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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791608/hiv-1-genetic-diversity-and-resistance-to-antiretroviral-drugs-among-pregnant-women-in-ribeir%C3%A3-o-preto-sp-brazil-cross-sectional-study
#1
Ana Teresa Mancini Pimenta, Isadora Alonso Correa, Patricia Pereira Dos Santos Melli, Renata Abduch, Geraldo Duarte, José Carlos Couto-Fernandez, Silvana Maria Quintana
BACKGROUND: Increasing genetic diversity of HIV-1 and emergence of drug-resistant mutations may reduce the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis that are used to prevent mother-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and prevalence of drug-resistant mutations among HIV-infected pregnant women. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at an outpatient clinic for infectious diseases within gynecology and obstetrics...
March 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791506/shmt2-and-the-brcc36-brisc-deubiquitinase-regulate-hiv-1-tat-k63-ubiquitylation-and-destruction-by-autophagy
#2
Muyu Xu, James J Moresco, Max Chang, Amey Mukim, Davey Smith, Jolene K Diedrich, John R Yates, Katherine A Jones
HIV-1 Tat is a key regulator of viral transcription, however little is known about the mechanisms that control its turnover in T cells. Here we use a novel proteomics technique, called DiffPOP, to identify the molecular target of JIB-04, a small molecule compound that potently and selectively blocks HIV-1 Tat expression, transactivation, and virus replication in T cell lines. Mass-spectrometry analysis of whole-cell extracts from 2D10 Jurkat T cells revealed that JIB-04 targets Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2), a regulator of glycine biosynthesis and an adaptor for the BRCC36 K63Ub-specific deubiquitinase in the BRISC complex...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790923/missed-opportunities-to-prescribe-preexposure-prophylaxis-in-south-carolina-2013-2016
#3
Dawn K Smith, Man-Huei Chang, Wayne A Duffus, Stella Okoye, Sharon Weissman
Introduction: Expanding use of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in ways that address current racial/ethnic disparities is an important HIV prevention goal. We investigated missed opportunities to provide PrEP during healthcare visits occurring prior to HIV infection. Methods: This retrospective cohort study linked South Carolina HIV case surveillance data to 3 statewide healthcare databases. Characteristics of patients, health care visits and providers, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), and other diagnoses, were assessed for medical encounters occurring before an initial HIV diagnosis...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790240/understanding-mucosal-and-microbial-functionality-of-the-female-reproductive-tract-by-metaproteomics-implications-for-hiv-transmission
#4
Alicia R Berard, Michelle Perner, Sarah Mutch, Christina Farr Zuend, Peter McQueen, Adam D Burgener
The mucosal surface of the female genital tract contains physiological, immunological, and microbial components that collectively comprise a functioning "mucosal system" that is critical for reproductive health. Alterations or imbalances to any of these components can have significant consequences for susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV. In recent years the advent of advanced systems biology technologies, such as metaproteomics, has provided new toolsets to studying mucosal systems...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790075/pathways-from-resilient-coping-to-safer-sex-communication-among-african-caribbean-and-black-women-in-toronto-canada-results-from-a-cross-sectional-survey
#5
Carmen H Logie, Moses Okumu, Shannon Ryan, Mary Yehdego
PURPOSE: African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women in Canada are disproportionately impacted by HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Although there is reported suboptimal consistent condom use with ACB women, limited research has explored safer sex communication among this population. Coping frameworks highlight the role that resilient coping and condom use self-efficacy may play in facilitating safer sex communication. Structural perspectives stress the need to explore associations between HIV vulnerabilities and food insecurity...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789985/geographic-and-individual-associations-with-prep-stigma-results-from-the-radar-cohort-of-diverse-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women
#6
Brian Mustanski, Daniel T Ryan, Christina Hayford, Gregory Phillips, Michael E Newcomb, Justin D Smith
Increasing the uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV acquisition among at-risk populations, such as young men who have sex with men (YMSM), is of vital importance to slowing the HIV epidemic. Stigma and negative injunctive norms, such as the so called "Truvada Whore" phenomenon, hamper this effort. We examined the prevalence and types of PrEP stigma and injunctive norm beliefs among YMSM and transgender women and associated individual and geospatial factors. A newly created measure of PrEP Stigma and Positive Attitudes was administered to 620 participants in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study...
May 22, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789664/the-bet-bromodomain-inhibitor-apabetalone-induces-apoptosis-of-latent-hiv-1-reservoir-cells-following-viral-reactivation
#7
Xuan-Xuan Zhang, Jian Lin, Tai-Zhen Liang, Heng Duan, Xing-Hua Tan, Bao-Min Xi, Lin Li, Shu-Wen Liu
The persistence of latent HIV-1 reservoirs throughout combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is a major barrier on the path to achieving a cure for AIDS. It has been shown that bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitors could reactivate HIV-1 latency, but restrained from clinical application due to their toxicity and side effects. Thus, identifying a new type of BET inhibitor with high degrees of selectivity and safety is urgently needed. Apabetalone is a small-molecule selective BET inhibitor specific for second bromodomains, and has been evaluated in phase III clinical trials that enrolled patients with high-risk cardiovascular disorders, dyslipidemia, and low HDL cholesterol...
May 22, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789279/opportunities-for-enhanced-strategic-use-of-surveys-medical-records-and-program-data-for-hiv-surveillance-of-key-populations-scoping-review
#8
Sharon Stucker Weir, Stefan D Baral, Jessie K Edwards, Sabrina Zadrozny, James Hargreaves, Jinkou Zhao, Keith Sabin
BACKGROUND: Normative guidelines from the World Health Organization recommend tracking strategic information indicators among key populations. Monitoring progress in the global response to the HIV epidemic uses indicators put forward by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. These include the 90-90-90 targets that require a realignment of surveillance data, routinely collected program data, and medical record data, which historically have developed separately. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe current challenges for monitoring HIV-related strategic information indicators among key populations ((men who have sex with men [MSM], people in prisons and other closed settings, people who inject drugs, sex workers, and transgender people) and identify future opportunities to enhance the use of surveillance data, programmatic data, and medical record data to describe the HIV epidemic among key populations and measure the coverage of HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs...
May 22, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789257/hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-exploring-the-potential-for-expanding-the-role-of-pharmacists-in-public-health
#9
Olihe Okoro, Lisa Hillman
OBJECTIVES: The study objectives were to a) assess knowledge and experience; b) describe perceptions and attitudes; and c) identify training needs of community-based pharmacists regarding HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional survey study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The survey was administered online to pharmacists practicing in a community setting in the state of Minnesota. OUTCOME MEASURES: Measures included knowledge of and experience with HIV PrEP, perceptions and attitudes towards pharmacists' involvement, and HIV PrEP-specific training needs for pharmacists...
May 19, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788907/mycobacterium-avium-complex-vertebral-osteomyelitis-in-the-absence-of-hiv-infection-a-case-report-and-review
#10
Megan E Gray, Peter W Liu, Brian Wispelwey
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is an established microbiologic cause of pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis, and disseminated disease in cases of advanced immune suppression. However, MAC manifesting as vertebral osteomyelitis is less common, and is particularly rare in the absence of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Prompt diagnosis of MAC vertebral osteomyelitis is challenging, but necessary to prevent serious morbidity or mortality. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of MAC osteomyelitis of the lumbar spine in a 70-year-old woman on extended duration corticosteroid therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus who presented with progressive back pain...
May 22, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788538/hepatitis-e-virus-in-south-america-the-current-scenario
#11
María Belén Pisano, Maribel Martínez Wassaf, Santiago Mirazo, Anabella Fantilli, Juan Arbiza, José Debes, Viviana E Ré
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most frequent causes of acute viral hepatitis of enteric transmission worldwide. In South America the overall epidemiology has been little studied, and the burden of the disease remains largely unknown. A research of all scientific articles about HEV circulation in South America until November 2017 was carried out. Human seroprevalences of HEV varied according to the studied population: blood donors presented prevalence rates ranging from 1.8 to 9.8%, while reports from HIV-infected individuals, transplant recipients and patients on hemodialysis showed higher prevalence rates...
May 22, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788316/efficacy-of-vaginally-administered-gel-containing-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-against-repeated-rectal-shiv-exposures-in-macaques
#12
Charles W Dobard, Natalia Makarova, Rolieria West-Deadwyler, Andrew Taylor, Chuong Dinh, Amy Martin, Jonathan Lipscomb, James Mitchell, George Khalil, Gerardo Garcia-Lerma, Walid Heneine
Vaginal microbicides containing antiretrovirals (ARV) have shown to prevent vaginally acquired HIV but these products may not protect women who engage in anal sex. Intravaginal dosing with ARVs have shown to result in drug exposures in rectal tissues, thus raising the possibility of dual compartment protection. To test this concept, we investigated whether intravaginal dosing with emtricitabine (FTC)-tenofovir (TFV) gel, which fully protected macaques against repeated vaginal exposures to simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), protects against rectal SHIV exposures...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788039/frailty-neurocognitive-impairment-or-both-in-predicting-poor-health-outcomes-among-adults-living-with-hiv
#13
Kristine M Erlandson, Jeremiah Perez, Mona Abdo, Kevin Robertson, Ronald J Ellis, Susan L Koletar, Robert Kalayjian, Babafemi Taiwo, Frank J Palella, Katherine Tassiopoulos
Background: Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is strongly associated with frailty in people living with HIV (PLWH); the overlap of frailty and NCI, and the impact on health outcomes in PLWH is unknown. Methods: PLWH in a longitudinal, observational study of aging completed entry evaluations for frailty and NCI. Outcomes were falls (recurrent), increased limitations in independent activities of daily living, or mortality and were combined. Poisson regression models estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for ≥1 outcome over 2 years...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787767/influence-of-gag-and-rre-sequences-on-hiv-1-rna-packaging-signal-structure-and-function
#14
Siarhei Kharytonchyk, Joshua D Brown, Krista Stilger, Saif Yasin, Aishwarya S Iyer, John Collins, Michael F Summers, Alice Telesnitsky
The packaging signal (Ψ) and Rev. responsive element (RRE), enable unspliced HIV-1 RNAs' export from the nucleus and packaging into virions. For some retroviruses, engrafting Ψ onto a heterologous RNA is sufficient to direct encapsidation. In contrast, HIV-1 RNA packaging requires 5' leader Ψ elements plus poorly defined additional features. We previously defined minimal 5' leader sequences competitive with intact Ψ for HIV-1 packaging, and here examined the potential roles of additional downstream elements...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787622/mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-australia-and-other-high-income-countries-trends-in-perinatal-exposure-demography-and-uptake-of-prevention-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Kelly O'Donovan, Theophilus I Emeto
Virtual elimination of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global target. A review of the literature was conducted using medical databases and health department websites to examine the current trends related to perinatal HIV exposure and MTCT in Australia in comparison with other high-income countries (HICs). The review discusses the uptake of prevention strategies and barriers that impede MTCT prevention. The literature suggests an increase in the numbers of HIV-exposed deliveries, but a marked decline in the rates of MTCT within HICs...
May 22, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787596/survival-and-predictors-of-mortality-among-children-co-infected-with-tuberculosis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-at-university-of-gondar-comprehensive-specialized-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-a-retrospective-follow-up-study
#16
Kendalem Asmare Atalell, Nigusie Birhan Tebeje, Daniale Tekelia Ekubagewargies
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children globally. The aims of this study were to determine the mortality rate and to identify the predictors of mortality among TB/HIV co-infected children at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. METHOD: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted among TB/HIV co-infected children from February 2005 to March 2017. A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to estimate the median survival time...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787467/historical-and-current-trends-in-the-epidemiology-of-early-syphilis-in-san-francisco-1955-2016
#17
Trang Quyen Nguyen, Robert P Kohn, Rilene Chew Ng, Susan S Philip, Stephanie E Cohen
BACKGROUND: Seventeen years into a sustained epidemic, early syphilis (ES) rates in San Francisco (SF) are continuing to increase and the demographics of the affected population are changing. We provide a historical overview of ES in SF among men who have sex with men (MSM) and describe trends in the epidemiology and disease investigation outcomes. METHODS: We examined data from the SF Department of Public Health's patient-based registry of integrated STD surveillance, clinical, and field investigation data to describe demographic and behavioral characteristics of ES cases, as well as outcomes of syphilis partner services...
May 22, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786768/risk-prediction-score-for-hiv-infection-development-and-internal-validation-with-cross-sectional-data-from-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#18
Lu Yin, Yuejuan Zhao, Meridith Blevins Peratikos, Liang Song, Xiangjun Zhang, Ruolei Xin, Zheya Sun, Yunan Xu, Li Zhang, Yifei Hu, Chun Hao, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Sten H Vermund, Han-Zhu Qian
Receptive anal intercourse, multiple partners, condomless sex, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and drug/alcohol addiction are familiar factors that correlate with increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). To improve estimation to HIV acquisition, we created a composite score using questions from routine survey of 3588 MSM in Beijing, China. The HIV prevalence was 13.4%. A risk scoring tool using penalized maximum likelihood multivariable logistic regression modeling was developed, deploying backward step-down variable selection to obtain a reduced-form model...
May 21, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786136/temporal-trends-in-the-epidemiology-of-cervical-cancer-in-south-africa-1994-2012
#19
Gbenga Olorunfemi, Ntombizodwa Ndlovu, Gwinyai Masukume, Admire Chikandiwa, Pedro T Pisa, Elvira Singh
Cervical cancer (CC) is the leading cause of cancer death among female South Africans (SA). Improved access to reproductive health services following multi-ethnic democracy in 1994, HIV epidemic, and the initiation of CC population-based screening in early 2000's have influenced the epidemiology of CC in SA. We therefore evaluated the trends in CC age-standardized incidence (ASIR) (1994 - 2009) and mortality rates (ASMR) (2004 - 2012) using data from the South African National Cancer Registry and the Statistics South Africa, respectively...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785614/cascade-of-care-and-factors-associated-with-virological-suppression-among-hiv-positive-persons-linked-to-care-in-the-test-and-keep-in-care-tak-project
#20
Justyna D Kowalska, Magdalena Ankiersztejn-Bartczak, Leah Shepherd, Amanda Mocroft
INTRODUCTION: Early treatment remains the most effective HIV prevention strategy; poor linkage to care after HIV diagnosis may compromise this benefit. We sought to better understand patient characteristics and their association with virological suppression (VS) following cART initiation. METHODS: The TAK project collects pre-linkage to care and clinical data on patients diagnosed with HIV in voluntary testing facilities in central Poland. Data collected for persons diagnosed in 2010-2013 were linked with HIV clinic records...
May 21, 2018: Infection
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