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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040622/neurokinin-b-regulates-gonadotropin-secretion-ovarian-follicle-growth-and-the-timing-of-ovulation-in-healthy-women
#1
Karolina Skorupskaite, Jyothis T George, Johannes D Veldhuis, Richard A Anderson
Context: Neurokinin B (NKB) is obligate for human puberty, but its role in adult female gonadotropin secretion and ovarian follicle growth is unknown. Objective: To investigate antagonism of NKB on pulsatile GnRH/LH secretion and ovarian follicle development in normal women. Design: Open investigation of the effects of a neurokinin-3 receptor antagonist (NK3Ra) vs no treatment control cycle. Setting: Clinical Research Facility...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037231/optimal-parameters-for-determining-the-lh-surge-in-natural-cycle-frozen-thawed-embryo-transfers
#2
Mohamad Irani, Alex Robles, Vinay Gunnala, David Reichman, Zev Rosenwaks
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on the exact parameters that define the LH surge for natural cycle frozen-thawed embryo transfers (NC-FET). Accurately determining the LH surge would affect the timing, and subsequently the success rates, of embryo transfer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to delineate the optimal levels and relationship for luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol in an effort to optimally identify the LH surge in NC-FET. METHODS: It is a retrospective study that was performed in an academic medical center...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029246/the-epidermal-growth-factor-network-role-in-oocyte-growth-maturation-and-developmental-competence
#3
Dulama Richani, Robert B Gilchrist
BACKGROUND: The LH surge induces great physiological changes within the preovulatory follicle, which culminate in the ovulation of a mature oocyte that is capable of supporting embryo and foetal development. However, unlike mural granulosa cells, the oocyte and its surrounding cumulus cells are not directly responsive to LH, indicating that the LH signal is mediated by secondary factors produced by the granulosa cells. The mechanisms by which the oocyte senses the ovulatory LH signal and hence prepares for ovulation has been a subject of considerable controversy for the past four decades...
September 20, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028571/identifying-ovarian-tissue-in-the-bitch-using-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-or-luteinizing-hormone-lh
#4
Helene Alm, Bodil S Holst
Reliable methods for determining whether or not a bitch has ovarian tissue present are needed for cases with unknown neutering status. Vaginal cytology consistent with heat is indicative of functional ovarian tissue. Other methods are required when the bitch is not presented in suspected heat. Progesterone can be analyzed during 2 months after suspected heat. During other stages, assays for the analyses of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) have been used. The AMH assay is expected to give detectable concentrations (positive) in bitches with ovarian tissue, and the LH assay should give negative results in intact bitches, except during the pre-ovulatory LH peak...
September 27, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025011/significance-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-signaling-for-acquisition-of-meiotic-and-developmental-competence-in-mammalian-oocytes
#5
Radek Prochazka, Milan Blaha, Lucie Nemcová
The surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) in preovulatory ovarian follicles triggers the resumption of oocyte meiosis accompanied by expansion of surrounding cumulus cells and ovulation of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) into the oviduct. Over the last 15 years, substantial progress has been made in elucidating the key pathways by which the LH signal spreads within the preovulatory follicle and in identifying the molecules responsible for maintaining oocyte arrest and meiosis resumption. It is now clear that the adenylcyclase-mediated rise in intracellular cAMP leads to activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) network in granulosa and cumulus cells...
August 31, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961951/the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-associated-gene-yap1-is-regulated-by-gonadotropins-and-sex-steroid-hormones-in-hyperandrogenism-induced-oligo-ovulation-in-mouse
#6
Shu-Yan Ji, Xiao-Man Liu, Bo-Tai Li, Yin-Li Zhang, Hong-Bin Liu, Yu-Chao Zhang, Zi-Jiang Chen, Junping Liu, Heng-Yu Fan
STUDY QUESTION: What is the physiological function of Yes-associated protein-1 (Yap1), a susceptibility gene for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), in ovarian granulosa cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: Physiologically, steroid sex hormones stimulate follicle growth by activating YAP1; however, the preovulatory inhibition of YAP1 activity in granulosa cells is a prerequisite of LH actions. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: PCOS is a common gynecologic and endocrine disease with multiple short and long-term consequences...
August 10, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950833/alphavbeta3-integrin-expression-within-uterine-endometrium-in-unexplained-infertility-a-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Ahmed Elnaggar, Amr H Farag, Mohamed E Gaber, Mohamed Abdel Hafeez, Mohamed S Ali, Alaa M Atef
BACKGROUND: Implantation defect is one of these contributing factors for unexplained infertility. In the mid-luteal phase, when implantation is expected to happen, Integrins expression is remarkably increased. So, Integrins could potentially serve as markers for the frame of the window of implantation. αVβ3 integrin could have a role as a potential receptor for embryonic attachment. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether the women with unexplained infertility have a pattern of expression of endometrial αvβ3 integrin that could differ from those who have normal fertility or not...
September 26, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938486/the-two-populations-of-kisspeptin-neurons-are-involved-in-the-ram-induced-lh-pulsatile-secretion-and-lh-surge-in-anestrous-ewes
#8
C Fabre-Nys, J Cognié, L Dufourny, M S Ghenim, S Martinet, O Lasserre, D Lomet, R P Millar, S Ohkura, Y Suetomi
Exposure to a ram during spring stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and can induce ovulation in sexually quiescent ewes ("ram effect"). Kisspeptins (Kiss) present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the preoptic area (POA) are potent stimulators of LH secretion. Our aim was to investigate if Kiss neurons mediate the increase in LH secretion during the "ram effect". With double immunofluorescent detection we identified Kiss neurons (Kiss IR) activated (Fos IR) by exposure to a ram for 2h (M2), 12h (M12) or to ewes for 2h (C)...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938464/sex-differences-in-steroid-receptor-coexpression-and-circadian-timed-activation-of-kisspeptin-and-rfrp-3-neurons-may-contribute-to-the-sexually-dimorphic-basis-of-the-lh-surge
#9
Matthew C Poling, Elena Y Luo, Alexander S Kauffman
In rodents, the ovulation-inducing luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is sexually dimorphic, occurring only in females, but the reasons for this sex difference are unclear. Two neuropeptides, kisspeptin and RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP-3), are hypothesized to regulate the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/LH surge. In females, both of these systems show circadian changes coincident with the LH surge, but whether males show similar temporal changes under comparable hormonal conditions is unknown. Here, we evaluated circadian time (CT)-dependent changes in gene expression and neuronal activation of Kiss1 and Rfrp neurons of female and male mice given identical LH surge-inducing estrogen regimens...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887327/uterine-flushings-from-women-treated-with-levonorgestrel-affect-sperm-functionality-in-vitro
#10
Mayel Chirinos, Marta Durand, María Elena González-González, Gabriela Hernández-Silva, Israel Maldonado-Rosas, Pablo Lopez, Fernando Larrea
Levonorgestrel (LNG), a synthetic 19 nor-testosterone derivative, is widely used for emergency contraception. It is well known that LNG prevents ovulation only when given prior to the surge of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) during the periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle. This observation suggests that LNG, given its contraceptive efficacy, has additional effects other than those affecting ovulation. In this study, we have evaluated the effects on human sperm functionality of uterine flushings (UF) obtained from women at day LH+1 of a control cycle (CTR-LH+1) and after receiving LNG (LNG-LH+1) two days before the surge of LH...
September 8, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881231/follicles-and-gonadotropins-during-waves-2-and-3-in-three-wave-interovulatory-intervals-in-bos-taurus-heifers
#11
O J Ginther, M A R Siddiqui, E R Araujo, S V Dangudubiyyam
Observations were made on follicle dynamics and gonadotropin concentrations in anovulatory wave 2 and ovulatory wave 3 in three-wave interovulatory intervals (n = 15). Hypotheses were not used owing to inadequate availability of rationale. The future dominant follicles for waves 2 and 3 were designated DF2 and DF3 and the largest future subordinate follicles as SF2 and SF3, respectively. The day of expected diameter deviation (day 0) was defined as the day that DF2 or DF3 was closest to 8.5 mm. The first day that DF2 became smaller (P < 0...
August 30, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870217/controlled-ovulation-of-the-dominant-follicle-using-progestin-in-minimal-stimulation-in-poor-responders
#12
Qiuju Chen, Yun Wang, Lihua Sun, Shaozhen Zhang, Weiran Chai, Qingqing Hong, Hui Long, Li Wang, Qifeng Lyu, Yanping Kuang
BACKGROUND: The use of progestin (P) during ovarian stimulation is effective in blocking the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in women with normal ovarian reserve, however, its effects have not been determined in poor responders. This study aimed to explore the follicular dynamics in P-primed minimal stimulation in poor responders. METHODS: A total of 204 infertile women with diminished ovarian reserve were allocated into the medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) group or the natural-cycle control group in an alternating order...
September 5, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863964/design-and-biological-effects-of-a-vaginally-administered-gel-containing-the-gnrh-agonist-triptorelin-for-synchronizing-ovulation-in-swine
#13
R V Knox, K R Stewart, W L Flowers, M E Swanson, S K Webel, R R Kraeling
A novel gel formulation was selected for intravaginal delivery of the GnRH agonist (triptorelin) for synchronizing ovulation in pigs. Studies with gilt models were used to assess LH response profiles. The lowest dose of triptorelin that induced the most gilts to show an LH surge was 100 μg in 1.2% methylcellulose gel. This formulation had a similar effect in weaned sows while also advancing ovulation. The timing of administration was evaluated in sows after weaning. Administration at 96 h induced more sows to ovulate (58%) by 48 h compared to treatment at estrus (45%) or for controls (34%), but the desired level of ovulation synchrony was not achieved...
August 24, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854728/a-second-dose-of-kisspeptin-54-improves-oocyte-maturation-in-women-at-high-risk-of-ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome-a-phase-2-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Ali Abbara, Sophie Clarke, Rumana Islam, Julia K Prague, Alexander N Comninos, Shakunthala Narayanaswamy, Deborah Papadopoulou, Rachel Roberts, Chioma Izzi-Engbeaya, Risheka Ratnasabapathy, Alexander Nesbitt, Sunitha Vimalesvaran, Rehan Salim, Stuart A Lavery, Stephen R Bloom, Les Huson, Geoffrey H Trew, Waljit S Dhillo
STUDY QUESTION: Can increasing the duration of LH-exposure with a second dose of kisspeptin-54 improve oocyte maturation in women at high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: A second dose of kisspeptin-54 at 10 h following the first improves oocyte yield in women at high risk of OHSS. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Kisspeptin acts at the hypothalamus to stimulate the release of an endogenous pool of GnRH from the hypothalamus...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854727/effect-of-randomized-serum-progesterone-concentration-on-secretory-endometrial-histologic-development-and-gene-expression
#15
Steven L Young, Ricardo F Savaris, Bruce A Lessey, Andrew M Sharkey, Ursula Balthazar, Richard J Zaino, Robert A Sherwin, Marc A Fritz
STUDY QUESTION: What doses of secretory phase progesterone (P) in women are associated with altered endometrial structure and/or function? SUMMARY ANSWER: Consistently delayed histological maturation was seen at the lowest tested daily P dose (2.5 mg), whereas consistently altered functional response, as reflected by microarray analysis of gene expression was seen at both the 5 and 2.5 mg doses. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Progesterone is absolutely required for normal embryo implantation and pregnancy survival...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846730/role-of-amygdala-kisspeptin-in-pubertal-timing-in-female-rats
#16
Daniel A Adekunbi, Xiao Feng Li, Shengyun Li, Olufeyi A Adegoke, Bolanle O Iranloye, Ayodele O Morakinyo, Stafford L Lightman, Paul D Taylor, Lucilla Poston, Kevin T O'Byrne
To investigate the mechanism by which maternal obesity disrupts reproductive function in offspring, we examined Kiss1 expression in the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nuclei, and posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) of pre-pubertal and young adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard or energy-dense diet for six weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were weaned onto normal diet on postnatal day (pnd) 21...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830648/feasibility-of-corifollitropin-alfa-gnrh-antagonist-protocol-combined-with-gnrh-agonist-triggering-and-freeze-all-strategy-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients
#17
Jiann-Loung Hwang, Shee-Uan Chen, Hen-Ju Chen, Hsin-Fu Chen, Yu-Shih Yang, Chin-Hao Chang, Kok-Min Seow, Chii-Ruey Tzeng, Yu-Hung Lin
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The long-acting corifollitropin alfa is comparable to FSH in terms of pregnancy outcomes in normal responders and poor responders. Corifollitropin alfa has never been studied in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients because of concerns of excessive ovarian stimulation and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The purpose of the study was to evaluate if corifollitropin alfa can be used in PCOS patients. METHODS: Forty PCOS patients who were going to undergo in vitro fertilization were enrolled in this study...
August 19, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829842/voice-in-different-phases-of-menstrual-cycle-among-naturally-cycling-women-and-users-of-hormonal-contraceptives
#18
Irena Pavela Banai
Previous studies have shown changes in women's behavior and physical appearance between the non-fertile and fertile phases of the menstrual cycle. It is assumed that these changes are regulated by fluctuations in sex hormone levels across the cycle. Receptors for sex hormones have been found on the vocal folds, suggesting a link between hormone levels and vocal fold function, which might cause changes in voice production. However, attempts to identify changes in voice production across the menstrual cycle have produced mixed results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815566/maturation-promoting-factor-destabilization-mediates-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-induced-meiotic-resumption-in-rat-oocytes
#19
Meenakshi Tiwari, Shail K Chaube
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) mimics the action of luteinizing hormone (LH) and triggers meiotic maturation and ovulation in mammals. The mechanism by which hCG triggers meiotic resumption in mammalian oocytes remains poorly understood. We aimed to find out the impact of hCG surge on morphological changes, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), cell division cycle 25B (Cdc25B), Wee1, early mitotic inhibitor 2 (Emi2), anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), meiotic arrest deficient protein 2 (MAD2), phosphorylation status of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), its activity and cyclin B1 expression levels during meiotic resumption from diplotene as well as metaphase-II (M-II) arrest in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs)...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810213/the-effect-of-circulating-progesterone-on-magnitude-of-the-gnrh-induced-lh-surge-are-there-any-differences-between-bos-indicus-and-bos-taurus-heifers
#20
E O S Batista, T A Del Valle, M D D V Ortolan, F P Rennó, G P Nogueira, A H Souza, P S Baruselli
This study evaluated the effects of differing circulating progesterone (P4) levels on the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge profile following treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in B. indicus (Nelore, n = 13) and B. taurus (Holstein, n = 16) heifers. All heifers were synchronized with a hormonal protocol to induce either a Low or High circulating P4 environment at the time of GnRH treatment. Heifers were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial design composed by two genetic groups (B. indicus and B...
August 5, 2017: Theriogenology
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