Mo) and third-row (Ta and W) transition metals, and their mixed bimetallic clusters M2: NbMo and TaW) were explored using density functional theory (DFT) computations. The computed results show that two different structural motifs emerge as the global energy minima of such clusters. They are basically singlet tubular structures in either a C2v prism ((1)A1) or a C6v antiprism ((1)A1) form...
January 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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