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Jie Liang, Hsin-I Huang, Fernanda P Benzatti, Amelia B Karlsson, Junyi J Zhang, Nourhan Youssef, Averil Ma, Laura P Hale, Gianna E Hammer
Normal dynamics between microbiota and dendritic cells (DCs) support modest numbers of T cells, yet these do not cause inflammation. The DCs that induce inflammatory T cells and the signals that drive this process remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that small intestine DCs lacking the signaling attenuator A20 induce inflammatory T cells and that the signals perceived and antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions are unique for different DC subsets. Thus, although CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs exclusively instruct IFNγ(+) T cells, CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs exclusively instruct IL-17(+) T cells...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Jeffrey L Ardell, John Andrew Armour
Cardiac control is mediated via a series of reflex control networks involving somata in the (i) intrinsic cardiac ganglia (heart), (ii) intrathoracic extracardiac ganglia (stellate, middle cervical), (iii) superior cervical ganglia, (iv) spinal cord, (v) brainstem, and (vi) higher centers. Each of these processing centers contains afferent, efferent, and local circuit neurons, which interact locally and in an interdependent fashion with the other levels to coordinate regional cardiac electrical and mechanical indices on a beat-to-beat basis...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Debdutta Chakraborty, Pratim Kumar Chattaraj
The feasibility of having MF3 (where M = Rh, Ir, Pd, Pt, Ag, Au) supported AlN nanoflakes (AlNF) was investigated through density functional theory based calculations. The thermodynamic analysis reveals that the superhalogen MF3 molecules can bind with the host AlNF in a thermodynamically favorable way. The nature of interaction in between the metal centers and the host is of partly covalent type whereas the F centers bind with the host in a non-covalent fashion as vindicated by natural bond orbital and atoms-in a-molecule analyses...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Samuel C Peet, Rachael Wilks, Tanya Kairn, Jamie V Trapp, Scott B Crowe
PURPOSE: The dose-response of radiochromic film has been shown to be dependent on the quality of the incident radiation, particularly at low energies. Difficulty therefore arises when a calibration is required for radiation of uncertain energy. This study investigates the ability of a recently published calibration method [see M. Tamponi et al., "A new form of the calibration curve in radiochromic dosimetry. Properties and results," Med. Phys. 43, 4435-4446 (2016)] to reduce the energy-dependence of radiochromic film...
October 2016: Medical Physics
Adam B Phillips, Zhaoning Song, Jonathan L DeWitt, Jon M Stone, Patrick W Krantz, John M Royston, Ryan M Zeller, Meghan R Mapes, Paul J Roland, Mark D Dorogi, Syed Zafar, Gary T Faykosh, Randy J Ellingson, Michael J Heben
We have developed a laser beam induced current imaging tool for photovoltaic devices and modules that utilizes diode pumped Q-switched lasers. Power densities on the order of one sun (100 mW/cm(2)) can be produced in a ∼40 μm spot size by operating the lasers at low diode current and high repetition rate. Using galvanostatically controlled mirrors in an overhead configuration and high speed data acquisition, large areas can be scanned in short times. As the beam is rastered, focus is maintained on a flat plane with an electronically controlled lens that is positioned in a coordinated fashion with the movements of the mirrors...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Youping Wu, Chun-Shiang Chung, Yaping Chen, Sean Farrell Monaghan, Sima Patel, Xin Huang, Daithi Seamus Heffernan, Alfred Ayala
Studies imply that intestinal barrier dysfunction is a key contributor to morbid events associated with sepsis. Recently, co-inhibitory molecule, programmed death-ligand1 (PD-L1) has been shown to be involved in the regulation of intestinal immune tolerance and/or inflammation. Our previous studies showed that PD-L1 gene deficiency reduced sepsis-induced intestinal injury morphologically. However, it isn't known how PD-L1 expression impacts intestinal barrier dysfunction during sepsis. Here we tested the hypothesis that PD-L1 expressed on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) has a role in sepsis-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Paul J Lee, Christopher L Owens, Marie Y Lithgow, Zhong Jiang, Andrew H Fischer
INTRODUCTION: The Paris System for classifying urine cytology emphasizes identification of high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC). The causes of false-negative urine cytologies (UC) within this system are not well described. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified 660 cases between 2005 and 2013 with both UC and subsequent cystoscopic biopsies. UC were classified as either Negative for HGUC or "Abnormal" ("Atypical", "Suspicious", and "Malignant"). Apparent false-negative cases were reviewed in a nonblinded fashion by two cytopathologists and two subspecialized genitourinary pathologists...
October 26, 2016: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Alexander O Vargas, Quirin Krabichler, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna
Paul Kammerer was the most outstanding neo-Lamarckian experimentalist of the early 20th century. He reported spectacular results in the midwife toad, including crosses of environmentally modified toads with normal toads, where acquired traits were inherited in Mendelian fashion. Accusations of fraud generated a great scandal, ending with Kammerer's suicide. Controversy reignited in the 1970s, when journalist Arthur Koestler argued against these accusations. Since then, others have argued that Kammerer's results, even if real, were not groundbreaking and could be explained by somatic plasticity, inadvertent selection, or conventional genetics...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Kiran Kumarvarma Chakrahari, Jian-Hong Liao, Samia Kahlal, Yu-Chiao Liu, Ming-Hsi Chiang, Jean-Yves Saillard, C W Liu
The first structurally characterized copper cluster with a Cu13 centered cuboctahedral arrangement, a model of the bulk copper fcc structure, was observed in [Cu13 (S2 CN(n) Bu2 )6 (C≡CR)4 ](PF6 ) (R=C(O)OMe, C6 H4 F) nanoclusters. Four of the eight triangular faces of the cuboctahedron are capped by acetylide groups in μ3  fashion, and each of the six square faces is bridged by a dithiolate ligand in μ2 ,μ2 fashion, which leads to a truncated tetrahedron of twelve sulfur atoms. DFT calculations are fully consistent with the description of these Cu13 clusters as two-electron superatoms, that is, a [Cu13 ](11+) core passivated by ten monoanionic ligands, with an a1 HOMO containing two 1S jellium electrons...
October 26, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Bin Xu, Anjie Ma, Teng Jia, Zhiqiang Hao, Wei Gao, Ying Mu
Treatments of N-aryl-phenanthren-o-iminoquinone (aryl = 2,6-Me2C6H3 ((Me)L); 2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3 ((iPr)L)) with iron powder in THF at 75 °C generate complexes [η(2)L]2Fe[η(1)LH] (1a, L = (Me)L; 1b, L = (iPr)L) in moderate yields. The X-ray crystallography analysis reveals that the molecule of 1b consists of a Fe(iii) center coordinated by three phenanthren-o-iminosemiquinone ligands, two of which are in an η(2) fashion while the remaining one is in an η(1) fashion. The analysis of the bond parameters of ligands indicates that the η(2)-fashioned ligands are radical anions and the η(1)-fashioned one is in an aminephenolato form...
October 26, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Rachael S Rigda, Laurence G Trahair, Tanya J Little, Tongzhi Wu, Scott Standfield, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Christopher K Rayner, Michael Horowitz, Karen L Jones
The importance of the region, as opposed to the length, of small intestine exposed to glucose in determining the secretion of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) remains unclear. We sought to compare the glycemic, insulinemic and incretin responses to glucose administered to the proximal (12-60cm beyond the pylorus), or more distal (>70cm beyond the pylorus) small intestine, or both. 10 healthy subjects (9M,1F; aged 70.3±1.4years) underwent infusion of glucose via a catheter into the proximal (glucose proximally; GP), or distal (glucose distally; GD) small intestine, or both (GPD), on three separate days in a randomized fashion...
October 22, 2016: Peptides
Jing Li, Alistair Woodward, Xiang-Yu Hou, Tong Zhu, Jinliang Zhang, Helen Brown, Jun Yang, Rennie Qin, Jinghong Gao, Shaohua Gu, Jing Li, Lei Xu, Xiaobo Liu, Qiyong Liu
Temperature extremes and air pollution both pose significant threats to human health, but it remains uncertain whether pollutants' effects on mortality are modified by temperature levels. In this review, we summarized epidemiologic evidence on the modification by temperature of the acute effects of air pollutants on non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. The EMBASE, PubMed, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and Elsevier Science Direct databases were used to identify papers published up to 2nd December 2014...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Hyunho Noh, Yuexing Cui, Aaron W Peters, Dale R Pahls, Manuel A Ortuño, Nicolaas A Vermeulen, Christopher J Cramer, Laura Gagliardi, Joseph T Hupp, Omar K Farha
Molybdenum(VI) oxide was deposited on the Zr6 node of the mesoporous metal-organic framework NU-1000 via condensed-phase deposition where the MOF is simply submerged in the precursor solution, a process named solvothermal deposition in MOFs (SIM). Exposure to oxygen leads to a monodisperse, porous heterogeneous catalyst, named Mo-SIM, and its structure on the node was elucidated both computationally and spectroscopically. The catalytic activity of Mo-SIM was tested for the epoxidation of cyclohexene. Near-quantitative yields of cyclohexene oxide and the ring-opened 1,2-cyclohexanediol were observed, indicating activity significantly higher than that of molybdenum(VI) oxide powder and comparable to that of a zirconia-supported analogue (Mo-ZrO2) prepared in a similar fashion...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yoshinori Imura, Takaaki Nakai, Shutaro Yamada, Hidetatsu Outani, Satoshi Takenaka, Kenichiro Hamada, Nobuhito Araki, Kazuyuki Itoh, Hideki Yoshikawa, Norifumi Naka
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is an aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma with a poor prognosis and thus novel therapeutic strategies for SS are urgently required. In the present study, we investigated functional and therapeutic relevance of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-MET signaling in SS. Both HGF and c-MET were highly expressed in Yamato-SS cells, resulting in activation of c-MET and its downstream AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways, whereas c-MET was expressed but not activated in SYO-1 or HS-SY-II cells...
October 24, 2016: Cancer Science
Viney Gupta, Bindu I Somarajan, Shikha Gupta, Abadh Kishore Chaurasia, Sandip Kumar, Paromita Dutta, Vipin Gupta, Arundhati Sharma, Bamidele O Tayo, Ken Nischal
Juvenile onset open angle glaucoma affects patients before 40years of age, who present with high intraocular pressure and deep steep cupping of the optic nerve head. While it was considered to be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, recent studies have shown an autosomal recessive pattern as well as sporadic occurrence of the disease in several families. In this review, we analyze the genetic basis of the disease along with common mutations and their association with JOAG. We also analyzed the inheritance patterns in a large group of unrelated JOAG patients (n = 336) from Northern India wherein the prevalence of familial occurrence was assessed and segregation analysis performed, to determine the mode of inheritance...
October 25, 2016: Clinical Genetics
I Lengyel, F Toth, D Biyashev, I Szatmari, K Monory, C Tomboly, G Toth, S Benyhe, A Borsodi
Endomorphins are natural amidated opioid tetrapeptides with the following structure: Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2 (endomorphin-1), and Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2 (endomorphin-2). Endomorphins interact selectively with the μ-opioid or MOP receptors and exhibit nanomolar or sub-nanomolar receptor binding affinities, therefore they suggested to be endogenous agonists for the μ-opioid receptors. Endomorphins mediate a number of characteristic opioid effects, such as antinociception, however there are several physiological functions in which endomorphins appear to act in a fashion that does not involve binding to and activation of the μ-opioid receptor...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Nicolas Roberto Robles, Carlos Calvo, Javier Sobrino, Eugenia Espinel, Rafael Esteban, Lourdes Mateos, Juan F Macias
OBJECTIVE: The RED LEVEL study (REnal Disease: LErcanidipine Valuable Effect on urine protein Losses) directly compares, in an explorative fashion, the effects of lercanidipine + enalapril and amlodipine + enalapril combinations on renal parameters in hypertensive subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a 1 year, prospective, multi-center, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) study in hypertensive patients with albuminuria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Renal function (albuminuria, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria); blood pressure...
October 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Mayank Roy, Fernando Dip, David Nguyen, Conrad H Simpfendorfer, Emanuele Lo Menzo, Samuel Szomstein, Raul J Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative incisionless fluorescent cholangiogram (IOIFC) has been demonstrated to be a useful tool to increase the visualization of Calot's triangle. This study evaluates the identification of extrahepatic biliary structures with IOIFC by medical students and surgery residents. METHODS: Two pictures were taken, one with xenon light and one with near-infrared (NIR) light, at the same stage during dissection of Calot's triangle in ten different cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC)...
October 24, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
C W Michalski, P Tramelli, M W Büchler, T Hackert
Postoperative pancreatic fistulas represent the most frequent complication after distal and segmental pancreatectomy and occur with a frequency of up to 50 %. There are many technical variations of pancreatic stump treatment for reduction of fistula rates after distal resection. Most of these techniques have only been analyzed in retrospective studies and the evidence for or against a specific technique is low. Several retrospective trials have been conducted with good results to compare suturing with stapled closure of the remnant and to assess the effect of a vascularized falciform ligament patch in reducing postoperative pancreatic fistula; however, in a recently published randomized trial, which analyzed closure of the remnant with a pancreaticojejunostomy compared to standard closure, these results could not be confirmed...
October 24, 2016: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Pasqualino Sirignano, Francesco Speziale, Nunzio Montelione, Chiara Pranteda, Giuseppe Galzerano, Wassim Mansour, Enrico Sbarigia, Carlo Setacci
Objectives. To compare durability and survival after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and open repair (OR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in young patients. Material and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted between 2005 and 2014 on all consecutive patients of 60 years of age or younger. Measures considered for analysis were reintervention related to AAA, laparotomy and access vessel injury during EVAR, and all-cause mortality during hospitalization and follow-up. Results. Seventy out of 119 patients were treated by OR (58...
2016: BioMed Research International
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