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Cytokine signal transduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677473/signaling-and-function-of-interleukin-2-in-t-lymphocytes
#1
Sarah H Ross, Doreen A Cantrell
The discovery of interleukin-2 (IL-2) changed the molecular understanding of how the immune system is controlled. IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine, and dissecting the signaling pathways that allow IL-2 to control the differentiation and homeostasis of both pro- and anti-inflammatory T cells is fundamental to determining the molecular details of immune regulation. The IL-2 receptor couples to JAK tyrosine kinases and activates the STAT5 transcription factors. However, IL-2 does much more than control transcriptional programs; it is a key regulator of T cell metabolic programs...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662014/interferon-independent-non-canonical-stat-activation-and-virus-induced-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Yuchen Nan, Chunyan Wu, Yan-Jin Zhang
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of secreted proteins that play critical roles in antiviral immunity, antitumor activity, activation of cytotoxic T cells, and modulation of host immune responses. IFNs are cytokines, and bind receptors on cell surfaces to trigger signal transduction. The major signaling pathway activated by IFNs is the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway, a complex pathway involved in both viral and host survival strategies. On the one hand, viruses have evolved strategies to escape from antiviral host defenses evoked by IFN-activated JAK/STAT signaling...
April 14, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661181/tlr4-modulates-inflammatory-gene-targets-in-the-retina-during-bacillus-cereus-endophthalmitis
#3
Phillip S Coburn, Frederick C Miller, Austin L LaGrow, Salai Madhumathi Parkunan, C Blake Randall, Rachel L Staats, Michelle C Callegan
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis is a serious intraocular infection that frequently results in significant inflammation and vision loss. Because current therapeutics are often unsuccessful in mitigating damaging inflammation during endophthalmitis, more rational targets are needed. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize specific motifs on invading pathogens and initiate the innate inflammatory response. We reported that TLR4 contributes to the robust inflammation which is a hallmark of Bacillus cereus endophthalmitis...
April 16, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643251/pharmacological-characterization-of-iw-1973-a-novel-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-stimulator-with-extensive-tissue-distribution-anti-hypertensive-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-fibrotic-effects-in-preclinical-models-of-disease
#4
Jenny V Tobin, Daniel P Zimmer, Courtney Shea, Peter Germano, Sylvie G Bernier, Guang Liu, Kim Long, Joy Miyashiro, Sheila Ranganath, Sarah Jacobson, Kim Tang, G-Yoon Jamie Im, James Sheppeck, Joel D Moore, Kristine Sykes, James Wakefield, Renee Sarno, Ali R Banijamali, Albert T Profy, G Todd Milne, Mark G Currie, Jaime L Masferrer
Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a key signal-transduction enzyme, increases the conversion of guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) upon binding of nitric oxide (NO). Endothelial dysfunction and/or reduced NO signaling have been implicated in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis and complications of diabetes, and have been associated with other disease states and aging. sGC stimulators are small-molecule drugs that bind sGC and enhance NO-mediated cGMP signaling. The pharmacological characterization of IW-1973, a novel clinical-stage sGC stimulator, is described...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621967/role-of-lipids-in-hematopoiesis
#5
RavI Kumar Gutti, Priyanka Bansal, Priyanka Dahate, Sanjeev Raghuwanshi, Kovuru Narasaiah, Usha Gutti, Nagendra Sastry Yarla
Hematopoiesis is the process which generates all the mature blood cells from the rare pool of hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs). HSC divide by asymmetric division which provide it two distinct features of self-renewal and multi-potent differentiation capacity. Hematopoiesis is a steady state process in which mature blood cells are produced at the same rate at which they are lost, establishing a homeostasis. HSCs are regulated through their environmental niche, cytokine signalling, and the orchestrated activities of various transcription factors...
April 5, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621481/in-inflamed-intestinal-tissues-and-epithelial-cells-interleukin-22-signaling-increases-expression-of-h19-long-noncoding-rna-which-promotes-mucosal-regeneration
#6
Hua Geng, Heng-Fu Bu, Fangyi Liu, Longtao Wu, Karl Pfeifer, Pauline M Chou, Xiao Wang, Jiaren Sun, Lu Lu, Ashutosh Pandey, Marisa S Bartolomei, Isabelle G De Plaen, Peng Wang, Jindan Yu, Jiaming Qian, Xiao-Di Tan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammation affects regeneration of the intestinal epithelia; long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate cell functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration. We investigated the mechanisms by which the lncRNA H19, imprinted maternally expressed transcript (H19) regulates regeneration of intestinal epithelium using cell cultures and mouse models of inflammation. METHODS: We performed RNA-seq transcriptome analyses of intestinal tissues from mice with LPS-induced sepsis to identify lncRNAs associated with inflammation; findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization analyses of intestinal tissues from mice with sepsis or dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mucosal wound healing and patients with ulcerative colitis, compared to healthy individuals (controls)...
April 2, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606369/various-signaling-pathways-in-multiple-myeloma-cells-and-effects-of-treatment-on-these-pathways
#7
REVIEW
Ali Dehghanifard, Saeid Kaviani, Saeid Abroun, Mahshad Mehdizadeh, Sajedeh Saiedi, Amirhosein Maali, Sasan Ghaffari, Mehdi Azad
Multiple myeloma (MM) results from malignancy in plasma cells and occurs at ages > 50 years. MM is the second most common hematologic malignancy after non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which constitutes 1% of all malignancies. Despite the great advances in the discovery of useful drugs for this disease such as dexamethasone and bortezomib, it is still an incurable malignancy owing to the development of drug resistance. The tumor cells develop resistance to apoptosis, resulting in greater cell survival, and, ultimately, develop drug resistance by changing the various signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, and apoptosis...
March 17, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602283/korean-mistletoe-lectin-enhances-natural-killer-cell-cytotoxicity-via-upregulation-of-perforin-expression
#8
Younghoon Kim, Inbo Kim, Choon-Ho Park, Jong Bae Kim
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells are crucial components of the innate immune system, providing the first line of defense against pathogens. In a previous study, we demonstrated prophylactic activity of water extract of Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) on tumor metastasis. However, the leading compound from water extract of Korean mistletoe was not clearly addressed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was mainly focused on addressing the effect of Korean mistletoe lectin (KMLC) on NK cell cytotoxicity, and the ability of cytokine secretion as well as its signal transduction, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway...
March 31, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587154/intracellular-osteopontin-negatively-regulates-toll-like-receptor-4-mediated-inflammatory-response-via-regulating-gsk3%C3%AE-and-4ebp1-phosphorylation
#9
Haiou Yang, Xingchen Ye, Xiaoqing Zhang, Xiaoliang Li, Qihua Fu, Zhenhua Tang
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in host defense against invading pathogens. By initiating a signal transduction cascade, TLRs lead to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the inappropriate activation of TLR signaling could result in inflammatory disorders or autoimmune diseases. Osteopontin (OPN) has been reported to be an inflammatory cytokine participating in cell-mediated immunity. However, the role of OPN in TLR-mediated immune responses is poorly understood. In the present study, OPN-deficient (OPN-/-) macrophages exhibited significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
March 24, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573266/sorafenib-paradoxically-activates-the-ras-raf-erk-pathway-in-polyclonal-human-nk-cells-during-expansion-and-thereby-enhances-effector-functions-in-a-dose-and-time-dependent-manner
#10
Julian Lohmeyer, Thomas Nerreter, Julia Dotterweich, Hermann Einsele, Ruth Seggewiss-Bernhardt
Natural killer (NK) cells play a major role in host immunity against leukemia and lymphoma. However, clinical trials applying NK cells have not been as efficient as hoped for. Patients treated with RAF inhibitors exhibit increased tumor infiltration by immune cells suggesting that a combination of RAF inhibitors with immunotherapy might be beneficial. As MAPKs such as CRAF regulate NK cell functions, we performed an in vitro investigation on the potential of clinically relevant short acting tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as potential adjuvants for NK cell therapy: NK cells from healthy human blood donors were thus treated with sorafenib, sunitinib or the pan-RAF inhibitor ZM336372 during ex vivo expansion...
March 24, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562634/transcriptome-analysis-of-epithelioma-papulosum-cyprini-cells-infected-by-reovirus-isolated-from-allogynogenetic-silver-crucian-carp
#11
Cui-Yu Ba, Xiao-Yan Du, Pei-Jun Zhang, Ping Chen, Ya-Nan Cai, Yue-Hong Li
The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and major signal transduction pathways that were related to the immune response of epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cells to reoviruses isolated from allogynogenetic silver crucian carp. The study also lays a theoretical foundation for the pathogenesis and immunity of the reovirus, which is helpful to the breeding of cyprinids fish. Reovirus infected and uninfected EPC cells were analyzed by using a new-generation high-throughput sequencing technology...
March 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559168/the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein-formulated-with-a-polymer-based-adjuvant-induces-multiple-signaling-pathways-in-macrophages
#12
Indranil Sarkar, Ravendra Garg, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes acute respiratory tract infections in infants, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. No licensed vaccine is available against RSV. We previously reported that intranasal immunization of rodents and lambs with a RSV vaccine candidate (ΔF/TriAdj) induces protective immunity with a good safety profile. ΔF/TriAdj promoted innate immune responses in respiratory mucosal tissues in vivo, by local chemokine and cytokine production, as well as infiltration and activation of immune cells including macrophages...
March 17, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552110/interleukin-37-a-crucial-cytokine-with-multiple-roles-in-disease-and-potentially-clinical-therapy
#13
Lijuan Wang, Yanchun Quan, Yongfang Yue, Xueyuan Heng, Fengyuan Che
Interleukin (IL)-37, a new IL-1 family member, has received increasing attention in recent years. In the past decade, it has been determined that IL-37 is expressed in various normal cells and tissues and is regulated by inflammatory stimuli and pro-cytokines via different signal transduction pathways. Recently, it has been found that IL-37 is expressed in a variety of cancers, chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, a growing body of literature demonstrates that IL-37 plays a vital role in inhibiting both innate and adaptive immune responses as well as inflammatory reactions...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546369/how-ultraviolet-light-touches-the-brain-and-endocrine-system-through-skin-and-why
#14
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Przemyslaw M Plonka, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Ralf Paus
The skin, a self-regulating protective barrier organ, is empowered with sensory and computing capabilities to counteract the environmental stressors to maintain/restore disrupted cutaneous homeostasis. These complex functions are coordinated by a cutaneous neuro-endocrine system that also communicates in a bidirectional fashion with the central nervous, endocrine and immune systems, all acting in concert to control body homeostasis. While ultraviolet energy (UV) has played an important role in the origin and evolution of life, UV absorption by the skin not only triggers mechanisms that defend skin integrity and regulate global homeostasis, but also induces skin pathology (e...
March 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534658/gene-expression-profile-of-toll-like-receptor-adaptor-interferon-regulatory-factor-cytokine-axis-during-liver-regeneration-after-partial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#15
Meysam Nasiri, Mohammad-Hossein Karimi, Negar Azarpira, Iraj Saadat
OBJECTIVES: Toll-like receptors and downstream signal transduction pathways play pivotal roles in induction of inflammation, which is crucial for liver injury and regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a mouse model of partial hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury followed by a 28-day time course for liver repair and regeneration, we assessed gene expression levels for Toll-like receptors, myeloid differentiation primary response 88, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β, nuclear factor κB, interferon regulatory factors, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukins 1β and 6 at days 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 after reperfusion in liver and blood cells by quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
March 9, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530126/-advances-in-application-of-jurkat-cell-model-in-research-on-infectious-diseases
#16
Jing-Lun Chen, Guang-Min Nong
Infectious diseases can be caused by multiple pathogens, which can produce specific immune response in human body. The immune response produced by T cells is cellular immunity, which plays an important role in the anti-infection process of human body, and can participate in immunological protection and cause immunopathology. The outcome of various infectious diseases is closely related to cellular immune function, especially the function of T cells. Jurkat cells belong to the human acute T lymphocyte leukemia cell line...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526747/per%C3%AF-uorooctanesulfonate-induces-neuroinflammation-through-the-secretion-of-tnf-%C3%AE-mediated-by-the-jak2-stat3-pathway
#17
Xiaoxu Chen, Xiaoke Nie, Jiamin Mao, Yan Zhang, Kaizhi Yin, Shengyang Jiang
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-containing compounds are widely used in all aspects of industrial and consumer products. Recent studies indicated that PFOS is ubiquitous in environments and is considered to be a new type of persistent organic pollutant (POP). This has raised concerns regarding its adverse effects on human health. The nervous system is regarded as a sensitive target of environmental contaminants, including PFOS. Previous findings showed that PFOS can induce neurobehavioral deficits. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PFOS neurotoxicity remains obscure...
March 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526538/activation-of-ampk-inhibits-inflammatory-response-during-hypoxia-and-reoxygenation-through-modulating-jnk-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#18
Xu Chen, Xuan Li, Wenyan Zhang, Jie He, Bo Xu, Bin Lei, Zhenhua Wang, Courtney Cates, Thomas Rousselle, Ji Li
BACKGROUND: AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) is a stress-activated kinase that protects against cardiomyocyte injury during ischemia and reperfusion. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a mitogen activated protein kinase, is activated by ischemia and reperfusion. NF-κB is an important transcription factor involved in ischemia and reperfusion injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: The intrinsic activation of AMPK attenuates the inflammation which occurred during ischemia/reperfusion through the modulation of the JNK mediated NF-κB signaling pathway...
March 8, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525203/modeling-cell-to-cell-communication-networks-using-response-time-distributions
#19
Kevin Thurley, Lani F Wu, Steven J Altschuler
Cell-to-cell communication networks have critical roles in coordinating diverse organismal processes, such as tissue development or immune cell response. However, compared with intracellular signal transduction networks, the function and engineering principles of cell-to-cell communication networks are far less understood. Major complications include: cells are themselves regulated by complex intracellular signaling networks; individual cells are heterogeneous; and output of any one cell can recursively become an additional input signal to other cells...
February 23, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523682/the-length-of-the-interleukin-11-receptor-stalk-determines-its-capacity-for-classic-signaling
#20
Juliane Lokau, Christoph Garbers
Interleukin (IL)-11 is a multifunctional cytokine that was traditionally recognized for its hematopoietic and anti-inflammatory functions, but has recently been shown also to be involved in tumorigenesis. IL-11 signaling is initiated by binding of the cytokine to the IL-11 receptor (IL-11R), which is not directly involved in signaling, but required for IL-11 binding to the signal-transducing receptor glycoprotein (gp)130. In classic signaling, IL-11 binds to the membrane-bound IL-11R in order to initiate signal transduction...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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