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Chromatin structure regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036702/a-hyperdynamic-h3-3-nucleosome-marks-promoter-regions-in-pluripotent-embryonic-stem-cells
#1
Sharon Schlesinger, Binyamin Kaffe, Shai Melcer, Jose D Aguilera, Divya M Sivaraman, Tommy Kaplan, Eran Meshorer
Histone variants and their chaperones are key regulators of eukaryotic transcription, and are critical for normal development. The histone variant H3.3 has been shown to play important roles in pluripotency and differentiation, and although its genome-wide patterns have been investigated, little is known about the role of its dynamic turnover in transcriptional regulation. To elucidate the role of H3.3 dynamics in embryonic stem cell (ESC) biology, we generated mouse ESC lines carrying a single copy of a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible HA-tagged version of H3...
September 25, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033785/versatile-roles-of-the-chromatin-remodeler-chd7-during-brain-development-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Weijun Feng, Chunxuan Shao, Hai-Kun Liu
CHD7 (Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein 7) protein is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler. Heterozygous mutation of the CHD7 gene causes a severe congenital disease known as CHARGE syndrome. Most CHARGE syndrome patients have brain structural anomalies, implicating an important role of CHD7 during brain development. In this review, we summarize studies dissecting developmental functions of CHD7 in the brain and discuss pathogenic mechanisms behind neurodevelopmental defects caused by mutation of CHD7. As we discussed, CHD7 protein exhibits a remarkably specific and dynamic expression pattern in the brain...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032545/identification-of-acetylated-proteins-in-borrelia-burgdorferi
#3
Youyun Yang, Alan Wolfe, X Frank Yang
Posttranslational modification (PTM) of proteins has emerged as a major regulatory mechanism in all three domains of life. One emerging PTM is Nε-lysine acetylation-the acetylation of the epsilon amino group of lysine residues. Nε-lysine acetylation is known to regulate multiple cellular processes. In eukaryotes, it regulates chromatin structure, transcription, metabolism, signal transduction, and the cytoskeleton. Recently, multiple groups have detected Nε-lysine acetylation in diverse bacterial phyla, but no work on protein acetylation in Borrelia burgdorferi has been reported...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025389/chromatin-states-responsible-for-the-regulation-of-differentially-expressed-genes-under-60-co-%C3%AE-ray-radiation-in-rice
#4
Xiucai Pan, Yuan Fang, Xueming Yang, Dongyang Zheng, Lifen Chen, Lei Wang, Jin Xiao, Xiu-E Wang, Kai Wang, Zhukuan Cheng, Hengxiu Yu, Wenli Zhang
BACKGROUND: The role of histone modifications in the DNA damage response has been extensively studied in non-plant systems, including mammals and yeast. However, there is a lack of detailed evidence showing how chromatin dynamics, either an individual mark or combined chromatin states, participate in regulating differentially expressed genes in the plant DNA damage response. RESULTS: In this study, we used RNA-seq and ChIP-seq to show that differentially expressed genes (DEGs), in response to ionizing radiation (IR), might be involved in different pathways responsible for the DNA damage response...
October 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024414/measurement-of-nucleosomal-structural-stability-distribution-along-individual-giant-native-chromatin-fibers-at-different-salt-concentrations-using-a-microfluidic-channel-with-microstructures
#5
Hiroki Mori, Kennedy O Okeyo, Masao Washizu, Hidehiro Oana
Identifying the distribution of the higher-order structure of chromatin-a complex of DNA and proteins-along genomic DNA can clarify the mechanisms underlying cell development and differentiation, including gene regulation. However, genome-wide analysis of this distribution at the single-cell level remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new method for investigating changes in and the distribution of higher-order structures along native chromatin fibers-ranging over 100 μm in length-relative to changes in salt concentration...
October 12, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021563/non-canonical-reader-modules-of-baz1a-promote-recovery-from-dna-damage
#6
Mariano Oppikofer, Meredith Sagolla, Benjamin Haley, Hui-Min Zhang, Sarah K Kummerfeld, Jawahar Sudhamsu, E Megan Flynn, Tianyi Bai, Jennifer Zhang, Claudio Ciferri, Andrea G Cochran
Members of the ISWI family of chromatin remodelers mobilize nucleosomes to control DNA accessibility and, in some cases, are required for recovery from DNA damage. However, it remains poorly understood how the non-catalytic ISWI subunits BAZ1A and BAZ1B might contact chromatin to direct the ATPase SMARCA5. Here, we find that the plant homeodomain of BAZ1A, but not that of BAZ1B, has the unusual function of binding DNA. Furthermore, the BAZ1A bromodomain has a non-canonical gatekeeper residue and binds relatively weakly to acetylated histone peptides...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018282/emerging-roles-of-linker-histones-in-regulating-chromatin-structure-and-function
#7
REVIEW
Dmitry V Fyodorov, Bing-Rui Zhou, Arthur I Skoultchi, Yawen Bai
Together with core histones, which make up the nucleosome, the linker histone (H1) is one of the five main histone protein families present in chromatin in eukaryotic cells. H1 binds to the nucleosome to form the next structural unit of metazoan chromatin, the chromatosome, which may help chromatin to fold into higher-order structures. Despite their important roles in regulating the structure and function of chromatin, linker histones have not been studied as extensively as core histones. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made recently...
October 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994809/sample-preparation-for-mass-spectrometry-based-identification-of-rna-binding-regions
#8
Robert Warneford-Thomson, Chongsheng He, Simone Sidoli, Benjamin A Garcia, Roberto Bonasio
Noncoding RNAs play important roles in several nuclear processes, including regulating gene expression, chromatin structure, and DNA repair. In most cases, the action of noncoding RNAs is mediated by proteins whose functions are in turn regulated by these interactions with noncoding RNAs. Consistent with this, a growing number of proteins involved in nuclear functions have been reported to bind RNA and in a few cases the RNA-binding regions of these proteins have been mapped, often through laborious, candidate-based methods...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993008/piwi-family-emerging-as-a-decisive-factor-of-cell-fate-an-overview
#9
REVIEW
Murugavel Ponnusamy, Kao-Wen Yan, Cui-Yun Liu, Pei-Feng Li, Kun Wang
PIWI proteins and piRNAs primarily functions as a safeguard of germline cells by activating epigenetic regulations, silencing transposons and maintaining chromatin structure. Increasing evidences reveal that PIWI proteins and piRNAs have broader functions in many vital biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. They have been recognized as a crucial factor in the cellular events due their role in controlling mRNA expression, turnover and translation. PIWIs, with or without its partner non-coding RNA (piRNA), govern the expression and activity of many transcription factors and signaling molecules by mastering their expression and/or post-translational modifications by directly interacting with them...
October 2, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992434/targeting-epigenetics-in-cancer
#10
Richard L Bennett, Jonathan D Licht
Alterations of genes regulating epigenetic processes are frequently found as cancer drivers and may cause widespread alterations of DNA methylation, histone modification patterns, or chromatin structure that disrupt normal patterns of gene expression. Because of the inherent reversibility of epigenetic changes, inhibitors targeting these processes are promising anticancer strategies. Small molecules targeting epigenetic regulators have been developed recently, and clinical trials of these agents are under way for hematologic malignancies and solid tumors...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991411/structural-insights-into-the-nuclear-import-of-the-histone-acetyltransferase-mof-by-importin-%C3%AE-1
#11
Weili Zheng, Rui Wang, Xi Liu, Siyu Tian, Benqiang Yao, Ang Chen, Shikai Jin, Yong Li
The histone acetyltransferase MOF (males-absent-on-the-first) acetylates the histone H4, a modification important for many biological processes, including chromatin organization, transcriptional regulation, DNA replication, recombination and repair, as well as autophagy. Depletion of MOF induces serious consequences due to the reduction of histone acetylation, such as nuclear morphological defects and cancer. Despite the critical roles of MOF in the nucleus, the structural or functional mechanisms of the nucleocytoplasmic transport of MOF remain elusive...
October 9, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991266/macroh2a1-1-regulates-mitochondrial-respiration-by-limiting-nuclear-nad-consumption
#12
Melanija Posavec Marjanović, Sarah Hurtado-Bagès, Maximilian Lassi, Vanesa Valero, Roberto Malinverni, Hélène Delage, Miriam Navarro, David Corujo, Iva Guberovic, Julien Douet, Pau Gama-Perez, Pablo M Garcia-Roves, Ivan Ahel, Andreas G Ladurner, Oscar Yanes, Philippe Bouvet, Mònica Suelves, Raffaele Teperino, J Andrew Pospisilik, Marcus Buschbeck
Histone variants are structural components of eukaryotic chromatin that can replace replication-coupled histones in the nucleosome. The histone variant macroH2A1.1 contains a macrodomain capable of binding NAD(+)-derived metabolites. Here we report that macroH2A1.1 is rapidly induced during myogenic differentiation through a switch in alternative splicing, and that myotubes that lack macroH2A1.1 have a defect in mitochondrial respiratory capacity. We found that the metabolite-binding macrodomain was essential for sustained optimal mitochondrial function but dispensable for gene regulation...
October 9, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990587/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-immunity-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Venizelos Papayannopoulos
Neutrophils are innate immune phagocytes that have a central role in immune defence. Our understanding of the role of neutrophils in pathogen clearance, immune regulation and disease pathology has advanced dramatically in recent years. Web-like chromatin structures known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been at the forefront of this renewed interest in neutrophil biology. The identification of molecules that modulate the release of NETs has helped to refine our view of the role of NETs in immune protection, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and cancer...
October 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985346/single-molecule-kinetic-analysis-of-hp1-chromatin-binding-reveals-a-dynamic-network-of-histone-modification-and-dna-interactions
#14
Louise C Bryan, Daniel R Weilandt, Andreas L Bachmann, Sinan Kilic, Carolin C Lechner, Pascal D Odermatt, Georg E Fantner, Sandrine Georgeon, Oliver Hantschel, Vassily Hatzimanikatis, Beat Fierz
Chromatin recruitment of effector proteins involved in gene regulation depends on multivalent interaction with histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and structural features of the chromatin fiber. Due to the complex interactions involved, it is currently not understood how effectors dynamically sample the chromatin landscape. Here, we dissect the dynamic chromatin interactions of a family of multivalent effectors, heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins, using single-molecule fluorescence imaging and computational modeling...
August 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981716/computational-construction-of-3d-chromatin-ensembles-and-prediction-of-functional-interactions-of-alpha-globin-locus-from-5c-data
#15
Gamze Gürsoy, Yun Xu, Amy L Kenter, Jie Liang
Conformation capture technologies measure frequencies of interactions between chromatin regions. However, understanding gene-regulation require knowledge of detailed spatial structures of heterogeneous chromatin in cells. Here we describe the nC-SAC (n-Constrained-Self Avoiding Chromatin) method that transforms experimental interaction frequencies into 3D ensembles of chromatin chains. nC-SAC first distinguishes specific from non-specific interaction frequencies, then generates 3D chromatin ensembles using identified specific interactions as spatial constraints...
September 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978481/dms-seq-for-in%C3%A2-vivo-genome-wide-mapping-of-protein-dna-interactions-and-nucleosome-centers
#16
Taichi Umeyama, Takashi Ito
Protein-DNA interactions provide the basis for chromatin structure and gene regulation. Comprehensive identification of protein-occupied sites is thus vital to an in-depth understanding of genome function. Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) is a chemical probe that has long been used to detect footprints of DNA-bound proteins in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a genomic footprinting method, dimethyl sulfate sequencing (DMS-seq), which exploits the cell-permeable nature of DMS to obviate the need for nuclear isolation...
October 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977640/nuclear-speckles-molecular-organization-biological-function-and-role-in-disease
#17
Lukasz Galganski, Martyna O Urbanek, Wlodzimierz J Krzyzosiak
The nucleoplasm is not homogenous; it consists of many types of nuclear bodies, also known as nuclear domains or nuclear subcompartments. These self-organizing structures gather machinery involved in various nuclear activities. Nuclear speckles (NSs) or splicing speckles, also called interchromatin granule clusters, were discovered as sites for splicing factor storage and modification. Further studies on transcription and mRNA maturation and export revealed a more general role for splicing speckles in RNA metabolism...
September 1, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977568/computational-characterization-of-chromatin-domain-boundary-associated-genomic-elements
#18
Seungpyo Hong, Dongsup Kim
Topologically associated domains (TADs) are 3D genomic structures with high internal interactions that play important roles in genome compaction and gene regulation. Their genomic locations and their association with CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding sites and transcription start sites (TSSs) were recently reported. However, the relationship between TADs and other genomic elements has not been systematically evaluated. This was addressed in the present study, with a focus on the enrichment of these genomic elements and their ability to predict the TAD boundary region...
August 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977418/developmentally-regulated-higher-order-chromatin-interactions-orchestrate-b-cell-fate-commitment
#19
Ravi Boya, Anurupa Devi Yadavalli, Sameena Nikhat, Sreenivasulu Kurukuti, Dasaradhi Palakodeti, Jagan M R Pongubala
Genome organization in 3D nuclear-space is important for regulation of gene expression. However, the alterations of chromatin architecture that impinge on the B cell-fate choice of multi-potent progenitors are still unclear. By integrating in situ Hi-C analyses with epigenetic landscapes and genome-wide expression profiles, we tracked the changes in genome architecture as the cells transit from a progenitor to a committed state. We identified the genomic loci that undergo developmental switch between A and B compartments during B-cell fate determination...
August 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973462/analysis-of-primary-microrna-loci-from-nascent-transcriptomes-reveals-regulatory-domains-governed-by-chromatin-architecture
#20
Maria Bouvy-Liivrand, Ana Hernández de Sande, Petri Pölönen, Juha Mehtonen, Tapio Vuorenmaa, Henri Niskanen, Lasse Sinkkonen, Minna Unelma Kaikkonen, Merja Heinäniemi
Changes in mature microRNA (miRNA) levels that occur downstream of signaling cascades play an important role during human development and disease. However, the regulation of primary microRNA (pri-miRNA) genes remains to be dissected in detail. To address this, we followed a data-driven approach and developed a transcript identification, validation and quantification pipeline for characterizing the regulatory domains of pri-miRNAs. Integration of 92 nascent transcriptomes and multilevel data from cells arising from ecto-, endo- and mesoderm lineages reveals cell type-specific expression patterns, allows fine-resolution mapping of transcription start sites (TSS) and identification of candidate regulatory regions...
September 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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