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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402842/epigenetic-plasticity-drives-adipogenic-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#1
Mark B Meyer, Nancy A Benkusky, Buer Sen, Janet Rubin, J Wesley Pike
Terminal differentiation of multipotent stem cells is achieved through a coordinated cascade of activated transcription factors and epigenetic modifications that drive gene transcription responsible for unique cell fate. Within the mesenchymal lineage, factors such as RUNX2 and PPARγ are indispensable for osteogenesis and adipogenesis, respectively. We therefore investigated genomic binding of transcription factors and accompanying epigenetic modifications that occur during osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26805026/aging-alters-bone-fat-reciprocity-by-shifting-in-vivo-mesenchymal-precursor-cell-fate-towards-an-adipogenic-lineage
#2
Lakshman Singh, Tracy A Brennan, Elizabeth Russell, Jung-Hoon Kim, Qijun Chen, F Brad Johnson, Robert J Pignolo
Bone marrow derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) play an important role in bone homeostasis. Age-related changes occur in bone resulting in a decrease in bone density and a relative increase in adipocity. Although in vitro studies suggest the existence of an age-related lineage switch between osteogenic and adipogenic fates, stem cell and microenvironmental contributions to this process have not been elucidated in vivo. In order to study the effects of MPC and microenvironmental aging on functional engraftment and lineage switching, transplantation studies were performed under non-myeloablative conditions in old recipients, with donor MPCs derived from young and old green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice...
April 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25204550/carnosic-acid-suppresses-colon-tumor-formation-in-association-with-antiadipogenic-activity
#3
Yun-Ji Kim, Jong-Sang Kim, Young Rok Seo, Jung Han Yoon Park, Myung-Sook Choi, Mi-Kyung Sung
SCOPE: This study determined the efficacy of carnosic acid (CA) for suppressing colon carcinogenesis associated with excess adiposity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cell growth regulation by CA was evaluated in HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells cocultured with 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To determine the in vivo efficacies, male A/J mice were divided into four groups and fed one of the following experimental diets for 11 wk: 15% fat, 45% fat, 45% fat + 0.01% CA, or 45% fat + 0.02% CA...
December 2014: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23330872/ghrelin-acylated-ghrelin-leptin-and-pyy-3-levels-in-hyperemesis-gravidarum
#4
Mustafa Albayrak, Ahmet Karatas, Yavuz Demiraran, Hayriye Erman, Seren Topuz, Ismail Bıyık, Hafize Uzun, Muserref Erkan
Abstract Objective: To assess the serum levels of gut and adipocyte-derived metabolic hormones that control appetite, adipocity, weight gain and energy hemostasis, namely total ghrelin (TG), acylated ghrelin (AG), leptin and PYY-3 in hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). Methods: Plasma samples of 86 women in their first trimester pregnancies with HG (n = 30), morning sickness of pregnancy (MSP) (n = 34) and control (n = 22) groups were obtained. Serum levels of TG, AG, leptin and PYY-3 were compared between the groups, and the correlations with severity of symptoms using modified PUQE (Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis) scoring, BMI, E2, hCG and TSH were calculated...
June 2013: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20693954/changes-in-bone-mineral-density-and-bone-turnover-markers-in-obese-women-after-short-term-weight-loss-therapy-during-a-5-year-follow-up
#5
Michał Holecki, Barbara Zahorska-Markiewicz, Jerzy Chudek, Andrzej Wiecek
INTRODUCTION: The protective effect of adipocity on bone metabolism has not been confirmed during long-term follow-up. It is not known whether the rate of bone turnover and changes in mineral metabolism in obese people result from endocrine properties of the adipose tissue or merely the mechanical load. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate bone and calcium-phosphorus metabolism in obese women during a 5-year follow-up. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study involved 47 obese women who underwent a 3-month weight loss therapy...
July 2010: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17613353/hepatitis-c-and-steatosis
#6
REVIEW
Einar Björnsson, Paul Angulo
Hepatitis C infection and non-alcohol-related hepatic steatosis are the most common liver diseases worldwide, and both conditions often co-exist in the same patient. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 directly induces development of steatosis, whereas in patients with non-genotype 3 chronic hepatitis C infection, insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathophysiology of steatosis. Insulin resistance and its clinical components including obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased blood pressure, and low HDL-cholesterol levels are often seen in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection...
August 2007: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16959845/genistein-affects-adipose-tissue-deposition-in-a-dose-dependent-and-gender-specific-manner
#7
M Penza, C Montani, A Romani, P Vignolini, B Pampaloni, A Tanini, M L Brandi, P Alonso-Magdalena, A Nadal, L Ottobrini, O Parolini, E Bignotti, S Calza, A Maggi, P G Grigolato, D Di Lorenzo
The soy isoflavone genistein targets adipose tissue and elicits physiological effects that may vary based on dietary intake. We hypothesized that the adipose effects of genistein are dose and gender dependent. Four-week-old C57BL/6 male and female mice received daily oral doses of genistein (50-200,000 microg/kg.d) or 17beta-estradiol (E2) (5 microg/kg.d) for 15 d or a diet containing 800 ppm genistein. Genistein increased epididymal and renal fat pad and adipocyte size at doses up to 50,000 microg/kg.d or at 800 ppm in the diet in males but not in females...
December 2006: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16579998/serum-soluble-leptin-receptor-levels-and-free-leptin-index-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-relationship-to-insulin-resistance-and-androgens
#8
Vicken P Sepilian, John R Crochet, Manubai Nagamani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate levels of soluble receptor (sOB-R) and free leptin in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and note any relationships with insulin resistance, adiposity, and androgens. Leptin is an adipokine that circulates in a free form and bound to an sOB-R. Only free leptin is biologically active. DESIGN: Prospective, case-control study. SETTING: University-based reproductive endocrinology practice. PATIENT(S): Forty women with PCOS and severe insulin resistance and 15 body mass index (BMI)-matched ovulatory controls...
May 2006: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15525588/rosiglitazone-impacts-negatively-on-bone-by-promoting-osteoblast-osteocyte-apoptosis
#9
M Alexandra Sorocéanu, Dengshun Miao, Xiu-Ying Bai, Hanyi Su, David Goltzman, Andrew C Karaplis
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) increase peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by activating the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). In bone marrow stromal cell cultures and in vivo, activation of PPARgamma by high doses (20 mg/kg/day) of TZDs has been reported to alter stem cell differentiation by promoting commitment of progenitor cells to the adipocytic lineage while inhibiting osteoblastogenesis. Here, we have examined the in vivo effects of low-dose rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg/day) on bone, administered to mice by gavage for 90 days...
October 2004: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15476927/beyond-skin-color-emerging-roles-of-melanin-concentrating-hormone-in-energy-homeostasis-and-other-physiological-functions
#10
REVIEW
Yuguang Shi
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic peptide that mediates its effects by the activation of two G-protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptors (MCHR1 and MCHR2) in humans. In contrast to its primary role in regulating skin color in fish, MCH has evolved in mammals to regulate dynamic physiological functions, from food intake and energy expenditure to behavior and emotion. Chronic infusion or transgenic expression of MCH stimulates feeding and increases adipocity, whereas targeted deletion of MCH or its receptor (MCHR1) leads to resistance to diet-induced obesity with increased energy expenditure and thermogenesis...
October 2004: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15459461/in-normoglycemic-koreans-insulin-resistance-and-adipocity-are-independently-correlated-with-high-blood-pressure
#11
Ki Chul Sung, Byung Jin Kim, Bum Su Kim, Jin Ho Kang, Man Ho Lee, Jung Roe Park, Eun Jung Rhee, Won Young Lee, Sun Woo Kim, Hyang Kim, Kyu Beck Lee, Seung Ho Ryu
BACKGROUND: There is some controversy about the role of insulin resistance (IR) in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). Moreover, a large study of the association between BP and IR has not been conducted in normal glucose tolerance Asians. The present study investigated the relationships between IR, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference and BP in normoglycemic Koreans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anthropometric indices of adiposity, metabolic variables (fasting serum insulin and a homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index of insulin sensitivity), BP and several cardiovascular risk factors were measured during a cross-sectional survey of 49,076 normoglycemic Korean subjects...
October 2004: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/11436186/effect-of-insulin-resistance-on-serum-paraoxonase-activity-in-a-nondiabetic-population
#12
A Yamada, T Shoji, H Tahara, M Emoto, Y Nishizawa
Paraoxonase is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound esterase that hydrolyzes various organophosphorus compounds and protects low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against accumulation of lipid peroxides. Paraoxonase activity is strongly affected by the polymorphism of the paraoxonase gene (PON1) at position 192. In addition, the enzyme activity shows a great variation within each genotype, although the underlying mechanism is unknown. Because paraoxonase activity is decreased in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who have insulin resistance, we investigated the association between paraoxonase activity and insulin resistance in a nondiabetic population...
July 2001: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/10523018/two-polymorphisms-in-the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-gene-are-associated-with-severe-overweight-among-obese-women
#13
R Valve, K Sivenius, R Miettinen, J Pihlajamäki, A Rissanen, S S Deeb, J Auwerx, M Uusitupa, M Laakso
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear receptor that regulates adipocyte differentiation. Variations in the PPARgamma gene may affect the function of the PPARgamma and, therefore, body adipocity. We investigated the frequencies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in exon B and the silent CAC478CAT polymorphism in exon 6 of the PPARgamma gene and their effects on body weight, body composition, and energy expenditure in obese Finns. One hundred and seventy obese subjects [29 men and 141 women; body mass index (BMI), 35...
October 1999: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/9415044/regional-adipocity-in-man
#14
REVIEW
P Arner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1997: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/4415522/regulation-of-cholesterol-storage-in-adipose-tissue
#15
A Angel, J Farkas
Adipose tissue is a major site of cholesterol storage. In an attempt to define mechanisms controlling this process, a variety of nutritional and metabolic alterations were employed and their effects on adipose tissue cholesterol levels were determined by direct chemical analysis. When rats were raised on Purina chow, a linear increase in the cholesterol/DNA ratio in relation to animal weight (from 120 g [5-6 wk] to 700 g [2 yr]) occurred. The rate of cholesterol accumulation was related to the dietary cholesterol load...
September 1974: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/3530841/body-composition-adipocyte-size-free-fatty-acid-concentration-and-glucose-tolerance-in-children-of-diabetic-pregnancies
#16
W G Abbott, P Thuillez, B V Howard, P H Bennett, L B Salans, S W Cushman, G M Reaven, J E Foley
Previous studies show that children of women who are diabetic during pregnancy are more obese and have a higher prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) than children of women who first developed NIDDM greater than 1 yr after the pregnancy (prediabetic mothers) and children of women who have never developed diabetes (nondiabetic mothers). To determine whether lean and obese children of glucose-intolerant pregnancies can be distinguished from similar children of glucose-tolerant pregnancies, we measured body composition, abdominal and gluteal adipocyte size, fasting free fatty acid (FFA), and fasting and stimulated glucose and insulin concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test in prepubertal children of glucose-intolerant and prediabetic mothers...
October 1986: Diabetes
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