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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913788/safety-assessment-of-achillea-millefolium-as-used-in-cosmetics
#1
Lillian C Becker, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
Cosmetic ingredients derived from Achillea millefolium function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, skin-conditioning agents-humectants, and fragrance ingredients. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed relevant animal and human data to determine their safety in cosmetics and raised concerns about cosmetics containing linalool, thujone, quercetin, hydroquinone, or α-peroxyachifolid. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each containing similar constituents of concern, formulators are advised to be aware of these components and to avoid reaching levels that may be hazardous to consumers...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913787/safety-assessment-of-polyquaternium-22-and-polyquarternium-39-as-used-in-cosmetics
#2
Wilbur Johnson, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
Polyquaternium-22 and polyquaternium-39 are polymers that function as antistatic agents, film formers, and hair fixatives in cosmetic products. These ingredients are being used at concentrations up to 2% (polyquaternium-22, in a rinse-off product) and up to 3% (polyquaternium-39, in rinse-off and leave-on products). The unreacted monomer content of these ingredients was considered low and of no toxicological concern. Limited data showed no skin irritation/sensitization. Although these ingredients were nongenotoxic in bacterial assays, mammalian genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity data were not available...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913786/safety-assessment-of-dialkyl-sulfosuccinate-salts-as-used-in-cosmetics
#3
Monice M Fiume, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 8 dialkyl sulfosuccinate salts for use in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating. The dialkyl sulfosuccinate salts primarily function as surfactants in cosmetics. The Panel reviewed the new and existing available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. The Panel found it appropriate to extrapolate the data on diethylhexyl sodium sulfosuccinate to assess the safety of the entire group because all of the diesters are of a similar alkyl chain length, all are symmetrically substituted, and all have similar functions in cosmetic formulations...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913785/safety-assessment-of-alumina-and-aluminum-hydroxide-as-used-in-cosmetics
#4
Lillian C Becker, Ivan Boyer, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
This is a safety assessment of alumina and aluminum hydroxide as used in cosmetics. Alumina functions as an abrasive, absorbent, anticaking agent, bulking agent, and opacifying agent. Aluminum hydroxide functions as a buffering agent, corrosion inhibitor, and pH adjuster. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) evaluated the safe use of alumina in several medical devices and aluminum hydroxide in over-the-counter drugs, which included a review of human and animal safety data. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel considered the FDA evaluations as part of the basis for determining the safety of these ingredients as used in cosmetics...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913772/safety-assessment-of-formic-acid-and-sodium-formate-as-used-in-cosmetics
#5
Wilbur Johnson, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
Formic acid functions as a fragrance ingredient, preservative, and pH adjuster in cosmetic products, whereas sodium formate functions as a preservative. Because of its acidic properties, formic acid is a dermal and ocular irritant. However, when used as a pH adjuster in cosmetic formulations, formic acid will be neutralized to yield formate salts, for example, sodium formate, thus minimizing safety concerns. Formic acid and sodium formate have been used at concentrations up to 0.2% and 0.34%, respectively, with hair care products accounting for the highest use concentrations of both ingredients...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913771/safety-assessment-of-methyl-glucose-polyethers-and-esters-as-used-in-cosmetics
#6
Wilbur Johnson, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of methyl glucose polyethers and esters which function in cosmetics as skin/hair-conditioning agents, surfactants, or viscosity increasing agents. The esters included in this assessment are mono-, di-, or tricarboxyester substituted methyl glucosides, and the polyethers are mixtures of various chain lengths. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, including the molecular weights, log Kows, and other properties in making its determination of safety on these ingredients...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912851/age-mimicry-a-perspective-on-the-young-old
#7
Thomas Küpper
This essay proposes drawing on Homi K. Bhabha's concept of colonial mimicry to theorize the young-old's imitation of midlife. Bhabha states: "colonial mimicry is the desire for a reformed, recognizable Other, as a subject of a difference that is almost the same, but not quite". On an abstract level, similarities can be found in what is expected of the young-old: the young-old are to orient themselves towards middle-age norms, yet only to a certain degree and only when respecting the allegedly natural differences between the ages of life...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912751/anti-aging-and-tyrosinase-inhibition-effects-of-cassia-fistula-flower-butanolic-extract
#8
Pornngarm Limtrakul, Supachai Yodkeeree, Pilaiporn Thippraphan, Wanisa Punfa, Jatupol Srisomboon
BACKGROUND: Natural products made from plant sources have been used in a variety of cosmetic applications as a source of nutrition and as a whitening agent. The flowers of Cassia fistula L, family Fabaceae, have been used as a traditional medicine for skin diseases and wound healing and have been reported to possess anti-oxidant properties. The anti-aging effect of C. fistula flower extract on human skin fibroblast was investigated. METHODS: The butanolic extraction of C...
December 3, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911983/fibrin-glue-versus-sutures-for-conjunctival-autografting-in-primary-pterygium-surgery
#9
REVIEW
Vito Romano, Mario Cruciani, Luigi Conti, Luigi Fontana
BACKGROUND: Pterygium, a growth of the conjunctiva over the cornea, is a progressive disease leading in advanced stages to visual impairment, restriction of ocular motility, chronic inflammation and cosmetic concerns. Surgical removal is the treatment of choice, but recurrence can be a problem. Currently the best surgical option in terms of recurrence is conjunctival autograft. To date the most common surgical methods of attaching conjunctival autografts to the sclera are through suturing or fibrin glue...
December 2, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911476/nd-yag-and-pulsed-dye-laser-therapy-in-infantile-hemangiomas-a-retrospective-analysis-of-271-treated-hemangiomas-in-149-children
#10
F Hartmann, A Lockmann, L-L Grönemeyer, H A Haenssle, M Zutt, H von Fintel, I Kühnle, M P Schön, K-M Thoms
BACKGROUND: Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are common benign tumors in infancy. Most IH resolve spontaneously, but some require treatment due to ulceration, functional impairment or cosmetic disfiguration. While systemic propranolol is effective in many cases, laser therapy may be a safe topical alternative. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of combined Nd:YAG/pulsed dye laser (PDL) or PDL alone for therapy of IH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 271 IH in 149 infants were treated with combined Nd:YAG/PDL or PDL alone...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911415/extraction-of-plant-based-capsules-for-microencapsulation-applications
#11
Michael G Potroz, Raghavendra C Mundargi, Jae Hyeon Park, Ee-Lin Tan, Nam-Joon Cho
Microcapsules derived from plant-based spores or pollen provide a robust platform for a diverse range of microencapsulation applications. Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) are obtained when spores or pollen are processed so as to remove the internal sporoplasmic contents. The resulting hollow microcapsules exhibit a high degree of micromeritic uniformity and retain intricate microstructural features related to the particular plant species. Herein, we demonstrate a streamlined process for the production of SECs from Lycopodium clavatum spores and for the loading of hydrophilic compounds into these SECs...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911109/confocal-microscopy-and-imaging-profilometry-a-new-tool-aimed-to-evaluate-aesthetic-procedures
#12
Gabriella Fabbrocini, Caterina Mazzella, Fabio Montagnaro, Maria Pia De Padova, Sandra Lorenzi, Aurora Tedeschi, Patrizia Forgione, Claudia Capasso, Luigi Sivero, Carla Velotti, Daniela Russo, Rosa Vitiello, Gennaro Ilardi
According to the American Academy of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons, more than 11 million cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures were performed by board-certified plastic surgeons, dermatologists and otolaryngologists in the United States, totaling more than 12 billion dollars. We performed a retrospective observational multi-centric study on patients treated with a non-animal origin cross-linked hyaluronic acid with different molecular weights for nasolabial folds, evaluating through a new imaging system, profilometric techniques with the confocal microscopy, the durability, the efficacy and the safety of this product...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911032/a-dermal-equivalent-engineered-with-tgf-%C3%AE-3-expressing-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-and-amniotic-membrane-cosmetic-healing-of-full-thickness-skin-wounds-in-rats
#13
Ali Samadikuchaksaraei, Ahmad Mehdipour, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar, Javad Verdi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Kamran As'adi, Fatemeh Amiri, Mozhgan Dehghan Harati, Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi, Nushin Karkuki Osguei
Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-β3) has been shown to decrease scar formation after scheduled topical applications to the cutaneous wounds. This study aimed to continuously deliver TGF-β3, during the early phase of wound healing, by engineering a dermal equivalent (DE) using TGF-β3 expressing bone marrow stromal cells (BM-SCs) and human dehydrated amniotic membrane (hDAM). To engineer a DE, rat BM-SCs were seeded on the hDAM and TGF-β3 was transiently transfected into the BM-SCs using a plasmid vector...
December 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910904/melanosome-transfer-to-keratinocyte-in-the-chicken-embryonic-skin-is-mediated-by-vesicle-release-associated-with-rho-regulated-membrane-blebbing
#14
Ryosuke Tadokoro, Hidetaka Murai, Ken-Ichiro Sakai, Takahiro Okui, Yasuhiro Yokota, Yoshiko Takahashi
During skin pigmentation in amniotes, melanin synthesized in the melanocyte is transferred to keratinocytes by a particle called the melanosome. Previous studies, mostly using dissociated cultured cells, have proposed several different models that explain how the melanosome transfer is achieved. Here, using a technique that labels the plasma membrane of melanocytes within a three-dimensional system that mimics natural tissues, we have visualized the plasma membrane of melanocytes with EGFP in chicken embryonic skin...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910752/submicron-emulsions-and-their-applications-in-oral-delivery
#15
Veenu Mundada, Mitali Patel, Krutika Sawant
A "submicron emulsion" is an isotropic mixture of drug, lipids, and surfactants, usually with hydrophilic cosolvents and with droplet diameters ranging from 10 to 500 nm. Submicron emulsions are of increasing interest in medicine due to their kinetic stability, high solubilizing capacity, and tiny globule size. Because of these properties, they have been applied in various fields, such as personal care, cosmetics, health care, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Submicron emulsions are by far the most advanced nanoparticulate systems for the systemic delivery of biologically active agents for controlled drug delivery and targeting...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909993/impact-of-culture-conditions-on-the-chlorophyll-content-of-microalgae-for-biotechnological-applications
#16
REVIEW
Veronica da Silva Ferreira, Celso Sant'Anna
Chlorophyll is a commercially important natural green pigment responsible for the absorption of light energy and its conversion into chemical energy via photosynthesis in plants and algae. This bioactive compound is widely used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Chlorophyll has been consumed for health benefits as a nutraceutical agent with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antimicrobial properties. Microalgae are photosynthesizing microorganisms which can be extracted for several high-value bioproducts in the biotechnology industry...
January 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909963/pathogenic-features-of-dysuria-in-young-women-with-secondary-amenorrhea-caused-by-body-weight-loss
#17
N V Shelkovnikova, A I Neimark, T S Taranina, A K Pichigina, O P Molodyh, E L Lushnikova
We examined 11 women aged 19-26 years (mean age 22.5±3.5 years) with secondary amenorrhea complaining frequent urination over 1.5 years and repeatedly, but unsuccessful treated for overactive bladder and chronic cystitis. The rare cause of sustained urination disorders in young female patients of reproductive age was established: development of secondary amenorrhea caused by weight loss ("cosmetic" amenorrhea) with subsequent estrogene deficit and urogenital atrophy. Morphological examination of the bladder mucosa, an important clue to the diagnosis, helps to identify the true cause of dysuria, urogenital atrophy of the bladder mucosa, in secondary ("cosmetic") amenorrhea, and determine future course of etiopathogenic treatment of sustained dysuria in young women...
December 2, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907207/optimized-jasmonic-acid-production-by-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-reveals-formation-of-valuable-plant-secondary-metabolites
#18
Felipe Eng, Sven Haroth, Kirstin Feussner, Dorothea Meldau, Dmitrij Rekhter, Till Ischebeck, Florian Brodhun, Ivo Feussner
Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906923/-out-of-the-frying-pan-but-not-into-the-fire-quantifying-commercial-cosmetic-tanning-services-in-new-zealand-to-inform-endgame-regulation
#19
Bronwen M McNoe, Anthony I Reeder
AIMS: In the context of possible regulation, to quantify and describe: (1) indoor tanning businesses in New Zealand; (2) sunbeds available for sale on Trade Me©. METHOD: In January 2016, we conducted a national audit of businesses potentially providing sunbed services (solariums, beauty-salons, hairdressers, gyms and fitness centres) to assess the availability and cost of indoor tanning services (sunbeds and spray tanning). In addition, Trade Me©, New Zealand's largest auction site for second-hand goods, was monitored for one year to determine whether ex-commercial sunbeds were being sold in the domestic market...
December 2, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906611/on-evaluation-of-reliability-repeatability-and-reproducibility-of-instrumental-evaluation-methods-and-measurement-systems
#20
Samir Salah, Shein-Chung Chow, Fuyu Song
Validation of instrumental evaluation methods or measurement systems plays an important role in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic research and development. In practice, it is suggested that validation should be done according to performance characteristics as described in the United States Pharmacopedia and National Formulary (USP/NF, 2000) for analytical methods validation. A validated method or measurement system is expected to achieve a certain degree of accuracy and reliability. However, it is a concern whether the test results obtained are repeatable (with similar test samples) and/or reproducible (under similar but slightly different experimental conditions)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
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