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Epithelial mesenchymal transformation

W J Zhang, J J Sun
Objective: To construct tissue engineered-epithelial patches with human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSC) and extracellular matrix scaffold (ECM), and to observe their morphological characteristics and biological behaviors. Methods: The cultured and purified hADSC were co-cultured with the ECM. The adhesion of hADSC formed sheet on the ECM were observed by the scanning electron microscopy. The activity and apoptosis of hADSC cultured on the ECM were observed by laser scanning confocal microscope...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
L Chen, D L Wang, Z R Wei, B Wang, J P Qi, G F Sun
Objective: To investigate the effects of local transplantation of autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) on the formation of hyperplastic scar on rabbit ears. Methods: ADSCs were isolated from inguinal fat of six New Zealand rabbits and then sub-cultured. ADSCs of the third passage of each rabbit were used in the following experiments. Six full-thickness skin defect wounds with diameter of 6 mm on the ventral surface of every rabbit ear were made. Wound healing and local-tissue proliferation were observed, and complete epithelization time of wounds and formation time of hyperplastic scar were recorded...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Francesca Bianchini, Silvia Peppicelli, Pierangelo Fabbrizzi, Alessio Biagioni, Benedetta Mazzanti, Gloria Menchi, Lido Calorini, Alberto Pupi, Andrea Trabocchi
Fibrosis is the dramatic consequence of a dysregulated reparative process in which activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) play a central role. When exposed to TGFβ1, fibroblast and epithelial cells differentiate in myofibroblasts; in addition, endothelial cells may undergo endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and actively participate to the progression of fibrosis. Recently, the role of αv integrins, which recognize the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide, in the release and signal transduction activation of TGFβ1 became evident...
October 19, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Wen-Jin Ding, Min Zhou, Mei-Mei Chen, Chun-Ying Qu
PURPOSE: The homeobox B8 (HOXB8) functions as a sequence-specific transcription factor that is involved in development. Increased expression of this gene is associated with a wide variety of tumor; however, its function in gastric cancer has not been clarified. In the present study, the expression of HOXB8 in gastric cancer tissues and influence of HOXB8 on gastric cancer cellular were evaluated. METHODS: The expression levels of HOXB8 mRNA in human gastric cancer tissues were analyzed through quantitative RT-PCR...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Mark R Cronan, Rebecca W Beerman, Allison F Rosenberg, Joseph W Saelens, Matthew G Johnson, Stefan H Oehlers, Dana M Sisk, Kristen L Jurcic Smith, Neil A Medvitz, Sara E Miller, Le A Trinh, Scott E Fraser, John F Madden, Joanne Turner, Jason E Stout, Sunhee Lee, David M Tobin
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in humans triggers formation of granulomas, which are tightly organized immune cell aggregates that are the central structure of tuberculosis. Infected and uninfected macrophages interdigitate, assuming an altered, flattened appearance. Although pathologists have described these changes for over a century, the molecular and cellular programs underlying this transition are unclear. Here, using the zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum model, we found that mycobacterial granuloma formation is accompanied by macrophage induction of canonical epithelial molecules and structures...
October 18, 2016: Immunity
Nicole E McNeil, Hesed M Padilla-Nash, Floryne O Buishand, Yue Hue, Thomas Ried
Human colorectal carcinomas are defined by a non-random distribution of genomic imbalances that are characteristic for this disease. Often, these imbalances affect entire chromosomes. Understanding the role of these aneuploidies for carcinogenesis is of utmost importance. Currently, established transgenic mice do not recapitulate the pathognonomic genome aberration profile of human colorectal carcinomas. We have developed a novel model based on the spontaneous transformation of murine colon epithelial cells...
October 17, 2016: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Ajaz A Bhat, Rizwan Ahmad, SrijayaPrakash B Uppada, Amar B Singh, Punita Dhawan
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important mechanism in cancer progression and malignancy including colorectal cancer (CRC). Importantly, inflammatory mediators are critical constituents of the local tumor environment and an intimate link between CRC progression and inflammation is now validated. We and others have reported key role of the deregulated claudin-1 expression in colon carcinogenesis including colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). However, the causal association between claudin-1 expression and inflammation-induced colon cancer progression remains unclear...
October 11, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Oystein S Eikrem, Philipp Strauss, Christian Beisland, Andreas Scherer, Lea Landolt, Arnar Flatberg, Sabine Leh, Vidar Beisvag, Trude Skogstrand, Karin Hjelle, Anjana Shresta, Hans-Peter Marti
OBJECTIVE: A previous study by this group demonstrated the feasibility of RNA sequencing (RNAseq) technology for capturing disease biology of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), and presented initial results for carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA9) and tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein-6 (TNFAIP6) as possible biomarkers of ccRCC (discovery set) [Eikrem et al. PLoS One 2016;11:e0149743]. To confirm these results, the previous study is expanded, and RNAseq data from additional matched ccRCC and normal renal biopsies are analyzed (confirmation set)...
October 14, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
Hyejung Jung, Bomin Kim, Byung In Moon, Eok-Soo Oh
During epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), epithelial cells lose key phenotypic markers (e.g., E-cadherin and cytokeratin 18) and acquire mesenchymal markers (e.g., N-cadherin and vimentin). Although the loss of cytokeratin 18 is a hallmark of EMT, the regulatory role of cytokeratin 18 in EMT is not yet fully understood. Here, we report that cytokeratin 18 is involved in the regulation of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1)-induced EMT in breast epithelial cells. When MCF10A cells were treated with TGF-β1 for 24 h, considerable morphological changes, indicative of the early stages of EMT (e...
October 13, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Domenico Albino, Gianluca Civenni, Simona Rossi, Abhishek Mitra, Carlo V Catapano, Giuseppina M Carbone
Metastatic prostate cancer represents a yet unsolved clinical problem due to the high frequency of relapse and treatment resistance. Understanding the pathways that lead to prostate cancer progression is an important task to prevent this deadly disease. The ETS transcription factor ESE3/EHF has an important role in differentiation of human prostate epithelial cells. Loss of ESE3/EHF in prostate epithelial cells determines transformation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and acquisition of stem-like properties...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Junsheng Li, Barbara Kwiatkowska, Hao Lu, Maren Voglstätter, Erika Ueda, Michael Grunze, Jonathan Sleeman, Pavel A Levkin, Irina Nazarenko
Malignant transformation is associated with enhancement of cell plasticity, which allows cancer cells to survive under different conditions by adapting to their microenvironment during growth and metastatic spread. Much effort has been devoted to understanding the molecular mechanisms of these processes. Although the importance of the extracellular matrix and of surface properties in these mechanisms is evident, the direct impact of distinct physical and chemical surfaces characteristics on cell fate remains unclear...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Susan E Leggett, Jea Yun Sim, Jonathan E Rubins, Zachary J Neronha, Evelyn Kendall Williams, Ian Y Wong
Single cells respond heterogeneously to biochemical treatments, which can complicate the analysis of in vitro and in vivo experiments. In particular, stressful perturbations may induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a transformation through which compact, sensitive cells adopt an elongated, resistant phenotype. However, classical biochemical measurements based on population averages over large numbers cannot resolve single cell heterogeneity and plasticity. Here, we use high content imaging of single cell morphology to classify distinct phenotypic subpopulations after EMT...
October 10, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Edoardo Gaude, Christian Frezza
Cancer cells undergo a multifaceted rewiring of cellular metabolism to support their biosynthetic needs. Although the major determinants of this metabolic transformation have been elucidated, their broad biological implications and clinical relevance are unclear. Here we systematically analyse the expression of metabolic genes across 20 different cancer types and investigate their impact on clinical outcome. We find that cancers undergo a tissue-specific metabolic rewiring, which converges towards a common metabolic landscape...
October 10, 2016: Nature Communications
Giuseppina Sannino, Nicole Armbruster, Mona Bodenhöfer, Ursula Haerle, Diana Behrens, Malte Buchholz, Ulrich Rothbauer, Bence Sipos, Christian Schmees
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a low overall survival rate, which is approximately 20% during the first year and decreases to less than 6% within five years of the disease. This is due to premature dissemination accompanied by a lack of disease-specific symptoms during the initial stages. Additionally, to date there are no biomarkers for an early prognosis available.A growing number of studies indicate that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), triggered by WNT-, TGF-β- and other signaling pathways is crucial for the initiation of the metastatic process in PDAC...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
J Y Wang, Z H Li, M Ye, Q Feng, Z M Chen, X S Ye, Z G Wu, B Wang, L Liu, J Yao
Biliary atresia (BA) is a destructive bile duct disease occurring in newborn children within a few weeks after birth. In this study, the effect of miR-29c and miR-129-5p on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in experimental BA was explored by constructing BA mouse models via Rhesus rotavirus vaccine infection. miR-29c and miR-129-5p expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. EMT was established by induction with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. miR-29c and miR-129-5p were overexpressed and inhibited, respectively, by Lipofectamine transfection...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Daniel F Milano, Robert J Natividad, Yasuhiro Saito, Catherine Y Luo, Senthil K Muthuswamy, Anand R Asthagiri
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex process by which cells acquire invasive properties that enable escape from the primary tumor. Complete EMT, however, is not required for metastasis: circulating tumor cells exhibit hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal states, and genetic perturbations promoting partial EMT induce metastasis in vivo. An open question is whether and to what extent intermediate stages of EMT promote invasiveness. Here, we investigate this question, building on recent observation of a new invasive property...
October 4, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Anna Korol, Aftab Taiyab, Judith A West-Mays
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) leads to the formation of ocular fibrotic pathologies, such as anterior subcapsular cataract and posterior capsule opacification. Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, mediated by the Rho family of GTPases, plays a key role in EMT, however, how actin dynamics affect downstream markers of EMT has not been fully determined. Our previous work suggests that myocardin related transcription factor A (MRTF-A), an actin-binding protein, might be an important mediator of TGFβ-induced EMT in lens epithelial cells...
September 29, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Hongyi Tan, Xiaoshan Wang, Xiaogang Yang, Haitao Li, Ben Liu, Pinhua Pan
Lung adenocarcinoma, which is the most common non-small cell lung cancer, is the leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. Epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (ECT2) is frequently upregulated and acts as an oncogene in various human cancers. In addition, ECT2 was reported to be upregulated in early stage lung adenocarcinoma. However, the detailed role of ECT2 in mediating the malignant phenotypes of lung adenocarcinoma cells has not previously been elucidated. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to examine ECT2 mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Masaru Koido, Junko Sakurai, Satomi Tsukahara, Yuri Tani, Akihiro Tomida
Prostate transmembrane protein, androgen induced 1 (PMEPA1) is highly expressed in various solid tumors and is known to play important roles in the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrate a novel relationship between PMEPA1 and hypoxia, a common microenvironmental stress condition in solid tumors. We showed that induction of PMEPA1 expression occurred during hypoxia in a manner dependent on both TGF-β signaling and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathways. Furthermore, overexpression and knockdown experiments revealed that PMEPA1 enhanced HIF-1 transcription activity...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ranran Zhang, Heather Hardin, Wei Huang, Jidong Chen, Sofia Asioli, Alberto Righi, Francesca Maletta, Anna Sapino, Ricardo V Lloyd
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important for transcription and for epigenetic or posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and may contribute to carcinogenesis. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), an lncRNA involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, cell proliferation, and cell migration, is known to be deregulated in multiple cancers. Here, we analyzed the expression of MALAT1 on 195 cases of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms by using tissue microarrays for RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) and real-time PCR...
September 30, 2016: Endocrine Pathology
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