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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453319/leptin-signaling-mediates-obesity-associated-csc-enrichment-and-emt-in-preclinical-tnbc-models
#1
Laura W Bowers, Emily L Rossi, Shannon B McDonell, Steven S Doerstling, Subreen A Khatib, Claire G Lineberger, Jody E Albright, Xiaohu Tang, Linda A deGraffenried, Stephen D Hursting
Obesity is associated with poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Preclinical models of TNBC were used to test the hypothesis that increased leptin signaling drives obesity-associated TNBC development by promoting cancer stem cell (CSC) enrichment and/or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic mice, which develop spontaneous basal-like, triple-negative mammary tumors, received either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or a diet-induced obesity regimen (DIO, 60% kcal from fat) for up to 42 weeks (n=15/group)...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445008/blockade-of-host-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-enhances-graft-versus-tumor-effect-through-modulating-apcs
#2
Hemn Mohammadpour, Rachel O'Neil, Jingxin Qiu, Philip L McCarthy, Elizabeth A Repasky, Xuefang Cao
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is a potential curative therapy for hematologic malignancies. Host APCs are pivotal to the desired graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. Recent studies have shown that β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) signaling can have an important impact on immune cell function, including dendritic cells (DCs). In this article, we demonstrate that pretreatment of host mice with a β2AR blocker significantly increases the GVT effect of donor CD8 + T cells by decreasing tumor burden without increasing graft-versus-host disease...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435821/7-8-dihydroxycoumarin-exerts-antitumor-potential-on-dmba-induced-mammary-carcinogenesis-by-inhibiting-er%C3%AE-pr-egfr-and-igf1r-involvement-of-mapk1-2-jnk1-2-akt-pathway
#3
Abhishek Kumar, Priyashree Sunita, Shivesh Jha, Shakti P Pattanayak
Breast cancer (BC) is a persistent and impulsive metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in women, worldwide. 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) is a potent polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-based carcinogen producing mammary carcinomas in rats resembling the human hormone-dependent BC. 7,8-Dihydroxycoumarin (78DC) is a coumarin derivative that possesses diversified and favorable pharmacology profile to be considered in anticancer research against various malignancies. The present study was intended to investigate the antiproliferative and chemotherapeutic potentials of 78DC (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg BW) against DMBA (20 mg in olive oil)-induced mammary carcinoma Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375124/ido1-in-cancer-a-gemini-of-immune-checkpoints
#4
REVIEW
Lijie Zhai, Erik Ladomersky, Alicia Lenzen, Brenda Nguyen, Ricky Patel, Kristen L Lauing, Meijing Wu, Derek A Wainwright
Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a rate-limiting metabolic enzyme that converts the essential amino acid tryptophan (Trp) into downstream catabolites known as kynurenines. Coincidently, numerous studies have demonstrated that IDO1 is highly expressed in multiple types of human cancer. Preclinical studies have further introduced an interesting paradox: while single-agent treatment with IDO1 enzyme inhibitor has a negligible effect on decreasing the established cancer burden, approaches combining select therapies with IDO1 blockade tend to yield a synergistic benefit against tumor growth and/or animal subject survival...
January 29, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374092/mycn-amplified-neuroblastoma-maintains-an-aggressive-and-undifferentiated-phenotype-by-deregulation-of-estrogen-and-ngf-signaling
#5
Johanna Dzieran, Aida Rodriguez Garcia, Ulrica Kristina Westermark, Aine Brigette Henley, Elena Eyre Sánchez, Catarina Träger, Henrik Johan Johansson, Janne Lehtiö, Marie Arsenian-Henriksson
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a remarkably heterogenic childhood tumor of the sympathetic nervous system with clinical behavior ranging from spontaneous regression to poorly differentiated tumors and metastasis. MYCN is amplified in 20% of cases and correlates with an undifferentiated, aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors TrkA and p75NTR are involved in neuronal differentiation and survival. We have previously shown that MYCN, via miR-18a, targets ERα in NB cells...
January 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372477/loss-of-response-to-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-therapy-in-crohn-s-disease-is-not-associated-with-emergence-of-novel-inflammatory-pathways
#6
Jay Luther, Manish Gala, Suraj J Patel, Maneesh Dave, Nynke Borren, Ramnik J Xavier, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
BACKGROUND: While monoclonal antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) are effective in treating Crohn's disease (CD), approximately one-third of patients lose response. The mechanisms underlying this loss of response remain elusive. AIM: We sought to determine if novel biological pathways, including TNFα-independent inflammatory pathways, emerge in those with loss of response to anti-TNFα. METHODS: Using RNA microarray technology in 28 patients with CD, we examined the colonic gene expression differences between those with active inflammation in the setting of loss of response to TNFα-antagonist therapy ("loss of responders") compared to anti-TNFα naïve patients with active inflammation and those on anti-TNF therapy in disease remission...
January 25, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371936/lncrna-tug1-sponges-mir-145-to-promote-cancer-progression-and-regulate-glutamine-metabolism-via-sirt3-gdh-axis
#7
Bing Zeng, Huilin Ye, Jianming Chen, Di Cheng, Canfeng Cai, Guoxing Chen, Xiang Chen, Haiyang Xin, Chaoming Tang, Jun Zeng
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators in cancer progression. Deregulation of the lncRNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) predicts poor prognosis and is implicated in the development of several cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of TUG1 in the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). We found that TUG1 is upregulated in ICC samples, which correlates with poor prognosis and adverse clinical pathological characteristics. Knockdown of TUG1 inhibited the proliferation, motility, and invasiveness of cultured ICC cells, and decreased tumor burden in a xenograft mouse model...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358053/parameters-of-metabolic-quantification-in-clinical-practice-is-it-now-time-to-include-them-in-reports
#8
J Mucientes, L Calles, B Rodríguez, M Mitjavila
Qualitative techniques have traditionally been the standard for the diagnostic assessment with 18F-FDG PET studies. Since the introduction of the technique, quantitative parameters have been sought, more accurate and with better diagnostic precision, that may offer relevant information of the behavior, aggressiveness or prognosis of tumors. Nowadays, more and more studies with high quality evidence show the utility of other metabolic parameters different from the SUV maximum, which despite being widely used in clinical practice is controversial and many physicians still do not know its real meaning...
January 18, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337110/muc16-c-terminal-induced-secretion-of-tumor-derived-il-6-contributes-to-tumor-associated-treg-enrichment-in-pancreatic-cancer
#9
Kun Fan, Chao Yang, Zhiyao Fan, Qiuyi Huang, Yiyin Zhang, He Cheng, Kaizhou Jin, Yu Lu, Zhengshi Wang, Guopei Luo, Xianjun Yu, Chen Liu
Pancreatic cancer is the most lethal tumor. CA125 (gene symbol MUC16) is an important serum marker for pancreatic cancer diagnosis and treatment. High serum CA125 is related to metabolic tumor burden and poor prognosis. The circulating Treg subset is another independent prognostic factor for pancreatic cancer. Our unpublished data indicated that the circulating Treg proportion might be related to the serum CA125 level. However, the potential relationship and underlying mechanism of MUC16 and Treg in pancreatic cancer tissues remain unclear...
January 11, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309991/nir-responsive-cancer-cytomembrane-cloaked-carrier-free-nanosystems-for-highly-efficient-and-self-targeted-tumor-drug-delivery
#10
Ning Zhang, Minghui Li, Xuetan Sun, Huizhen Jia, Wenguang Liu
Cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles for cancer therapy have received a burgeoning interest over the past years. However, the low drug loading and intratumoral release efficiency, and lack of precise targeting remains a big challenge; in addition, foreign carriers used may pose an expected burden in the course of metabolism. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel NIR-responsive highly targeted carrier-free nanosystem by coating the exactly identical source of cracked cancer cell membranes (CCCMs) specifically derived from the homologous tumors onto the surface of the co-assembly nanoparticles of doxorubicin (DOX) and FDA-approved photothermal agent, indocyanine green (ICG)...
January 4, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307819/absence-of-rev3l-promotes-p53-regulated-cancer-cell-metabolism-in-cisplatin-treated-lung-carcinoma-cells
#11
Linghao Kong, Michael M Murata, Michelle A Digman
Lung cancer is one of the deadliest cancers in the world because of chemo-resistance to the commonly used cisplatin-based treatments. The use of low fidelity DNA polymerases in the translesional synthesis (TLS) DNA damage response pathway that repairs lesions caused by cisplatin also presents a mutational carcinogenic burden on cells that needs to be regulated by the tumor suppressor protein p53. However, there is much debate over the roles of the reversionless 3-like (REV3L) protein responsible for TLS and p53 in regulating cancer cell metabolism...
January 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302585/high-intensity-interval-training-increases-natural-killer-cell-number-and-function-in-obese-breast-cancer-challenged-mice-and-obese-women
#12
Nicole G Barra, Isabella Y Fan, Jenna B Gillen, Marianne Chew, Katarina Marcinko, Gregory R Steinberg, Martin J Gibala, Ali A Ashkar
High intensity interval training (HIIT) boosts natural killer (NK) cell number and activity in normal weight breast cancer patients; however, whether this occurs in obese individuals is not well established. The goal of this study was to determine whether HIIT effectively boosts NK cells as a therapeutic strategy against breast cancer in an obese mouse model and in overweight/obese women. Diet induced female C57Bl/6 obese mice were assigned to undergo HIIT for four weeks or remain sedentary. Female participants were subjected to a six weeks HIIT protocol...
December 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284778/alterations-of-antitumor-and-metabolic-responses-in-l5178y-r-lymphoma-bearing-mice-after-only-30-minute-daily-chronic-stress-exposure
#13
D Caballero-Hernandez, D Najera-Valderrabano, A Valadez-Lira, M Franco-Molina, R Gomez-Flores, P Tamez-Guerra, R Tamez-Guerra, C Rodríguez-Padilla
AIM: In stress research, reducing times of stress induction may contribute to improving the well-being of experimental animals, especially in cancer models, already under physiological distress. To support this idea, we evaluated the effects of a short-timed stress protocol on endocrine, metabolic and immune indicators in mice bearing the L5178Y-R lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 30-minute daily stress protocol was applied for 28 days to healthy and lymphoma-bearing BALB/c mice; body weight, plasma levels of corticosterone, norepinephrine, Th1/Th2 cytokines, insulin, and leptin, were measured...
December 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212306/oncogene-driven-metabolic-alterations-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Hye-Young Min, Ho-Young Lee
Cancer is the leading cause of human deaths worldwide. Understanding the biology underlying the evolution of cancer is important for reducing the economic and social burden of cancer. In addition to genetic aberrations, recent studies demonstrate metabolic rewiring, such as aerobic glycolysis, glutamine dependency, accumulation of intermediates of glycolysis, and upregulation of lipid and amino acid synthesis, in several types of cancer to support their high demands on nutrients for building blocks and energy production...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212105/-german-society-of-gastroenterology-digestive-and-metabolic-diseases-dgvs-position-statement-on-endoscopic-decompression-in-acute-ileus
#15
Martin Götz, Georg Braun, Ralf Jakobs, Helmut Messmann, Eduard F Stange, Markus M Lerch
In patients with ileus with dilated intestine in imaging studies, endoscopic decompression appears a feasible option. However, its use is often uncritical and without scientific evidence. Before considering endoscopic intervention, CT-imaging should differentiate between mechanical obstruction and paralytic ileus/intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Tumor diagnosis and localisation are essential because the latter determines the choice of the decompression procedure. Coecal dilatation of more than 12 cm indicates an increased risk of perforation...
December 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205334/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-canagliflozin-attenuates-liver-cancer-cell-growth-and-angiogenic-activity-by-inhibiting-glucose-uptake
#16
Kosuke Kaji, Norihisa Nishimura, Kenichiro Seki, Shinya Sato, Soichiro Saikawa, Keisuke Nakanishi, Masanori Furukawa, Hideto Kawaratani, Mitsuteru Kitade, Kei Moriya, Tadashi Namisaki, Hitoshi Yoshiji
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-Is) comprise a new class of antidiabetic agents that inhibit glucose reabsorption in the renal proximal tubules. Although a recent report demonstrated the potential ability of SGLT2-Is to attenuate cancer growth of SGLT2-expressing cancer cells, little is known about the effects of SGLT2-Is on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigate the anti-cancer properties of a SGLT2-I, canagliflozin, against human liver cancer cells. SGTL2 mRNA and protein expression were detected in Huh7 and HepG2 cells, although not in HLE as well as primary human hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201211/effects-of-freshwater-clam-extract-on-fracture-induced-inflammation-at-early-stage
#17
Kuang-Ting Yeh, Wen-Tien Wu, Yi-Maun Subeq, Chi-Chien Niu, Kuang-Wen Liao, Ing-Ho Chen, Ru-Ping Lee
The inflammatory process after traumatic fracture and soft tissue injury includes release of inflammatory cytokines and activated polymorph nuclear cells (PMN) that can cause subsequent affected limbs delayed healing and vital organ complications. Analgesics have good effect on relief of the symptom but may cause further burden for hepatic and renal metabolism. Freshwater clam extract (FCE) has been demonstrated to suppress the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α production after hemorrhagic shock, and decrease the level of liver injury marker in rats...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177265/metastatic-melanoma-response-to-combination-therapy-with-ipilimumab-and-vemurafenib
#18
Christos Sachpekidis, Jessica C Hassel, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss
Combination therapies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma are a matter of debate nowadays. We report on a stage IV metastatic melanoma patient with the BRAF V600 mutation and a large tumor burden initially treated with two cycles of ipilimumab. Due to dramatic disease progression, demonstrated on interim 18F-FDG PET/CT, vemurafenib was added in the patient's therapeutical scheme. After completion of the concurrent ipilimumab and vemurafenib administration, a third 18F-FDG PET/CT showed an impressive metabolic remission of the metastatic disease, reflecting the potential role of the modality in treatment response evaluation of melanoma patients receiving combination therapies...
November 27, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159262/tumor-lysis-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-ovarian-yolk-sac-tumor
#19
Katherine VanHise, Alexa Swailes, Michael Roche, Jordan M Newell, Joshua P Kesterson
•Tumor lysis syndrome is an oncologic emergency with profound metabolic derangements.•Germ cell tumors with large disease burden increase the risk for tumor lysis syndrome.•Herein we present a case of tumor lysis syndrome prior to initiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy for ovarian yolk sac tumor.
November 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157386/prognostic-value-of-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-pet-computed-tomography-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Gang Cheng, He Huang
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death with a poor prognosis. Numerous factors contribute to treatment outcome. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake reflects tumor metabolic activity and is an important prognosticator in patients with NSCLC. Volume-based FDG-PET parameters reflect the metabolic status of a malignancy more accurately than maximum standardized uptake value and thus are better prognostic markers in lung cancer. FDG-avid tumor burden parameters may help clinicians to predict treatment outcomes before and during therapy so that treatment can be adjusted to achieve the best possible outcomes while avoiding side effects...
January 2018: PET Clinics
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