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Chromatin structure regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819127/multiple-e3s-promote-the-degradation-of-histone-h3-variant-cse4
#1
Haili Cheng, Xin Bao, Xin Gan, Shiwen Luo, Hai Rao
The histone H3-like protein Cse4/CENP-A acts as a key molecular marker that differentiates the special centromeric chromatin structures from bulk nucleosomes. As altered Cse4/CENP-A activity leads to genome instability, it is pivotal to understand the mechanism underlying Cse4 regulation. Here, we demonstrate that four ubiquitin ligases (i.e., Ubr1, Slx5, Psh1, and Rcy1) work in parallel to promote Cse4 turnover in yeast. Interestingly, Cse4 overexpression leads to cellular toxicity and cell cycle delay in yeast cells lacking PSH1, but not in cells lacking UBR1, suggesting different roles of these two degradation pathways...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819009/the-aaa-atpase-p97-a-cellular-multitool
#2
REVIEW
Lasse Stach, Paul S Freemont
The AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) ATPase p97 is essential to a wide range of cellular functions, including endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, membrane fusion, NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) activation and chromatin-associated processes, which are regulated by ubiquitination. p97 acts downstream from ubiquitin signaling events and utilizes the energy from ATP hydrolysis to extract its substrate proteins from cellular structures or multiprotein complexes...
August 17, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816576/a-demethylation-deficient-isoform-of-the-lysine-demethylase-kdm2a-interacts-with-pericentromeric-heterochromatin-in-an-hp1a-dependent-manner
#3
Dijana Lađinović, Jitka Novotná, Soňa Jakšová, Ivan Raška, Tomáš Vacík
Histone modifications have a profound impact on the chromatin structure and gene expression and their correct establishment and recognition is essential for correct cell functioning. Malfunction of histone modifying proteins is associated with developmental defects and diseases and detailed characterization of these proteins is therefore very important. The lysine specific demethylase KDM2A is a CpG island binding protein that has been studied predominantly for its ability to regulate CpG island-associated gene promoters by demethylating their H3K36me2...
August 17, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816066/stressing-the-epi-genome-dealing-with-ros-in-cancer
#4
Akshay V Bhat, Shainan Hora, Ananya Pal, Sudhakar Jha, Reshma Taneja
SIGNIFICANCE: Growing evidence indicates cross-talk between Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several key epigenetic processes like DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs in normal physiology and human pathologies including cancer. This review focuses on how ROS-induced oxidative stress, metabolic intermediates and epigenetic processes influence each other in various cancers. Recent Advances: ROS alters chromatin structure and metabolism which impact the epigenetic landscape in cancer cells...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815537/from-heterochromatin-to-long-noncoding-rnas-in-drosophila-expanding-the-arena-of-gene-function-and-regulation
#5
Subhash C Lakhotia
Recent years have witnessed a remarkable interest in exploring the significance of pervasive noncoding transcripts in diverse eukaryotes. Classical cytogenetic studies using the Drosophila model system unraveled the perplexing attributes and "functions" of the "gene"-poor heterochromatin. Recent molecular studies in the fly model are likewise revealing the very diverse and significant roles played by long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in development, gene regulation, chromatin organization, cell and nuclear architecture, etc...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814964/milk-disrupts-p53-and-dnmt1-the-guardians-of-the-genome-implications-for-acne-vulgaris-and-prostate-cancer
#6
Bodo C Melnik
There is accumulating evidence that milk shapes the postnatal metabolic environment of the newborn infant. Based on translational research, this perspective article provides a novel mechanistic link between milk intake and milk miRNA-regulated gene expression of the transcription factor p53 and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), two guardians of the human genome, that control transcriptional activity, cell survival, and apoptosis. Major miRNAs of milk, especially miRNA-125b, directly target TP53 and complex p53-dependent gene regulatory networks...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811345/inhibitors-of-the-histone-methyltransferases-ezh2-1-induce-a-potent-antiviral-state-and-suppress-infection-by-diverse-viral-pathogens
#7
Jesse H Arbuckle, Paul J Gardina, David N Gordon, Heather D Hickman, Jonathan W Yewdell, Theodore C Pierson, Timothy G Myers, Thomas M Kristie
Epigenetic regulation is based on a network of complexes that modulate the chromatin character and structure of the genome to impact gene expression, cell fate, and development. Thus, epigenetic modulators represent novel therapeutic targets used to treat a range of diseases, including malignancies. Infectious pathogens such as herpesviruses are also regulated by cellular epigenetic machinery, and epigenetic therapeutics represent a novel approach used to control infection, persistence, and the resulting recurrent disease...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809825/analysis-of-histone-antibody-specificity-with-peptide-microarrays
#8
Evan M Cornett, Bradley M Dickson, Scott B Rothbart
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone proteins are widely studied for their roles in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression. The mass production and distribution of antibodies specific to histone PTMs has greatly facilitated research on these marks. As histone PTM antibodies are key reagents for many chromatin biochemistry applications, rigorous analysis of antibody specificity is necessary for accurate data interpretation and continued progress in the field. This protocol describes an integrated pipeline for the design, fabrication and use of peptide microarrays for profiling the specificity of histone antibodies...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808261/atomic-force-microscopy-micro-rheology-reveals-large-structural-inhomogeneities-in-single-cell-nuclei
#9
Michael Lherbette, Ália Dos Santos, Yukti Hari-Gupta, Natalia Fili, Christopher P Toseland, Iwan A T Schaap
During growth, differentiation and migration of cells, the nucleus changes size and shape, while encountering forces generated by the cell itself and its environment. Although there is increasing evidence that such mechanical signals are employed to control gene expression, it remains unclear how mechanical forces are transduced through the nucleus. To this end, we have measured the compliance of nuclei by applying oscillatory strains between 1 and 700 Hz to individual nuclei of multiple mammalian cell-lines that were compressed between two plates...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808057/a-kidney-specific-genetic-control-module-in-mice-governs-endocrine-regulation-of-the-cytochrome-p450-gene-cyp27b1-essential-for-vitamin-d3-activation
#10
Mark B Meyer, Nancy A Benkusky, Martin Kaufmann, Seong Min Lee, Melda Onal, Glenville Jones, J Wesley Pike
The vitamin D endocrine system regulates mineral homeostasis through its activities in the intestine, kidney, and bone. Terminal activation of vitamin D3 to its hormonal form, 1,25(OH)2D3, occurs in the kidney via the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP27B1. Despite its importance in vitamin D metabolism, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the gene for this enzyme, Cyp27b1, are unknown. Here, we identified a kidney-specific control module governed by a renal cell-specific chromatin structure located distal to Cyp27b1 that mediates unique basal and parathyroid hormone (PTH)-, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-, and 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated regulation of Cyp27b1 expression...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807899/pitx1-directly-modulates-the-core-limb-development-program-to-implement-hindlimb-identity
#11
Stephen Nemec, Maëva Luxey, Deepak Jain, Aurélie Huang Sung, Tomi Pastinen, Jacques Drouin
Forelimbs (FL) and hindlimbs (HL) develop complex musculoskeletal structures that rely on the deployment of a conserved developmental program. Pitx1, a transcription factor gene with expression restricted to HL and absent from FL, plays an important role in generating HL features. The genomic mechanisms by which Pitx1 effects HL identity remain poorly understood, however. Here, we use expression profiling and analysis of direct Pitx1 targets to characterize the HL- and FL-restricted genetic programs and situate the Pitx1-dependent gene network within the context of limb-specific gene regulation...
August 14, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806396/inhibiting-myc-binding-to-the-e-box-dna-motif-by-me47-decreases-tumour-xenograft-growth
#12
L C Lustig, D Dingar, W B Tu, C Lourenco, M Kalkat, I Inamoto, R Ponzielli, W C W Chan, J A Shin, L Z Penn
Developing therapeutics to effectively inhibit the MYC oncoprotein would mark a key advance towards cancer patient care as MYC is deregulated in over 50% of human cancers. MYC deregulation is correlated with aggressive disease and poor patient outcome. Despite strong evidence in mouse models that inhibiting MYC would significantly impact tumour cell growth and patient survival, traditional approaches have not yet yielded the urgently needed therapeutic agents that directly target MYC. MYC functions through its interaction with MAX to regulate gene transcription by binding to E-box DNA response elements of MYC target genes...
August 14, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805829/lineage-specific-dynamic-and-pre-established-enhancer-promoter-contacts-cooperate-in-terminal-differentiation
#13
Adam J Rubin, Brook C Barajas, Mayra Furlan-Magaril, Vanessa Lopez-Pajares, Maxwell R Mumbach, Imani Howard, Daniel S Kim, Lisa D Boxer, Jonathan Cairns, Mikhail Spivakov, Steven W Wingett, Minyi Shi, Zhixin Zhao, William J Greenleaf, Anshul Kundaje, Michael Snyder, Howard Y Chang, Peter Fraser, Paul A Khavari
Chromosome conformation is an important feature of metazoan gene regulation; however, enhancer-promoter contact remodeling during cellular differentiation remains poorly understood. To address this, genome-wide promoter capture Hi-C (CHi-C) was performed during epidermal differentiation. Two classes of enhancer-promoter contacts associated with differentiation-induced genes were identified. The first class ('gained') increased in contact strength during differentiation in concert with enhancer acquisition of the H3K27ac activation mark...
August 14, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799793/towards-quantitative-analysis-of-gene-regulation-by-enhancers
#14
Ekaterina V Nizovtseva, Stefjord Todolli, Wilma K Olson, Vasily M Studitsky
Enhancers are regulatory DNA sequences that can activate transcription over large distances. Recent studies have revealed the widespread role of distant activation in eukaryotic gene regulation and in the development of various human diseases, including cancer. Here we review recent progress in the field, focusing on new experimental and computational approaches that quantify the role of chromatin structure and dynamics during enhancer-promoter interactions in vitro and in vivo.
August 11, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798133/structure-of-histone-based-chromatin-in-archaea
#15
Francesca Mattiroli, Sudipta Bhattacharyya, Pamela N Dyer, Alison E White, Kathleen Sandman, Brett W Burkhart, Kyle R Byrne, Thomas Lee, Natalie G Ahn, Thomas J Santangelo, John N Reeve, Karolin Luger
Small basic proteins present in most Archaea share a common ancestor with the eukaryotic core histones. We report the crystal structure of an archaeal histone-DNA complex. DNA wraps around an extended polymer, formed by archaeal histone homodimers, in a quasi-continuous superhelix with the same geometry as DNA in the eukaryotic nucleosome. Substitutions of a conserved glycine at the interface of adjacent protein layers destabilize archaeal chromatin, reduce growth rate, and impair transcription regulation, confirming the biological importance of the polymeric structure...
August 11, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796949/mecp2-and-ctcf-enhancing-the-cross-talk-of-silencers
#16
Juan Ausio, Philippe T Georgel
This paper provides a brief introductory review of the most recent advances in our knowledge about structural and functional aspects of two transcriptional regulators: the methyl-CpG protein binding 2 (MeCP2), a protein whose mutated forms are involved in Rett syndrome and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a constitutive transcriptional insulator. This is followed by a description of the post-translational modifications (PTMs) affecting these two proteins and an analysis of their known interacting partners. A special emphasis is placed on the recent studies connecting these two proteins focusing on the still poorly understood potential structural and functional interactions between the two of them on the chromatin substrate...
August 10, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794351/unexpected-roles-of-a-shugoshin-protein-at-subtelomeres
#17
Junko Kanoh
A chromosome is composed of structurally and functionally distinct domains. Telomeres, which are located at the ends of linear chromosomes, play crucial roles in genome stability. Although substantial knowledge of telomeres has been accumulated, the regulation and function of subtelomeres, which are the domains adjacent to telomeres, remain largely unknown. In this review, I describe recent discoveries about the multiple roles of a shugoshin family protein, Sgo2, which is localized at centromeres in mitosis and contributes to precise chromosome segregation, in defining chromatin structure and functions of the subtelomeres in fission yeast...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790204/bacterial-chromatin-structural-proteins-regulate-the-bimodal-expression-of-the-locus-of-enterocyte-effacement-lee-pathogenicity-island-in-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#18
Hervé Leh, Ahmad Khodr, Marie-Christine Bouger, Bianca Sclavi, Sylvie Rimsky, Stéphanie Bury-Moné
In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) encodes a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) essential for pathogenesis. This pathogenicity island comprises five major operons (LEE1 to LEE5), with the LEE5 operon encoding T3SS effectors involved in the intimate adherence of bacteria to enterocytes. The first operon, LEE1, encodes Ler (LEE-encoded regulator), an H-NS (nucleoid structuring protein) paralog that alleviates the LEE H-NS silencing. We observed that the LEE5 and LEE1 promoters present a bimodal expression pattern, depending on environmental stimuli...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782836/histone-deacetylase-3-deletion-in-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells-hinders-long-bone-development
#19
Marina Feigenson, Lomeli Carpio Shull, Earnest L Taylor, Emily T Camilleri, Scott M Reister, Andre J van Wijnen, Elizabeth W Bradley, Jennifer J Westendorf
Long bone formation is a complex process that requires precise transcriptional control of gene expression programs in mesenchymal progenitor cells. Histone deacetylases (Hdacs) coordinate chromatin structure and gene expression by enzymatically removing acetyl groups from histones and other proteins. Hdac inhibitors are used clinically to manage mood disorders, cancers and other conditions, but are teratogenic to the developing skeleton and increase fracture risk in adults. In this study, the functions of Hdac3, one of the enzymes blocked by current Hdac inhibitor therapies, in skeletal mesenchymal progenitor cells were determined...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781144/regulation-of-repair-pathway-choice-at-two-ended-dna-double-strand-breaks
#20
REVIEW
Atsushi Shibata
A DNA double-strand break (DSB) is considered to be a critical DNA lesion because its misrepair can cause severe mutations, such as deletions or chromosomal translocations. For the precise repair of DSBs, the repair pathway that is optimal for the particular circumstance needs to be selected. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) functions in G1/S/G2 phase, while homologous recombination (HR) becomes active only in S/G2 phase after DNA replication. DSB end structure is another factor affecting the repair pathway...
July 29, 2017: Mutation Research
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