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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212306/oncogene-driven-metabolic-alterations-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Hye-Young Min, Ho-Young Lee
Cancer is the leading cause of human deaths worldwide. Understanding the biology underlying the evolution of cancer is important for reducing the economic and social burden of cancer. In addition to genetic aberrations, recent studies demonstrate metabolic rewiring, such as aerobic glycolysis, glutamine dependency, accumulation of intermediates of glycolysis, and upregulation of lipid and amino acid synthesis, in several types of cancer to support their high demands on nutrients for building blocks and energy production...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212105/-german-society-of-gastroenterology-digestive-and-metabolic-diseases-dgvs-position-statement-on-endoscopic-decompression-in-acute-ileus
#2
Martin Götz, Georg Braun, Ralf Jakobs, Helmut Messmann, Eduard F Stange, Markus M Lerch
In patients with ileus with dilated intestine in imaging studies, endoscopic decompression appears a feasible option. However, its use is often uncritical and without scientific evidence. Before considering endoscopic intervention, CT-imaging should differentiate between mechanical obstruction and paralytic ileus/intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Tumor diagnosis and localisation are essential because the latter determines the choice of the decompression procedure. Coecal dilatation of more than 12 cm indicates an increased risk of perforation...
December 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205334/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-canagliflozin-attenuates-liver-cancer-cell-growth-and-angiogenic-activity-by-inhibiting-glucose-uptake
#3
Kosuke Kaji, Norihisa Nishimura, Kenichiro Seki, Shinya Sato, Soichiro Saikawa, Keisuke Nakanishi, Masanori Furukawa, Hideto Kawaratani, Mitsuteru Kitade, Kei Moriya, Tadashi Namisaki, Hitoshi Yoshiji
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-Is) comprise a new class of antidiabetic agents that inhibit glucose reabsorption in the renal proximal tubules. Although a recent report demonstrated the potential ability of SGLT2-Is to attenuate cancer growth of SGLT2-expressing cancer cells, little is known about the effects of SGLT2-Is on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigate the anti-cancer properties of a SGLT2-I, canagliflozin, against human liver cancer cells. SGTL2 mRNA and protein expression were detected in Huh7 and HepG2 cells, although not in HLE as well as primary human hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201211/effects-of-freshwater-clam-extract-on-fracture-induced-inflammation-at-early-stage
#4
Kuang-Ting Yeh, Wen-Tien Wu, Yi-Maun Subeq, Chi-Chien Niu, Kuang-Wen Liao, Ing-Ho Chen, Ru-Ping Lee
The inflammatory process after traumatic fracture and soft tissue injury includes release of inflammatory cytokines and activated polymorph nuclear cells (PMN) that can cause subsequent affected limbs delayed healing and vital organ complications. Analgesics have good effect on relief of the symptom but may cause further burden for hepatic and renal metabolism. Freshwater clam extract (FCE) has been demonstrated to suppress the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α production after hemorrhagic shock, and decrease the level of liver injury marker in rats...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177265/metastatic-melanoma-response-to-combination-therapy-with-ipilimumab-and-vemurafenib
#5
Christos Sachpekidis, Jessica C Hassel, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss
Combination therapies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma are a matter of debate nowadays. We report on a stage IV metastatic melanoma patient with the BRAF V600 mutation and a large tumor burden initially treated with two cycles of ipilimumab. Due to dramatic disease progression, demonstrated on interim 18F-FDG PET/CT, vemurafenib was added in the patient's therapeutical scheme. After completion of the concurrent ipilimumab and vemurafenib administration, a third 18F-FDG PET/CT showed an impressive metabolic remission of the metastatic disease, reflecting the potential role of the modality in treatment response evaluation of melanoma patients receiving combination therapies...
November 27, 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159262/tumor-lysis-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-ovarian-yolk-sac-tumor
#6
Katherine VanHise, Alexa Swailes, Michael Roche, Jordan M Newell, Joshua P Kesterson
•Tumor lysis syndrome is an oncologic emergency with profound metabolic derangements.•Germ cell tumors with large disease burden increase the risk for tumor lysis syndrome.•Herein we present a case of tumor lysis syndrome prior to initiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy for ovarian yolk sac tumor.
November 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157386/prognostic-value-of-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-pet-computed-tomography-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Gang Cheng, He Huang
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death with a poor prognosis. Numerous factors contribute to treatment outcome. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake reflects tumor metabolic activity and is an important prognosticator in patients with NSCLC. Volume-based FDG-PET parameters reflect the metabolic status of a malignancy more accurately than maximum standardized uptake value and thus are better prognostic markers in lung cancer. FDG-avid tumor burden parameters may help clinicians to predict treatment outcomes before and during therapy so that treatment can be adjusted to achieve the best possible outcomes while avoiding side effects...
January 2018: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141558/modulation-of-cancer-metabolism-by-phytochemicals-a-brief-overview
#8
Danina Muntean, Sturza Adrian, Ioana Pavel, Oana Duicu
Despite tremendous research efforts for effective therapies, cancer remains the plague of the century and its burden is expected to increase worldwide in the near future. Metabolic reprogramming is a firmly established hallmark of all cancers, regardless their cellular or tissue origin, being a prerequisite for both tumor growth and invasion. Functional dependence of tumors on glycolysis and glutaminolysis and the crucial contribution of mitochondria to the tumor bioenergetic versatility are well recognized features and established therapeutic targets...
November 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102513/translating-mechanism-based-strategies-to-break-the-obesity-cancer-link-a-narrative-review
#9
Laura A Smith, Ciara H O'Flanagan, Laura W Bowers, Emma H Allott, Stephen D Hursting
Prevalence of obesity, an established risk factor for many cancers, has increased dramatically over the past 50 years in the United States and across the globe. Relative to normoweight cancer patients, obese cancer patients often have poorer prognoses, resistance to chemotherapies, and are more likely to develop distant metastases. Recent progress on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer connection suggests that obesity exerts pleomorphic effects on pathways related to tumor development and progression and, thus, there are multiple opportunities for primary prevention and treatment of obesity-related cancers...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078383/quantitative-proteomics-identifies-steap4-as-a-critical-regulator-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-linking-inflammation-and-colon-cancer
#10
Xiang Xue, Bryce X Bredell, Erik R Anderson, Angelical Martin, Christopher Mays, Hiroko Nagao-Kitamoto, Sha Huang, Balázs Győrffy, Joel K Greenson, Karin Hardiman, Jason R Spence, Nobuhiko Kamada, Yatrik M Shah
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder and is a major risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Hypoxia is a feature of IBD and modulates cellular and mitochondrial metabolism. However, the role of hypoxic metabolism in IBD is unclear. Because mitochondrial dysfunction is an early hallmark of hypoxia and inflammation, an unbiased proteomics approach was used to assess the mitochondria in a mouse model of colitis. Through this analysis, we identified a ferrireductase: six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate 4 (STEAP4) was highly induced in mouse models of colitis and in IBD patients...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038339/re-classifying-patients-with-early-stage-hodgkin-lymphoma-based-on-functional-radiographic-markers-at-presentation
#11
Mani Akhtari, Sarah A Milgrom, Chelsea C Pinnix, Jay P Reddy, Wenli Dong, Grace L Smith, Osama Mawlawi, Zeinab Abou Yehia, Jillian Gunther, Eleanor M Osborne, Therese Y Andraos, Christine F Wogan, Eric Rohren, Naveen Garg, Hubert Chuang, Joseph D Khoury, Yasuhiro Oki, Michelle Fanale, Bouthaina S Dabaja
The presence of bulky disease in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), traditionally defined with a 1-dimensional measurement, can change a patient's risk grouping and thus the treatment approach. We hypothesized that 3-dimensional measurements of disease burden obtained from baseline 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scans, such as metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), would more accurately risk stratify patients. To test this hypothesis, we reviewed pretreatment PET-CT scans of patients with stage I-II HL treated at our institution between 2003-2013...
October 16, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942218/characterization-of-metabolic-diffusion-and-perfusion-properties-in-gbm-contrast-enhancing-versus-non-enhancing-tumor
#12
Adam Autry, Joanna J Phillips, Stojan Maleschlijski, Ritu Roy, Annette M Molinaro, Susan M Chang, Soonmee Cha, Janine M Lupo, Sarah J Nelson
BACKGROUND: Although the contrast-enhancing (CE) lesion on T1-weighted MR images is widely used as a surrogate for glioblastoma (GBM), there are also non-enhancing regions of infiltrative tumor within the T2-weighted lesion, which elude radiologic detection. Because non-enhancing GBM (Enh-) challenges clinical patient management as latent disease, this study sought to characterize ex vivo metabolic profiles from Enh- and CE GBM (Enh+) samples, alongside histological and in vivo MR parameters, to assist in defining criteria for estimating total tumor burden...
December 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892047/a-system-for-detecting-high-impact-low-frequency-mutations-in-primary-tumors-and-metastases
#13
M Anjanappa, Y Hao, E R Simpson, P Bhat-Nakshatri, J B Nelson, S A Tersey, R G Mirmira, A A Cohen-Gadol, M R Saadatzadeh, L Li, F Fang, K P Nephew, K D Miller, Y Liu, H Nakshatri
Tumor complexity and intratumor heterogeneity contribute to subclonal diversity. Despite advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics, detecting rare mutations in primary tumors and metastases contributing to subclonal diversity is a challenge for precision genomics. Here, in order to identify rare mutations, we adapted a recently described epithelial reprograming assay for short-term propagation of epithelial cells from primary and metastatic tumors. Using this approach, we expanded minor clones and obtained epithelial cell-specific DNA/RNA for quantitative NGS analysis...
September 11, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883041/normoxic-cells-remotely-regulate-the-acid-base-balance-of-cells-at-the-hypoxic-core-of-connexin-coupled-tumor-growths
#14
Tobias H Dovmark, Alzbeta Hulikova, Steven A Niederer, Richard D Vaughan-Jones, Pawel Swietach
ATP fuels the removal of metabolic end-products, including H(+) ions that profoundly modulate biological activities. Energetic resources in hypoxic tumor regions are constrained by low-yielding glycolysis, and any means of reducing the cost of acid extrusion, without compromising pH homeostasis, would therefore be advantageous for cancer cells. Some cancers express connexin channels that allow solute exchange between cells, and we propose that, via this route, normoxic cells supply hypoxic neighbors with acid-neutralizing HCO3(-) ions...
September 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860341/targeting-metabolism-and-survival-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-and-richter-syndrome-cells-by-a-novel-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitor
#15
Tiziana Vaisitti, Federica Gaudino, Samedy Ouk, Maria Moscvin, Nicoletta Vitale, Sara Serra, Francesca Arruga, Johannes L Zakrzewski, Hsiou-Chi Liou, John N Allan, Richard R Furman, Silvia Deaglio
IT-901 is a novel and selective NF-κB inhibitor with promising activity in pre-clinical models. Here we show that treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells (CLL) with IT-901 effectively interrupts NF-κB transcriptional activity. CLL cells exposed to the drug display elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, which damage mitochondria, limit oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, and activate intrinsic apoptosis. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling in stromal and myeloid cells, both tumor-supportive elements, fails to induce apoptosis, but impairs NF-κB-driven expression of molecules involved in cell-cell contacts and immune responses, essential elements in creating a pro-leukemic niche...
November 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858121/prognostic-value-of-metabolic-variables-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-surgically-resected-stage-i-lung-adenocarcinoma
#16
Xiao-Yi Wang, Yan-Feng Zhao, Ying Liu, Yi-Kun Yang, Ning Wu
The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic value of metabolic tumor burden measured by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with stage I lung adenocarcinoma.We reviewed 127 consecutive patients with pathologically proven stage I lung adenocarcinoma who underwent pretreatment [18F]FDG PET/CT scans in our hospital from 2005 June to 2012 June. The maximum, mean, and peak standardized uptake value (SUVmax, SUVmean, and SUVpeak), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and computed tomography volume (CTV) were measured...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774338/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-response-in-a-phase-1-2-trial-of-nab-paclitaxel-plus-gemcitabine-for-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#17
Ronald L Korn, Daniel D Von Hoff, Mitesh J Borad, Markus F Renschler, Desmond McGovern, R Curtis Bay, Ramesh K Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) is poised to become a useful imaging modality in staging and evaluating therapeutic responses in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC). This analysis from a phase 1/2 study examined the utility of early PET imaging in patients with mPC treated with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine. METHODS: Tumors were measured by [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (CT) in patients who received nab-paclitaxel 100 (n = 13), 125 (n = 38), or 150 (n = 1) mg/m(2) plus gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle...
August 3, 2017: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748213/metabolic-reprogramming-underlies-metastatic-potential-in-an-obesity-responsive-murine-model-of-metastatic-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#18
Ciara H O'Flanagan, Emily L Rossi, Shannon B McDonell, Xuewen Chen, Yi-Hsuan Tsai, Joel S Parker, Jerry Usary, Charles M Perou, Stephen D Hursting
The vast majority of cancer-related deaths are due to metastatic disease, whereby primary tumor cells disseminate and colonize distal sites within the body. Triple negative breast cancer typically displays aberrant Wnt signaling, lacks effective targeted therapies, and compared with other breast cancer subtypes, is more likely to recur and metastasize. We developed a Wnt-driven lung metastasis model of triple negative breast cancer (metM-Wnt(lung)) through serial passaging of our previously described, nonmetastatic, claudin-low M-Wnt cell line...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716817/pi3k%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-notch1-cross-regulate-pathways-that-define-the-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-disease-signature
#19
Evgeni Efimenko, Utpal P Davé, Irina V Lebedeva, Yao Shen, Maria J Sanchez-Quintero, Daniel Diolaiti, Andrew Kung, Brian J Lannutti, Jianchung Chen, Ronald Realubit, Zoya Niatsetskaya, Vadim Ten, Charles Karan, Xi Chen, Andrea Califano, Thomas G Diacovo
PI3K/AKT and NOTCH1 signaling pathways are frequently dysregulated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL). Although we have shown that the combined activities of the class I PI3K isoforms p110γ and p110δ play a major role in the development and progression of PTEN-null T-ALL, it has yet to be determined whether their contribution to leukemogenic programing is unique from that associated with NOTCH1 activation. Using an Lmo2-driven mouse model of T-ALL in which both the PI3K/AKT and NOTCH1 pathways are aberrantly upregulated, we now demonstrate that the combined activities of PI3Kγ/δ have both overlapping and distinct roles from NOTCH1 in generating T-ALL disease signature and in promoting tumor cell growth...
October 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713364/immunomodulatory-activities-of-a-fungal-protein-extracted-from-hericium-erinaceus-through-regulating-the-gut-microbiota
#20
Chen Diling, Zheng Chaoqun, Yang Jian, Li Jian, Su Jiyan, Xie Yizhen, Lai Guoxiao
A single-band protein (HEP3) was isolated from Hericium erinaceus using a chemical separation combined with pharmacodynamic evaluation methods. This protein exhibited immunomodulatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages by decreasing the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, and downregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor-κB p65. Further researches revealed that HEP3 could improve the immune system via regulating the composition and metabolism of gut microbiota to activate the proliferation and differentiation of T cells, stimulate the intestinal antigen-presenting cells in high-dose cyclophosphamide-induced immunotoxicity in mice, and play a prebiotic role in the case of excessive antibiotics in inflammatory bowel disease model mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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