keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Epigenetic regulation of chromosome

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139335/shprh-as-a-new-player-in-ribosomal-rna-transcription-and-its-potential-role-in-homeostasis-of-ribosomal-dna-repeats
#1
Deokjae Lee, Jun Hong Park, Shinseog Kim, Seon-Gyeong Lee, Kyungjae Myung
There are hundreds of copies of rDNA repeats in mammalian chromosomes and the ratio of active, poised, or inactive rDNA is regulated in epigenetic manners. Recent studies demonstrated that a post-DNA replication repair enzyme, SHPRH affects rRNA transcription by recognizing epigenetic markers on rDNA promoters and unveiled potential links between DNA repair and ribosome biogenesis (1) . This study suggests that SHPRH could be a link between mTOR-mediated epigenetic regulations and rRNA transcription, while concomitantly affecting genomic integrity...
November 15, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132323/integrative-microrna-and-mrna-deep-sequencing-expression-profiling-in-endemic-burkitt-lymphoma
#2
Cliff I Oduor, Yasin Kaymaz, Kiprotich Chelimo, Juliana A Otieno, John Michael Ong'echa, Ann M Moormann, Jeffrey A Bailey
BACKGROUND: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is characterized by overexpression of the c-myc oncogene, which in the vast majority of cases is a consequence of an IGH/MYC translocation. While myc is the seminal event, BL is a complex amalgam of genetic and epigenetic changes causing dysregulation of both coding and non-coding transcripts. Emerging evidence suggest that abnormal modulation of mRNA transcription via miRNAs might be a significant factor in lymphomagenesis. However, the alterations in these miRNAs and their correlations to their putative mRNA targets have not been extensively studied relative to normal germinal center (GC) B cells...
November 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126199/evolutionary-epigenomics-of-retrotransposon-mediated-methylation-spreading-in-rice-by
#3
Jae Young Choi, Michael D Purugganan
Plant genomes contain numerous transposable elements (TEs), and many hypotheses on the evolutionary drivers that restrict TE activity have been postulated. Few models, however, have focused on the evolutionary epigenomic interaction between the plant host and its TE. The host genome recruits epigenetic factors, such as methylation, to silence TEs but methylation can spread beyond the TE sequence and influence the expression of nearby host genes. In this study, we investigated this epigenetic trade-off between TE and proximal host gene silencing by studying the epigenomic regulation of repressing long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons (RTs) in Oryza sativa...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118343/exosc10-rrp6-is-post-translationally-regulated-in-male-germ-cells-and-controls-the-onset-of-spermatogenesis
#4
Soazik P Jamin, Fabrice G Petit, Christine Kervarrec, Fatima Smagulova, Doris Illner, Harry Scherthan, Michael Primig
EXOSC10 is a catalytic subunit of the exosome that processes biologically active transcripts, degrades aberrant mRNAs and targets certain long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The yeast orthologue Rrp6 is required for efficient growth and gametogenesis, and becomes unstable during meiosis. However, nothing is known about the localization, stability and function of EXOSC10 in the rodent male germline. We detect the protein in nucleoli and the cytoplasm of mitotic and meiotic germ cells, and find that it transiently associates with the XY body, a structure targeted by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI)...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118015/anril-regulates-production-of-extracellular-matrix-proteins-and-vasoactive-factors-in-diabetic-complications
#5
Anu Alice Thomas, Biao Feng, Subrata Chakrabarti
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gained widespread interest due to their prevailing presence in various diseases. lncRNA ANRIL (a.k.a CDKN2B-AS1) is located on human chromosome 9 (p21.3) and transcribed in opposite direction to INK4b-ARF-INK4a gene cluster. It has been identified as highly susceptible region for diseases such as coronary artery diseases and Type 2 Diabetes. Here we explored its regulatory role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in association with epigenetic modifiers p300 and polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) complex...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116102/epigenetic-transitions-and-knotted-solitons-in-stretched-chromatin
#6
D Michieletto, E Orlandini, D Marenduzzo
The spreading and regulation of epigenetic marks on chromosomes is crucial to establish and maintain cellular identity. Nonetheless, the dynamic mechanism leading to the establishment and maintenance of tissue-specific, epigenetic pattern is still poorly understood. In this work we propose, and investigate in silico, a possible experimental strategy to illuminate the interplay between 3D chromatin structure and epigenetic dynamics. We consider a set-up where a reconstituted chromatin fibre is stretched at its two ends (e...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104214/impact-of-repetitive-elements-on-the-y-chromosome-formation-in-plants
#7
REVIEW
Roman Hobza, Radim Cegan, Wojciech Jesionek, Eduard Kejnovsky, Boris Vyskot, Zdenek Kubat
In contrast to animals, separate sexes and sex chromosomes in plants are very rare. Although the evolution of sex chromosomes has been the subject of numerous studies, the impact of repetitive sequences on sex chromosome architecture is not fully understood. New genomic approaches shed light on the role of satellites and transposable elements in the process of Y chromosome evolution. We discuss the impact of repetitive sequences on the structure and dynamics of sex chromosomes with specific focus on Rumex acetosa and Silene latifolia...
November 1, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092026/copd-gwas-variant-at-19q13-2-in-relation-with-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression
#8
Ivana Nedeljkovic, Lies Lahousse, Elena Carnero Montoro, Alen Faiz, Judith M Vonk, Kim de Jong, Diana A van der Plaat, Cleo C van Diemen, Maarten van den Berge, Ma'en Obeidat, Yohan Bossé, David C Nickle, Andre G Uitterlinden, Joyce B J van Meurs, Bruno H C Stricker, Guy G Brusselle, Dirkje S Postma, H Marike Boezen, Cornelia M van Duijn, Najaf Amin
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is among the major health burdens in adults. While cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor, a growing number of genetic variations have been discovered to influence disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modifications may mediate the response of the genome to smoking and regulate gene expression. Chromosome 19q13.2 region is associated with both smoking and COPD, yet its functional role is unclear. Our study aimed to determine whether rs7937 (RAB4B, EGLN2), a top genetic variant in 19q13...
October 28, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077558/-the-genetics-of-obesity-pathogenetic-clinical-and-diagnostic-aspects
#9
Artur Barczyk, Anna Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Jennifer Castañeda, Ewa Obersztyn
Due to its prevalence and its health-related, economic and social consequences, childhood and adult obesity is a complex, medical and civilizational problem, which has been on the increase in the last decade. The results of multi-center investigations reveal that genetic factors play an essential role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity, particularly in the case of extreme cases with very early onset. The Body Mass Index (BMI) is one of the most frequently used indicators of obesity and shows a strong genetic component with a 40-70% degree of heritability...
2017: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070530/the-histone-demethylase-jumonji-domain-containing-protein-3-jmjd3-regulates-fibroblast-activation-in-systemic-sclerosis
#10
Christina Bergmann, Amelie Brandt, Benita Merlevede, Ludwig Hallenberger, Clara Dees, Thomas Wohlfahrt, Sebastian Pötter, Yun Zhang, Chih-Wei Chen, Tatiana Mallano, Ruifang Liang, Rosebeth Kagwiria, Alexander Kreuter, Ioanna Pantelaki, Aline Bozec, David Abraham, Ralf Rieker, Andreas Ramming, Oliver Distler, Georg Schett, Jörg H W Distler
OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) fibroblasts remain activated even in the absence of exogenous stimuli. Epigenetic alterations are thought to play a role for this endogenous activation. Trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me3) is regulated by Jumonji domain-containing protein 3 (JMJD3) and ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on chromosome X (UTX) in a therapeutically targetable manner. The aim of this study was to explore H3K27me3 demethylases as potential targets for the treatment of fibrosis...
October 25, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066499/a-mutually-exclusive-stem-loop-arrangement-in-rox2-rna-is-essential-for-x-chromosome-regulation-in-drosophila
#11
Ibrahim Avsar Ilik, Daniel Maticzka, Plamen Georgiev, Noel Marie Gutierrez, Rolf Backofen, Asifa Akhtar
The X chromosome provides an ideal model system to study the contribution of RNA-protein interactions in epigenetic regulation. In male flies, roX long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) harbor several redundant domains to interact with the ubiquitin ligase male-specific lethal 2 (MSL2) and the RNA helicase Maleless (MLE) for X-chromosomal regulation. However, how these interactions provide the mechanics of spreading remains unknown. By using the uvCLAP (UV cross-linking and affinity purification) methodology, which provides unprecedented information about RNA secondary structures in vivo, we identified the minimal functional unit of roX2 RNA...
October 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062045/evolution-of-af6-ras-association-and-its-implications-in-mixed-lineage-leukemia
#12
Matthew J Smith, Elizabeth Ottoni, Noboru Ishiyama, Marilyn Goudreault, André Haman, Claus Meyer, Monika Tucholska, Genevieve Gasmi-Seabrook, Serena Menezes, Rob C Laister, Mark D Minden, Rolf Marschalek, Anne-Claude Gingras, Trang Hoang, Mitsuhiko Ikura
Elucidation of activation mechanisms governing protein fusions is essential for therapeutic development. MLL undergoes rearrangement with numerous partners, including a recurrent translocation fusing the epigenetic regulator to a cytoplasmic RAS effector, AF6/afadin. We show here that AF6 employs a non-canonical, evolutionarily conserved α-helix to bind RAS, unique to AF6 and the classical RASSF effectors. Further, all patients with MLL-AF6 translocations express fusion proteins missing only this helix from AF6, resulting in exposure of hydrophobic residues that induce dimerization...
October 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058668/e3-ubiquitin-ligase-bre1-couples-sister-chromatid-cohesion-establishment-to-dna-replication-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
Wei Zhang, Clarence Hue Lok Yeung, Liwen Wu, Karen Wing Yee Yuen
Bre1, a conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, together with its interacting partner Lge1, are responsible for histone H2B monoubiquitination, which regulates transcription, DNA replication, DNA damage response and repair, ensuring the structural integrity of the genome. Deletion of BRE1 or LGE1 also results in whole chromosome instability. We discovered a novel role for Bre1, Lge1 and H2Bub1 in chromosome segregation and sister chromatid cohesion. Bre1's function in G1 and S phases contributes to cohesion establishment, but it is not required for cohesion maintenance in G2 phase...
October 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052194/unraveling-the-complex-epigenetic-mechanisms-that-regulate-gene-activity
#14
Marian Bemer
Our understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression has been largely increased in recent years by the development and refinement of different techniques. This has revealed that gene transcription is highly influenced by epigenetic mechanisms, i.e., those that do not involve changes in the genome sequence, but rather in nuclear architecture, chromosome conformation and histone and DNA modifications. Our understanding of how these different levels of epigenetic regulation interact with each other and with classical transcription-factor based gene regulation to influence gene transcription has just started to emerge...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045485/alterations-in-the-placental-methylome-with-maternal-obesity-and-evidence-for-metabolic-regulation
#15
Kohzoh Mitsuya, Ashley N Parker, Lu Liu, Jianhua Ruan, Margreet C M Vissers, Leslie Myatt
The inflammatory and metabolic derangements of obesity in pregnant women generate an adverse intrauterine environment, increase pregnancy complications and adverse fetal outcomes and program the fetus for obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. We hypothesized that epigenetic modifications in placenta including altered DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation may mediate these effects. Term placental villous tissue was collected following cesarean section from lean (prepregnancy BMI<25) or obese (BMI>30) women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036316/the-role-of-small-rna-based-epigenetic-silencing-for-purifying-selection-on-transposable-elements-in-capsella-grandiflora
#16
Robert Horvath, Tanja Slotte
To avoid negative effects of transposable element (TE) proliferation, plants epigenetically silence TEs using a number of mechanisms, including RNA-directed DNA methylation. These epigenetic modifications can extend outside the boundaries of TE insertions and lead to silencing of nearby genes, resulting in a trade-off between TE silencing and interference with nearby gene regulation. Therefore, purifying selection is expected to remove silenced TE insertions near genes more efficiently and prevent their accumulation within a population...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030490/early-sex-dependent-differences-in-response-to-environmental-stress
#17
Serafin Pérez-Cerezales, Priscila Ramos-Ibeas, Dimitrios Rizos, Pat Lonergan, Pablo Bermejo-Alvarez, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan
Developmental plasticity enables the appearance of long-term effects in offspring caused by exposure to environmental stressors during embryonic and foetal life. These long-term effects can be traced to pre- and post-implantation development, and in both cases the effects are usually sex-specific. During preimplantation development, male and female embryos exhibit an extensive transcriptional dimorphism mainly driven by incomplete X-chromosome inactivation. These early developmental stages are crucial for the establishment of epigenetic marks that will be conserved throughout development, making it a particularly susceptible period for the appearance of long-term epigenetic-based phenotypes...
October 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029492/gata2-regulates-the-erythropoietin-receptor-in-t-12-21-all
#18
Marie E Gaine, Daniel J Sharpe, James S Smith, Hilary A A Colyer, Vivien M Hodges, Terry R Lappin, Ken I Mills
The t(12;21) (p13;q22) chromosomal translocation resulting in the ETV6/RUNX1 fusion gene is the most frequent structural cytogenetic abnormality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), usually associated with erythroid progenitor cells, is highly expressed in ETV6/RUNX1 positive cases compared to other B-lineage ALL subtypes. Gene expression analysis of a microarray database and direct quantitative analysis of patient samples revealed strong correlation between EPOR and GATA2 expression in ALL, and higher expression of GATA2 in t(12;21) patients...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024414/measurement-of-nucleosomal-structural-stability-distribution-along-individual-giant-native-chromatin-fibers-at-different-salt-concentrations-using-a-microfluidic-channel-with-microstructures
#19
Hiroki Mori, Kennedy O Okeyo, Masao Washizu, Hidehiro Oana
Identifying the distribution of the higher-order structure of chromatin-a complex of DNA and proteins-along genomic DNA can clarify the mechanisms underlying cell development and differentiation, including gene regulation. However, genome-wide analysis of this distribution at the single-cell level remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new method for investigating changes in and the distribution of higher-order structures along native chromatin fibers-ranging over 100 μm in length-relative to changes in salt concentration...
October 12, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991910/loss-of-xist-rna-from-the-inactive-x-during-b-cell-development-is-restored-in-a-dynamic-yy1-dependent-two-step-process-in-activated-b-cells
#20
Camille M Syrett, Vishal Sindhava, Suchita Hodawadekar, Arpita Myles, Guanxiang Liang, Yue Zhang, Satabdi Nandi, Michael Cancro, Michael Atchison, Montserrat C Anguera
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in female lymphocytes is uniquely regulated, as the inactive X (Xi) chromosome lacks localized Xist RNA and heterochromatin modifications. Epigenetic profiling reveals that Xist RNA is lost from the Xi at the pro-B cell stage and that additional heterochromatic modifications are gradually lost during B cell development. Activation of mature B cells restores Xist RNA and heterochromatin to the Xi in a dynamic two-step process that differs in timing and pattern, depending on the method of B cell stimulation...
October 2017: PLoS Genetics
keyword
keyword
32586
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"