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Cytokine signal transduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729853/role-of-melatonin-galanin-and-rfamide-neuropeptides-qrfp26-and-qrfp43-in-the-neuroendocrine-control-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function
#1
REVIEW
Iacopo Gesmundo, Tania Villanova, Dana Banfi, Giacomo Gamba, Riccarda Granata
Glucose homeostasis is finely regulated by a number of hormones and peptides released mainly from the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and muscle, regulating pancreatic secretion through cellular receptors and their signal transduction cascades. The endocrine function of the pancreas is controlled by islets within the exocrine pancreatic tissue that release hormones like insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and ghrelin. Moreover, both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions are regulated by a variety of hormonal and neural mechanisms, such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, or the inhibitory peptide somatostatin...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723547/the-p2x7-receptor-in-infection-and-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Francesco Di Virgilio, Diego Dal Ben, Alba Clara Sarti, Anna Lisa Giuliani, Simonetta Falzoni
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) accumulates at sites of tissue injury and inflammation. Effects of extracellular ATP are mediated by plasma membrane receptors named P2 receptors (P2Rs). The P2R most involved in inflammation and immunity is the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), expressed by virtually all cells of innate and adaptive immunity. P2X7R mediates NLRP3 inflammasome activation, cytokine and chemokine release, T lymphocyte survival and differentiation, transcription factor activation, and cell death. Ten human P2RX7 gene splice variants and several SNPs that produce complex haplotypes are known...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713995/bioinformatic-analysis-of-computational-identified-differentially-expressed-genes-in-tumor-stoma-of-pregnancy%C3%A2-associated-breast-cancer
#3
Qian Zhou, Erhu Sun, Lijun Ling, Xiaofeng Liu, Min Zhang, Hong Yin, Cheng Lu
The present study aimed to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in tumor‑associated stroma of pregnancy‑associated breast cancer (PABC). By analyzing Affymetrix microarray data (GSE31192) from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, DEGs between tumor asso-ciated stromal cells and normal stromal cells in PABC were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) function and pathway enrichment analyses for the DEGs were then performed, followed by construction of a protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network. A total of 94 upregulated and 386 downregulated DEGs were identified between tumor associated stromal cells and normal stromal cells in patients with PABC...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710430/rlr-mediated-antiviral-innate-immunity-requires-oxidative-phosphorylation-activity
#4
Takuma Yoshizumi, Hiromi Imamura, Tomohiro Taku, Takahiro Kuroki, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Kaori Ishikawa, Kazuto Nakada, Takumi Koshiba
Mitochondria act as a platform for antiviral innate immunity, and the immune system depends on activation of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLR) signaling pathway via an adaptor molecule, mitochondrial antiviral signaling. We report that RLR-mediated antiviral innate immunity requires oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity, a prominent physiologic function of mitochondria. Cells lacking mitochondrial DNA or mutant cells with respiratory defects exhibited severely impaired virus-induced induction of interferons and proinflammatory cytokines...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708287/regulation-of-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis-by-ring-finger-protein-rnf114
#5
Boren Lin, Qi Ke, Douglas W Leaman, Vijay Goel, Anand Agarwal
Normal bone remodeling is a continuous process orchestrated by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts, which an imbalance in bone remodeling results in metabolic bone diseases. RANKL, a member of the TNF cytokine family, functions as a key stimulator for osteoclast differentiation and maturation. Here, we report that RNF114, previously identified as a psoriasis susceptibility gene, plays a regulatory role in the RANKL/RANK/TRAF6 signaling pathway that mediates osteoclastogenesis. Our results demonstrated that RNF114 expression was significantly down-regulated in mouse osteoclast precursor cells undergoing RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694859/interplay-between-prolactin-and-pathogenesis-of-psoriasis-vulgaris
#6
Delia Botezatu, Mihaela Tovaru, Simona-Roxana Georgescu, Oana-Diana Leahu, Calin Giurcaneanu, Antoanela Curici
INTRODUCTION: The polypeptide hormone prolactin (PRL) represents the pituitary modulator of lactation and reproduction. Currently, we discuss the wide range of PRL actions "beyond the mammary horizon". Multiple studies had showed the role of PRL as a cytokine, with comparable structural motifs, similar receptor structures and signal transduction pathways. Almost two decades ago it was fi rst hypothesized that PRL acts as a neuroendocrine modulator of both skin epithelial growth and the skin immune system...
September 2016: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690543/frontiers-in-drug-research-and-development-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
REVIEW
Diego Currò, Daniela Pugliese, Alessandro Armuzzi
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is idiopathic, lifelong, immune-mediated diseases, for which curative therapies are not yet available. In the last 15 years, the introduction of monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor necrosis factor-α, a cytokine playing a key role in bowel inflammation, has revolutionized treatment paradigms for IBD. Despite their proven long-term efficacy, however, many patients do not respond or progressively lose response to these drugs. Major advances of knowledge in immunology and pathophysiology of intestinal inflammatory processes have made possible the identification of new molecular targets for drugs, thus opening several new potential therapeutic opportunities for IBD...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689201/the-effects-of-human-beta-defensins-on-skin-cells-in-vitro
#8
Jeroen W J van Kilsdonk, Patrick A M Jansen, Ellen H van den Bogaard, Charlotte Bos, Mieke Bergers, Patrick L J M Zeeuwen, Joost Schalkwijk
BACKGROUND: Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that exert immunomodulatory and chemotactic functions. Based on these properties and their high expression levels in the skin, they are likely to affect skin inflammation, infection, and wound healing. This may lead to therapeutic applications in (burn) wound healing. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effects of human β-defensins (hBDs) on keratinocytes and fibroblasts, 2 major skin cell types involved in skin regeneration...
July 8, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684670/role-of-hormones-in-the-regulation-of-rack1-expression-as-a-signaling-checkpoint-in-immunosenescence
#9
REVIEW
Marco Racchi, Erica Buoso, Melania Ronfani, Melania M Serafini, Marilisa Galasso, Cristina Lanni, Emanuela Corsini
Immunosenescence defines the decline in immune function that occurs with aging. This has been associated, at least in part, with defective cellular signaling via protein kinase C (PKC) signal transduction pathways. Our data suggest reduced PKC activation and consequently reduced response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and cytokine release. The lack of PKC activation seems to be dependent on the reduced expression of the receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), a scaffolding protein involved in multiple signal transduction cascades...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676638/cbl-mediated-k63-linked-ubiquitination-of-jak2-enhances-jak2-phosphorylation-and-signal-transduction
#10
Chun-Shan Liu, Hsin-Fang Yang-Yen, Ching-Shu Suen, Ming-Jing Hwang, Jeffrey Jong-Young Yen
JAK2 activation is crucial for cytokine receptor signal transduction and leukemogenesis. However, the underlying processes that lead to full activation of JAK2 are unclear. Here, we report a positive role for ubiquitination of JAK2 during GM-CSF-induced activation. Upon GM-CSF stimulation, JAK2 ubiquitination is significantly enhanced through K63-linked poly-ubiquitination. Studies employing both knockout and overexpression of Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, led to the conclusion that Cbl specifically promotes JAK2 ubiquitination, and this was further confirmed in vitro using a Cbl ubiquitination assay...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676205/small-molecules-to-the-rescue-inhibition-of-cytokine-signaling-in-immune-mediated-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Massimo Gadina, Nathalia Gazaniga, Laura Vian, Yasuko Furumoto
Cytokines are small, secreted proteins associated with the maintenance of immune homeostasis but also implicated with the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Biologic agents blocking cytokines or their receptors have revolutionized the treatment of such pathologies. Nonetheless, some patients fail to respond to these drugs or do not achieve complete remission. The signal transduction originating from membrane-bound cytokine receptors is an intricate network of events that lead to gene expression and ultimately regulate cellular functionality...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669716/the-regulatory-and-signaling-mechanisms-of-the-ask-family
#12
REVIEW
Takuto Nishida, Kazuki Hattori, Kengo Watanabe
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) was identified as a MAP3K that activates the JNK and p38 pathways, and subsequent studies have reported ASK2 and ASK3 as members of the ASK family. The ASK family is activated by various intrinsic and extrinsic stresses, including oxidative stress, ER stress and osmotic stress. Numerous lines of evidence have revealed that members of the ASK family are critical for signal transduction systems to control a wide range of stress responses such as cell death, differentiation and cytokine induction...
May 22, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666870/a-novel-role-for-earthworm-peptide-lumbricusin-as-a-regulator-of-neuroinflammation
#13
Minchul Seo, Joon Ha Lee, Minhee Baek, Mi-Ae Kim, Mi-Young Ahn, Seong Hyun Kim, Eun-Young Yun, Jae-Sam Hwang
Recently, we reported that Lumbricusin, an antimicrobial peptide isolated from earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, enhanced neuronal proliferation and ameliorated motor dysfunction and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Accumulating evidence suggests that neurodegeneration is the primary pathological feature of acute or chronic inflammation mediated by microglia, the resident macrophage of the central nervous system. Therefore, microglial activation inhibitors may be useful as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases...
June 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659496/secretion-of-interleukin-6-by-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-metastasis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Fei Mi, Liansheng Gong
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) interact with tumor cells and regulate tumorigenesis and metastasis. As one of the important components of the tumor microenvironment, MSC-secreted cytokines play a critical role in cancer development. However, whether and how bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs) and their secreted cytokines participate in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, still remains largely unknown. In the present study, we first measured the concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in BMSC conditioned medium (BMSC-CM)...
June 28, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658669/shp2-negatively-regulates-hla-abc-and-pd-l1-expression-via-stat1-phosphorylation-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#15
Zhuqing Liu, Yu Zhao, Juemin Fang, Ran Cui, Yuanyuan Xiao, Qing Xu
Src homology region 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) is a ubiquitous protein tyrosine phosphatase that activates the signal transduction pathways of several growth factors and cytokines. In our study, SHP2 expression was very high in prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines, and the expression of phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (p-STAT1) and STAT1 was very low. SHP2 knockdown upregulated the expression of p-STAT1 and downregulated phospho-extracellular signal regulated kinase (p-ERK)...
June 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656507/the-stem-cell-factor-scf-c-kit-signalling-in-testis-and-prostate-cancer
#16
Henrique J Cardoso, Marília I Figueira, Sílvia Socorro
The stem cell factor (SCF) is a cytokine that specifically binds the tyrosine kinase receptor c-KIT. The SCF/c-KIT interaction leads to receptor dimerization, activation of kinase activity and initiation of several signal transduction pathways that control cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and migration in several tissues. The activity of SCF/c-KIT system is linked with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), the Src, the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT), the phospholipase-C (PLC-γ) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654306/gene-expression-profile-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-response-to-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#17
Ming Sang, Xuanbin Wang, Hanyao Zhang, Xiaodong Sun, Xudong Ding, Puqing Wang, Rong Jiao, Huaxian Cheng, Sijun Yang, Guibin Zhang
RNA-sequencing, a powerful tool, yields a comprehensive view of whole transcriptome. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke. To date, RNA-sequencing analysis of ICH has not been reported. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used as a source of mRNA for gene expression profile analysis in stroke. In this study, we performed transcriptome analyses for PBMCs from four ICH patients and four healthy volunteers on Illumina platform. We identified 4040 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
June 27, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643757/significance-of-expression-of-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-proteins-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-1-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-2-and-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-3-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#18
Toral Pundrik Kobawala, Trupti I Trivedi, Kinjal Kevin Gajjar, Girish H Patel, Nandita R Ghosh
PURPOSE: Uncontrolled cytokine signal transduction largely associated with oncogene activation, can have disastrous biological consequences. The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins represent one of the mechanisms by which this rampant signaling can be dissipated. Thus, we aimed to study the expression of SOCS-1, SOCS-2, and SOCS-3 in patients having benign thyroid disease and papillary thyroid cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SOCS protein expression was studied in 45 patients with benign thyroid disease and in 83 papillary thyroid cancer patients by immunohistochemistry and their association with clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival in cancer patients were analyzed using SPSS software...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642743/hiv-1-nef-signaling-in-intestinal-mucosa-epithelium-suggests-the-existence-of-an-active-inter-kingdom-crosstalk-mediated-by-exosomes
#19
REVIEW
Cristina Felli, Olimpia Vincentini, Marco Silano, Andrea Masotti
The human intestinal mucosal surface represents the first defense against pathogens and regulates the immune response through the combination of epithelial cell (EC) functions and immunological factors. ECs act as sensors of luminal stimuli and interact with the immune cells through signal-transduction pathways, thus representing the first barrier that HIV-1 virus encounters during infection. In particular, the HIV-1 Nef protein plays a crucial role in viral invasion and replication. Nef is expressed early during viral infection and interacts with numerous cellular proteins as a scaffold/adaptor...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639899/tweak-fn14-signaling-in-tumors
#20
REVIEW
Guanglei Hu, Weihui Zeng, Yumin Xia
TWEAK (tumor necrosis factor-related weak inducer of apoptosis), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, acts on cells by binding to its only receptor named Fn14 (fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14). Their engagement activates a number of intracellular signal transduction cascades and consequently leads to cell death, proliferation, migration, or survival depending on the cellular contexts. Studies have indicated that the expression of TWEAK and Fn14 is upregulated in many solid tumors compared with healthy tissues...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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