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Chromatin structure regulation

Wen-Ning Zhao, Balaram Ghosh, Marshall Tyler, Jasmin Lalonde, Nadine F Joseph, Nina Kosaric, Daniel M Fass, Li-Huei Tsai, Ralph Mazitschek, Stephen J Haggarty
Through epigenetic and other regulatory functions, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family of enzymes has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for central nervous system and other disorders. Here we report on the synthesis and functional characterization of new HDAC inhibitors based structurally on tianeptine, a drug used primarily to treat major depressive disorder (MDD) that has a poorly understood mechanism of action. Since the chemical structure of tianeptine resembles certain HDAC inhibitors, we profiled the in vitro HDAC inhibitory activity of tianeptine and demonstrated its ability to inhibit the lysine deacetylase activity of a subset of class I HDACs...
June 22, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Nelson B C Serre, Claude Alban, Jacques Bourguignon, Stéphane Ravanel
Protein methylation is a very diverse, widespread and important post-translational modification affecting all aspects of cellular biology in eukaryotes. Methylation on the side chain of lysine residues in histones has received considerable attention due to its major role in chromatin structure and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Since the turn of the 21st century, lysine methylation of non-histone proteins emerged as a very common modification contributing to the fine-tuned regulation of protein function...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Wladyslaw A Krajewski, Jiabin Li, Yali Dou
DNA in nucleosomes has restricted nucleosome dynamics and is refractory to DNA-templated processes. Histone post-translational modifications play important roles in regulating DNA accessibility in nucleosomes. Whereas most histone modifications function either by mitigating the electrostatic shielding of histone tails or by recruiting 'reader' proteins, we show that ubiquitylation of H2B K34, which is located in a tight space protected by two coils of DNA superhelix, is able to directly influence the canonical nucleosome conformation via steric hindrances by ubiquitin groups...
June 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Julian M Rozenberg, Joan M Taylor, Christopher P Mack
Given our previous demonstration that RBPJ binds a methylated repressor element and regulates smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific gene expression, we used genome-wide approaches to identify RBPJ binding regions in human aortic SMC and to assess RBPJ's effects on chromatin structure and gene expression. RBPJ bound to consensus cis elements, but also to TCmGGGA sequences within Alu repeats that were less transcriptionally active as assessed by DNAse hypersensitivity, H3K9 acetylation, and Notch3 and RNA Pol II binding...
June 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Shuiming Qian, Xinchen Lv, Ray N Scheid, Li Lu, Zhenlin Yang, Wei Chen, Rui Liu, Melissa D Boersma, John M Denu, Xuehua Zhong, Jiamu Du
The ability of a cell to dynamically switch its chromatin between different functional states constitutes a key mechanism regulating gene expression. Histone mark "readers" display distinct binding specificity to different histone modifications and play critical roles in regulating chromatin states. Here, we show a plant-specific histone reader SHORT LIFE (SHL) capable of recognizing both H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 via its bromo-adjacent homology (BAH) and plant homeodomain (PHD) domains, respectively...
June 21, 2018: Nature Communications
Carolin Rommel, Stephan Rösner, Achim Lother, Margareta Barg, Martin Schwaderer, Ralf Gilsbach, Timo Bömicke, Tilman Schnick, Sandra Mayer, Sophia Doll, Michael Hesse, Oliver Kretz, Brigitte Stiller, Franz-Josef Neumann, Matthias Mann, Markus Krane, Bernd K Fleischmann, Ursula Ravens, Lutz Hein
<u>Rationale:</u> Structural and electrophysiological remodeling of the atria are recognized consequences of sustained atrial arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation (AF). The identification of underlying key molecules and signaling pathways has been challenging due to the changing cell type composition during structural remodeling of the atria. <u>Objective:</u> Thus, the aims of our study were (1) to search for transcription factors and downstream target genes, which are involved in atrial structural remodeling, (2) to characterize the significance of the transcription factor ETV1 in atrial remodeling and arrhythmia and (3) to identify ETV1-dependent gene regulatory networks in atrial cardiac myocytes...
June 21, 2018: Circulation Research
Viviana Vastolo, Immacolata Cristina Nettore, Marco Ciccarelli, Luigi Albano, Gregory Alexander Raciti, Michele Longo, Francesco Beguinot, Paola Ungaro
BACKGROUND: The impact of nutrition on the evolution towards type 2 diabetes has recently received increasing attention because of the effect on chromatin structure and gene expression. PURPOSE: Evaluate the effect of high-fat diet on chromatin remodelling and expression of Ped/Pea-15, a gene commonly overexpressed in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used mouse and cell models to investigate Ped/Pea-15 transcriptional regulation by high-fat diet and glucose, respectively...
June 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Xin Liu, Yuannyu Zhang, Yong Chen, Mushan Li, Zhen Shao, Michael Q Zhang, Jian Xu
Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) play a pivotal role in spatiotemporal control of tissue-specific gene expression, yet the molecular composition of the vast majority of CREs in native chromatin remains unknown. In this article, we describe the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) affinity purification in situ of regulatory elements (CAPTURE) approach to simultaneously identify locus-specific chromatin-regulating protein complexes and long-range DNA interactions. Using an in vivo biotinylated nuclease-deficient Cas9 (dCas9) protein and programmable single guide RNAs (sgRNAs), this approach allows for high-resolution and locus-specific isolation of protein complexes and long-range chromatin looping associated with single copy CREs in mammalian cells...
June 19, 2018: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
Carlo Maria Di Liegro, Gabriella Schiera, Italia Di Liegro
H1 linker histones are a class of DNA-binding proteins involved in the formation of supra-nucleosomal chromatin higher order structures. Eleven non-allelic subtypes of H1 are known in mammals, seven of which are expressed in somatic cells, while four are germ cell-specific. Besides having a general structural role, H1 histones also have additional epigenetic functions related to DNA replication and repair, genome stability, and gene-specific expression regulation. Synthesis of the H1 subtypes is differentially regulated both in development and adult cells, thus suggesting that each protein has a more or less specific function...
June 20, 2018: Genes
José L Neira, María Belén López, Paz Sevilla, Bruno Rizzuti, Ana Cámara-Artigas, Miguel Vidal, Juan L Iovanna
NUPR1 is a protumoral multifunctional intrinsically disordered protein (IDP), which is activated during the acute phases of pancreatitis. It interacts with other IDPs such as prothymosin α, as well as with folded proteins such as the C-terminal region of RING1-B (C-RING1B) of the Polycomb complex; in all those interactions, residues around Ala33 and Thr68 (the "hot-spot" region) of NUPR1 intervene. Its paralogue, NUPR1L, is also expressed in response to DNA-damage, it is p53-regulated, and its expression down-regulates that of the NUPR1 gene...
June 20, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Tamaki Suganuma, Jerry L Workman
Chromatin is a mighty consumer of cellular energy generated by metabolism. Metabolic status is efficiently coordinated with transcription and translation, which also feed back to regulate metabolism. Conversely, suppression of energy utilization by chromatin processes may serve to preserve energy resources for cell survival. Most of the reactions involved in chromatin modification require metabolites as their cofactors or coenzymes. Therefore, the metabolic status of the cell can influence the spectra of posttranslational histone modifications and the structure, density and location of nucleosomes, impacting epigenetic processes...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Cheng-Jun Hu, Hui Zhang, Aya Laux, Soni S Pullamsetti, Kurt R Stenmark
Chronic pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by the accumulation of persistently activated cell types in the pulmonary vessel exhibiting aberrant expression of genes involved in apoptosis resistance, proliferation, inflammation, and ECM remodeling. Current therapies for PH, focusing on vasodilation, do not normalize these activated phenotypes. Furthermore, current approaches to define additional therapeutic targets have focused on determining the initiating signals and their downstream effectors that are important in PH onset and development...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Eirini Kaiserli, Giorgio Perrella, Mhairi Lh Davidson
Environmental stimuli play a major role in modulating growth and development throughout the life-cycle of a plant. Quantitative and qualitative variations in light and temperature trigger changes in gene expression that ultimately shape plant morphology for adaptation and survival. Although the phenotypic and transcriptomic basis of plant responses to the constantly changing environment have been examined for decades, the relationship between global changes in nuclear architecture and adaption to environmental stimuli is just being uncovered...
June 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Zhongliang Zhao, Nevcin Sentürk, Chenlin Song, Ingrid Grummt
Attenuation of pre-rRNA synthesis in response to elevated temperature is accompanied by increased levels of PAPAS ("promoter and pre-rRNA antisense") , a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is transcribed in an orientation antisense to pre-rRNA. Here we show that PAPAS interacts directly with DNA, forming a DNA-RNA triplex structure that tethers PAPAS to a stretch of purines within the enhancer region, thereby guiding associated CHD4/NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation) to the rDNA promoter...
June 15, 2018: Genes & Development
Xiangyan Shi, Chinmayi Prasanna, Toshio Nagashima, Toshio Yamazaki, Konstantin Pervushin, Lars Nordenskiöld
Eukaryotic chromatin structure and dynamics play key roles in genomic regulation. In the current study, the secondary structure and intramolecular dynamics of human histone H4 (hH4) in the nucleosome core particle (NCP) and in a nucleosome array are determined by solid-state NMR (SSNMR). Secondary structure elements are successfully localized in the hH4 in the NCP precipitated with Mg2+. In particular, dynamics on nanosecond to microsecond and microsecond to millisecond timescales are elucidated, revealing diverse internal motions in the hH4 protein...
June 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Matthew Bratkowski, Xin Yang, Xin Liu
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) mediates trimethylation of histone H3K27 (H3K27me3), an epigenetic hallmark for repressed chromatin. Overactive mutants of the histone lysine methyltransferase subunit of PRC2, Ezh2, are found in various types of cancers. Pyridone-containing inhibitors such as GSK126 compete with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) for Ezh2 binding and effectively inhibit PRC2 activity. PRC2 from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum (ct) is functionally similar to the human version in several regards and has the added advantage of producing high-resolution crystal structures, although inhibitor-bound structures of human or human/chameleon PRC2 are also available at up to 2...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Luka Horvat, Mariastefania Antica, Maja Matulić
Differentiation of blood cells is one of the most complex processes in the body. It is regulated by the action of transcription factors in time and space which creates a specific signaling network. In the hematopoietic signaling system, Notch is one of the main regulators of lymphocyte development. The aim of this study was to get insight into the regulation of Notch signalization and the influence of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) activity on this process in three leukemia cell lines obtained from B and T cells...
June 14, 2018: Cells
Uros Midic, Kailey A Vincent, Kai Wang, Alyson Lokken, Ashley L Severance, Amy Ralston, Jason G Knott, Keith E Latham
Structural maintenance of chromosome flexible domain containing 1 (Smchd1) is a chromatin regulatory gene for which mutations are associated with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy and arhinia. The contribution of oocyte- and zygote-expressed SMCHD1 to early development was examined in mice (Mus musculus) using an siRNA knockdown approach. Smchd1 knockdown compromised long-term embryo viability, with reduced embryo nuclear volumes at the morula stage, reduced blastocyst cell number, formation and hatching, and reduced viability to term...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Wenjie Mao, Anna C Salzberg, Motokazu Uchigashima, Yuto Hasegawa, Hanno Hock, Masahiko Watanabe, Schahram Akbarian, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Kensuke Futai
Homeostatic synaptic downscaling reduces neuronal excitability by modulating the number of postsynaptic receptors. Histone modifications and the subsequent chromatin remodeling play critical roles in activity-dependent gene expression. Histone modification codes are recognized by chromatin readers that affect gene expression by altering chromatin structure. We show that L3mbtl1 (lethal 3 malignant brain tumor-like 1), a polycomb chromatin reader, is downregulated by neuronal activity and is essential for synaptic response and downscaling...
June 12, 2018: Cell Reports
Nozomi Sugimoto, Kazumitsu Maehara, Kazumasa Yoshida, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Masatoshi Fujita
In metazoan cells, only a limited number of mini chromosome maintenance (MCM) complexes are fired during S phase, while the majority remain dormant. Several methods have been used to map replication origins, but such methods cannot identify dormant origins. Herein, we determined MCM7-binding sites in human cells using ChIP-Seq, classified them into firing and dormant origins using origin data and analysed their association with various chromatin signatures. Firing origins, but not dormant origins, were well correlated with open chromatin regions and were enriched upstream of transcription start sites (TSSs) of transcribed genes...
June 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
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