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Chromatin structure regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691138/targeting-lysine-specific-demethylase-4a-kdm4a-tandem-tudor-domain-a-fragment-based-approach
#1
Anup K Upadhyay, Russell A Judge, Leiming Li, Ron Pithawalla, Justin Simanis, Pierre M Bodelle, Violeta L Marin, Rodger F Henry, Andrew M Petros, Chaohong Sun
The tandem TUDOR domains present in the non-catalytic C-terminal half of the KDM4A, 4B and 4C enzymes play important roles in regulating their chromatin localizations and substrate specificities. They achieve this regulatory role by binding to different tri-methylated lysine residues on histone H3 (H3-K4me3, H3-K23me3) and histone H4 (H4-K20me3) depending upon the specific chromatin environment. In this work, we have used a 2D-NMR based fragment screening approach to identify a novel fragment (1a), which binds to the KDM4A-TUDOR domain and shows modest competition with H3-K4me3 binding in biochemical as well as in vitro cell based assays...
April 19, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691054/sun-mediated-mechanical-linc-between-nucleus-and-cytoskeleton-regulates-%C3%AE-catenin-nuclear-access
#2
Gunes Uzer, Guniz Bas, Buer Sen, Zhihui Xie, Scott Birks, Melis Olcum, Cody McGrath, Maya Styner, Janet Rubin
βcatenin acts as a primary intracellular signal transducer for mechanical and Wnt signaling pathways to control cell function and fate. Regulation of βcatenin in the cytoplasm has been well studied but βcatenin nuclear trafficking and function remains unclear. In a previous study we showed that, in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), mechanical blockade of adipogenesis relied on inhibition of βcatenin destruction complex element GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β) to increase nuclear βcatenin as well as the function of Linker of Cytoskeleton and Nucleoskeleton (LINC) complexes, suggesting that these two mechanisms may be linked...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687888/epigenetics-of-aberrant-cardiac-wound-healing
#3
Adam Russell-Hallinan, Chris J Watson, John A Baugh
Remodeling of cardiac tissue architecture is essential for normal organ development and maintaining homeostasis after injury. Injurious insults to the heart, such as hypertension and myocardial infarction, promote cellular responses including stimulation of resident inflammatory cells, activation of endothelial cells and recruitment of immune cells, hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes, and activation of fibroblasts. The physiological goal of this coordinated cellular response is to repair damaged tissue while maintaining or restoring cardiac contractile function...
March 26, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686607/atp-dependent-chromatin-remodeling-during-cortical-neurogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Godwin Sokpor, Ricardo Castro-Hernandez, Joachim Rosenbusch, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
The generation of individual neurons (neurogenesis) during cortical development occurs in discrete steps that are subtly regulated and orchestrated to ensure normal histogenesis and function of the cortex. Notably, various gene expression programs are known to critically drive many facets of neurogenesis with a high level of specificity during brain development. Typically, precise regulation of gene expression patterns ensures that key events like proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors, specification of neuronal subtypes, as well as migration and maturation of neurons in the developing cortex occur properly...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686419/dynamics-of-the-epigenetic-landscape-during-the-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#5
REVIEW
Melanie A Eckersley-Maslin, Celia Alda-Catalinas, Wolf Reik
A remarkable epigenetic remodelling process occurs shortly after fertilization, which restores totipotency to the zygote. This involves global DNA demethylation, chromatin remodelling, genome spatial reorganization and substantial transcriptional changes. Key to these changes is the transition from the maternal environment of the oocyte to an embryonic-driven developmental expression programme, a process termed the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). Zygotic genome activation occurs predominantly at the two-cell stage in mice and the eight-cell stage in humans, yet the dynamics of its control are still mostly obscure...
April 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686321/chromatin-conformation-regulates-the-coordination-between-dna-replication-and-transcription
#6
Ricardo Almeida, José Miguel Fernández-Justel, Cristina Santa-María, Jean-Charles Cadoret, Laura Cano-Aroca, Rodrigo Lombraña, Gonzalo Herranz, Alessandra Agresti, María Gómez
Chromatin is the template for the basic processes of replication and transcription, making the maintenance of chromosomal integrity critical for cell viability. To elucidate how dividing cells respond to alterations in chromatin structure, here we analyse the replication programme of primary cells with altered chromatin configuration caused by the genetic ablation of the HMGB1 gene, or three histone H1 genes. We find that loss of chromatin compaction in H1-depleted cells triggers the accumulation of stalled forks and DNA damage as a consequence of transcription-replication conflicts...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686034/topologically-associating-domains-in-chromosome-architecture-and-gene-regulatory-landscapes-during-development-disease-and-evolution
#7
Rafael Galupa, Edith Heard
The packaging of genetic material into chromatin and chromosomes has been recognized for more than a century, thanks to microscopy and biochemical approaches. This was followed by the progressive realization that chromatin organization is critical for genome functions such as transcription and DNA replication and repair. The recent discovery that chromosomes are partitioned at the submegabase scale into topologically associating domains (TADs) has implications for our understanding of gene regulation during developmental processes such as X-chromosome inactivation, as well as for evolution and for the search for disease-associated loci...
April 23, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685496/are-pax-proteins-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-kidney-disease-and-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Edward Grimley, Gregory R Dressler
Pax genes encode developmental regulators that are expressed in a variety of tissues and control critical events in morphogenesis. In the kidney, Pax2 and Pax8 are expressed in embryonic development and in specific renal diseases associated with aberrant epithelial cell proliferation. Prior genetic and cell biological studies suggest that reducing the activity of Pax proteins in renal cancer or in polycystic kidney disease can slow the progression of these conditions. The Pax proteins may be critical for providing tissue and locus specificity to recruit epigenetic modifiers that control gene expression and chromatin structure...
April 20, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684486/contribution-of-transposable-elements-in-the-plant-s-genome
#9
REVIEW
Mahbod Sahebi, Mohamed M Hanafi, Andre J van Wijnen, David Rice, M Y Rafii, Parisa Azizi, Mohamad Osman, Sima Taheri, Mohd Faizal Abu Bakar, Mohd Noor Mat Isa, Yusuf Muhammad Noor
Plants maintain extensive growth flexibility under different environmental conditions, allowing them to continuously and rapidly adapt to alterations in their environment. A large portion of many plant genomes consists of transposable elements (TEs) that create new genetic variations within plant species. Different types of mutations may be created by TEs in plants. Many TEs can avoid the host's defense mechanisms and survive alterations in transposition activity, internal sequence and target site. Thus, plant genomes are expected to utilize a variety of mechanisms to tolerate TEs that are near or within genes...
April 20, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684168/emerin-modulates-spatial-organization-of-chromosome-territories-in-cells-on-softer-matrices
#10
Roopali Pradhan, Devika Ranade, Kundan Sengupta
Cells perceive and relay external mechanical forces into the nucleus through the nuclear envelope. Here we examined the effect of lowering substrate stiffness as a paradigm to address the impact of altered mechanical forces on nuclear structure-function relationships. RNA sequencing of cells on softer matrices revealed significant transcriptional imbalances, predominantly in chromatin associated processes and transcriptional deregulation of human Chromosome 1. Furthermore, 3-Dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) analyses showed a significant mislocalization of Chromosome 1 and 19 Territories (CT) into the nuclear interior, consistent with their transcriptional deregulation...
April 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678692/nucpospred-predicting-species-specific-genomic-nucleosome-positionin-g-via-four-different-modes-of-general-pseknc
#11
Cangzhi Jia, Qing Yang, Quan Zou
The nucleosome is the basic structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells, with essential roles in the regulation of many biological processes, such as DNA transcription, replication and repair, and RNA splicing. Because of the importance of nucleosomes, the factors that determine their positioning within genomes should be investigated. High-resolution nucleosome-positioning maps are now available for organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, enabling the identification of nucleosome positioning by application of computational tools...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678609/fat-nucleosome-role-of-lipids-on-chromatin
#12
REVIEW
Vinicius Fernandes, Kaian Teles, Camyla Ribeiro, Werner Treptow, Guilherme Santos
Structural changes in chromatin regulate gene expression and define phenotypic outcomes. Molecules that bind to the nucleosome, the complex of DNA and histone proteins, are key modulators of chromatin structure. Most recently, the formation of condensed chromatin regions based on phase-separation in the cell, a basic physical mechanism, was proposed. Increased understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between chromatin and lipids suggest that small lipid molecules, such as cholesterol and short-chain fatty acids, can regulate important nuclear functions...
April 17, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672586/selection-on-the-regulation-of-sympathetic-nervous-activity-in-humans-and-chimpanzees
#13
Kang Seon Lee, Paramita Chatterjee, Eun-Young Choi, Min Kyung Sung, Jaeho Oh, Hyejung Won, Seong-Min Park, Youn-Jae Kim, Soojin V Yi, Jung Kyoon Choi
Adrenergic α2C receptor (ADRA2C) is an inhibitory modulator of the sympathetic nervous system. Knockout mice for this gene show physiological and behavioural alterations that are associated with the fight-or-flight response. There is evidence of positive selection on the regulation of this gene during chicken domestication. Here, we find that the neuronal expression of ADRA2C is lower in human and chimpanzee than in other primates. On the basis of three-dimensional chromatin structure, we identified a cis-regulatory region whose DNA sequences have been significantly accelerated in human and chimpanzee...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670067/cpg-methylation-changes-g-quadruplex-structures-derived-from-gene-promoters-and-interaction-with-vegf-and-sp1
#14
Kaori Tsukakoshi, Shiori Saito, Wataru Yoshida, Shinichi Goto, Kazunori Ikebukuro
G-quadruplex (G4) is a DNA/RNA conformation that consists of two or more G-tetrads resulting from four-guanine bases connected by Hoogsteen-type hydrogen bonds, which is often found in the telomeres of chromatin, as well as in the promoter regions of genes. The function of G4 in the genomic DNA is being elucidated and some G4-protein interactions have been reported; these are believed to play a role in vital cellular functions. In this study, we focused on CpG methylation, a well-known epigenetic modification of the genomic DNA, especially found in the promoter regions...
April 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669022/dna-mediated-dimerization-on-a-compact-sequence-signature-controls-enhancer-engagement-and-regulation-by-foxa1
#15
Xuecong Wang, Yogesh Srivastava, Aleksander Jankowski, Vikas Malik, Yuanjie Wei, Ricardo C H Del Rosario, Vlad Cojocaru, Shyam Prabhakar, Ralf Jauch
FOXA1 is a transcription factor capable to bind silenced chromatin to direct context-dependent cell fate conversion. Here, we demonstrate that a compact palindromic DNA element (termed 'DIV' for its diverging half-sites) induces the homodimerization of FOXA1 with strongly positive cooperativity. Alternative structural models are consistent with either an indirect DNA-mediated cooperativity or a direct protein-protein interaction. The cooperative homodimer formation is strictly constrained by precise half-site spacing...
April 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667298/distinct-chromatin-structures-at-the-monoamine-oxidase-a-maoa-promoter-correlate-with-allele-specific-expression-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#16
M Manca, V Pessoa, P Myers, A Pickles, J Hill, H Sharp, C Murgatroyd, V J Bubb, J P Quinn
Monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA) metabolises monoamines and is implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A polymorphic repetitive DNA domain, termed the uVNTR (upstream variable number tandem repeat), located at the promoter of the MAOA gene is a risk factor for many of these disorders. MAOA is on the X chromosome suggesting gender could play a role in regulation. We analysed MAOA regulation in the human female cell line, SH-SY5Y, which is polymorphic for the uVNTR. This heterozygosity allowed us to correlate allele specific gene expression with allele specific transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks for MAOA...
April 18, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666150/epigenetics-and-epitranscriptomics-in-temporal-patterning-of-cortical-neural-progenitor-competence
#17
REVIEW
Ki-Jun Yoon, Caroline Vissers, Guo-Li Ming, Hongjun Song
During embryonic brain development, neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs) sequentially give rise to different subtypes of neurons and glia via a highly orchestrated process. To accomplish the ordered generation of distinct progenies, NPCs go through multistep transitions of their developmental competence. The molecular mechanisms driving precise temporal coordination of these transitions remains enigmatic. Epigenetic regulation, including changes in chromatin structures, DNA methylation, and histone modifications, has been extensively investigated in the context of cortical neurogenesis...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665865/integrative-analysis-reveals-functional-and-regulatory-roles-of-h3k79me2-in-mediating-alternative-splicing
#18
Tianbao Li, Qi Liu, Nick Garza, Steven Kornblau, Victor X Jin
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests alternative splicing (AS) is a co-transcriptional splicing process not only controlled by RNA-binding splicing factors, but also mediated by epigenetic regulators, such as chromatin structure, nucleosome density, and histone modification. Aberrant AS plays an important role in regulating various diseases, including cancers. METHODS: In this study, we integrated AS events derived from RNA-seq with H3K79me2 ChIP-seq data across 34 different normal and cancer cell types and found the higher enrichment of H3K79me2 in two AS types, skipping exon (SE) and alternative 3' splice site (A3SS)...
April 17, 2018: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663033/how-long-does-telomerase-extend-telomeres-regulation-of-telomerase-release-and-telomere-length-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Kazunori Tomita
Telomerase, the enzyme that replenishes telomeres, is essential for most eukaryotes to maintain their generations. Telomere length homeostasis is achieved via a balance between telomere lengthening by telomerase, and erosion over successive cell divisions. Impaired telomerase regulation leads to shortened telomeres and can cause defects in tissue maintenance. Telomeric DNA is composed of a repetitive sequence, which recruits the protective protein complex, shelterin. Shelterin, together with chromatin remodelling proteins, shapes the heterochromatic structure at the telomere and protects chromosome ends...
April 16, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659581/an-interplay-between-multiple-sirtuins-promotes-completion-of-dna-replication-in-cells-with-short-telomeres
#20
Antoine Simoneau, Étienne Ricard, Hugo Wurtele
The evolutionarily-conserved sirtuin family of histone deacetylases regulates a multitude of DNA-associated processes. A recent genome-wide screen conducted in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified Yku70/80, which regulate nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and telomere structure, as being essential for cell proliferation in the presence of the pan-sirtuin inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM). Here, we show that sirtuin-dependent deacetylation of both histone H3 lysine 56 and H4 lysine 16 promotes growth of yku70Δ and yku80Δ cells, and that the NAM sensitivity of these mutants is not caused by defects in double-strand break repair by NHEJ, but rather by their inability to maintain normal telomere length...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
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