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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679590/phase-i-ii-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-two-levonorgestrel-only-contraceptive-patches-in-a-multicenter-randomized-trial
#1
Carolyn L Westhoff, Beatrice A Chen, Jeffrey T Jensen, Kurt Barnhart, Michael Thomas, Stephanie Teal, Diana Blithe
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of two novel levonorgestrel (LNG)-only contraceptive patches. STUDY DESIGN: This multi-center Phase I/II trial randomized participants to use a 7-day transdermal patch designed to deliver a 40 mcg or 75 mcg daily LNG dose for 11 consecutive weeks; randomization was stratified by body mass index (BMI) <32 or 32-40kg/m2 . Evaluations occurred twice weekly for 5weeks, then once weekly with supplemental visits for participants reporting a urinary LH surge...
April 18, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668885/follicle-capacitation-a-meta-analysis-to-investigate-the-transcriptome-dynamics-following-fsh-decline-in-bovine-granulosa-cells
#2
David A Landry, Marc-André Sirard
In recent years, exciting progress was made to improve the embryo outcome after ovarian stimulation in domestic animals. The practice of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) withdrawal, which is defined as the period of time between the last injection of FSH and oocyte retrieval, resulted in embryo yields significantly superior. Since then, specific changes in the transcriptome of granulosa cells were associated with the increase and also the decline in oocyte developmental competence following the FSH decline...
April 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668033/sexual-dimorphism-in-postnatal-gonadotropin-levels-in-infancy-reflects-diverse-maturation-of-the-ovarian-and-testicular-hormone-synthesis
#3
Tanja Kuiri-Hänninen, Leo Dunkel, Ulla Sankilampi
BACKGROUND: The postnatal gonadotropin surge is sexually dimorphic: FSH levels predominate in girls and LH levels in boys. However, in preterm (PT) girls, both gonadotropin levels are higher than in PT boys. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how gonadal maturation contributes to the sex differences in FSH and LH. DESIGN: Monthly follow-up of 58 full-term (FT, 29 boys) and 67 PT (33 boys) infants from one week (D7) to six months of age (M1-M6). Analyses were also done according to postmenstrual (PM) age in PT infants...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648638/ovulatory-induction-of-scg2-in-human-non-human-primate-and-rodent-granulosa-cells-stimulates-ovarian-angiogenesis
#4
Patrick R Hannon, Diane M Duffy, Katherine L Rosewell, Mats Brännström, James W Akin, Thomas E Curry
The luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is essential for ovulation, but the intrafollicular factors induced by LH that mediate ovulatory processes (e.g. angiogenesis) are poorly understood, especially in women. The role of secretogranin II (SCG2) and its cleaved bioactive peptide, secretoneurin (SN), were investigated as potential novel mediators of ovulation by testing the hypothesis that SCG2/SN is induced in granulosa cells by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), via a downstream LH receptor signaling mechanism, and stimulates ovarian angiogenesis...
April 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626484/neuroestradiol-in-regulation-of-gnrh-release
#5
REVIEW
Ei Terasawa
The concept that the positive feedback effect of ovarian estradiol (E2 ) results in GnRH and gonadotropin surges is a well-established principle. However, a series of studies investigating the rapid action of E2 in female rhesus monkeys has led to a new concept that neuroestradiol, synthesized and released in the hypothalamus, also contributes to regulation of the preovulatory GnRH surge. This unexpected finding started from our surprising observation that E2 induces rapid stimulatory action in GnRH neurons in vitro...
April 4, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608929/regulation-of-lh-secretion-by-rfrp-3-from-the-hypothalamus-to-the-pituitary
#6
REVIEW
Kai-Lun Hu, Hsun-Ming Chang, Rong Li, Yang Yu, Jie Qiao
RFamide-related peptides (RFRPs) have long been identified as inhibitors of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis in mammals. However, less progress has been made in the detailed roles of RFRPs in the control of LH secretion. Recent studies have suggested that RFRP-3 neurons in the hypothalamus can regulate the secretion of LH at different levels, including kisspeptin neurons, GnRH neurons, and the pituitary. Additionally, conflicting results regarding the effects of RFRP-3 on these levels exist. In this review, we collect the latest evidence related to the effects of RFRP-3 neurons in regulating LH secretion by acting on kisspeptin neurons, GnRH neurons, and the pituitary and discuss the potential role of the timely reduction of RFRP-3 signaling in the modulation of the preovulatory LH surge...
March 30, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562260/towards-an-optimal-luteal-support-modality-in-agonist-triggered-cycles-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
E A Elgindy, H Sibai, M I Mostafa, A Gibreel, E Darwish, H Maghraby
STUDY QUESTION: In ICSI patients with high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), are antagonist cycles triggered by gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH) agonist with a specialized luteal support regimen associated with comparable ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) and less OHSS than those triggered by hCG? SUMMARY ANSWER: In antagonist ICSI cycles, GnRH agonist triggering with a specialized luteal support regimen is associated with comparable OPR to those triggered by hCG but may be less likely to be associated with OHSS...
March 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554271/core-binding-factor-%C3%AE-expression-in-ovarian-granulosa-cells-is-essential-for-female-fertility
#8
Somang Lee-Thacker, Yohan Choi, Ichiro Taniuchi, Takeshi Takarada, Yukio Yoneda, CheMyong Ko, Misung Jo
Core Binding Factor beta (CBFβ) is a non-DNA binding partner of all RUNX proteins and critical for transcription activity of CBF transcription factors (RUNXs/CBFβ). In the ovary, the expression of Runx1 and Runx2 is highly induced by the LH surge in ovulatory follicles, while Cbfb is constitutively expressed. To investigate the physiological significance of CBFs in the ovary, the present study generated two different conditional mutant mouse models in which granulosa cell expression of Cbfb and Runx2 was reduced by Cre recombinase driven by an Esr2 promoter...
March 15, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545772/a-proof-of-concept-clinical-trial-of-a-single-luteal-use-of-long-acting-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-antagonist-degarelix-in-controlled-ovarian-stimulation-for-in-vitro-fertilization-long-antagonist-protocol
#9
Evangelos G Papanikolaou, Hakan Yarali, Evi Timotheou, Michael Grynberg, Odysseas Zafeiratis, Herman Tournaye, Robert Najdecki
Introduction: A drawback of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols in in vitro fertilization (IVF) is that they have limited flexibility in cycle programming. This proof of concept study explored the efficacy of a single-dose, long-acting GnRH antagonist IVF protocol. Trial registration number is NCT03240159, retrospectively registered on March 08, 2017. Materials and methods: The efficacy of a single-dose long-acting antagonist, degarelix, was explored initially in healthy donors and subsequently in infertile patients...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544643/regulation-of-luteinizing-hormone-receptor-mrna-expression-in-the-ovary-the-role-of-mir-122
#10
K M J Menon, Bindu Menon, Thippeswamy Gulappa
The expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in the mammalian ovary is regulated in response to changes in the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone by the anterior pituitary, at least in part, through posttranscriptional mechanisms. The steady-state levels of LHR mRNA are maintained by controlling its rate of degradation by an RNA-binding protein designated as LHR mRNA-binding protein (LRBP). LRBP forms a complex with LHR mRNA and targets it for degradation in the p bodies...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544633/gonadotropin-surge-attenuating-factor-a-nonsteroidal-ovarian-hormone-controlling-gnrh-induced-lh-secretion-in-the-normal-menstrual-cycle
#11
Ioannis E Messinis, Christina I Messini, George Anifandis, Antonios Garas, Alexandros Daponte
Gonadotropin surge-attenuating factor (GnSAF) is a nonsteroidal ovarian substance, which attenuates the endogenous LH surge in superovulated women. Different molecular sequences have been found, but only one of them has shown substantial homology to a known substance of the human genome. A molecular mass of 12.5kDa showing identity to the carboxyl-terminal fragment of human serum albumin and expressing GnSAF bioactivity in vitro has been identified. It has been suggested that in the normal menstrual cycle the in vivo bioactivity of GnSAF increases under the influence of the intercycle rise of FSH...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535265/high-level-of-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-induced-by-hyperandrogen-mediated-anovulation-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-mice
#12
Xiao Wang, Huarong Wang, Wei Liu, Zhiyuan Zhang, Yanhao Zhang, Wenqiang Zhang, Zijiang Chen, Guoliang Xia, Chao Wang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by hyperandrogenism, is a complex endocrinopathy that affects the fertility of 9%-18% of reproductive-age women. However, the exact mechanism of PCOS, especially hyperandrogen-induced anovulation, is largely unknown to date. Physiologically, the natriuretic peptide type C/natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (CNP/NPR2) system is essential for sustaining oocyte meiotic arrest until the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. We therefore hypothesized that the CNP/NPR2 system is also involved in PCOS and contributes to arresting oocyte meiosis and ovulation...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510633/-medroxyprogesteron-acetate-use-to-block-lh-surge-in-oocyte-donor-stimulation
#13
I Crha, P Ventruba, E Filipinská, M Dziakova, J Žáková, M Ješeta, E Lousová, Z Papíková
OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of ovarian stimulation with LH surge blockade by medroxyprogesterone acetate or GnRH antagonist in oocytes donors. To present current options of exogenous and endogenous progestins instead of GnRH analogues to block LH surge during ovarian stimulation. DESIGN: Retrospective study of oocyte donor cycles and literature review. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk university and University Hospital Brno...
2018: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506543/an-extremely-patient-friendly-and-efficient-stimulation-protocol-for-assisted-reproductive-technology-in-normal-and-high-responders
#14
Chen-Yu Huang, Guan-Yeu Chen, Miawh-Lirng Shieh, Hsin-Yang Li
BACKGROUND: The use of oral progestin has been shown to effectively prevent luteining hormone (LH) surge during ovarian stimulation with daily human menopausal gonadotropin injections. This study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of long-acting follicle stimulating hormone (long-acting FSH; corifollitropin alfa, Elonva®) use in progestin-primed ovarian stimulation for normal and high responders undergoing IVF/ICSI. METHODS: This is a retrospective and proof-of-concept study...
March 5, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497400/luteal-coasting-and-individualization-of-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-dose-after-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-triggering-for-final-oocyte-maturation-a-retrospective-proof-of-concept-study
#15
Barbara Lawrenz, Suzan Samir, Nicolas Garrido, Laura Melado, Nils Engelmann, Human M Fatemi
Ovarian stimulation in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol with the use of GnRH agonist for final oocyte maturation is the state-of-the-art treatment in patients with an expected or known high response to avoid or at least reduce significantly the risk for development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Due to a shortened LH surge after administration of GnRH agonist in most patients, the luteal phase will be characterized by luteolysis and luteal phase insufficiency. Maintaining a sufficient luteal phase is crucial for achievement of a pregnancy; however, the optimal approach is still under debate...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489529/finding-the-fertile-phase-low-cost-luteinizing-hormone-sticks-versus-electronic-fertility-monitor
#16
Mary Lee Barron, Kaitlin Vanderkolk, Kathleen Raviele
PURPOSE: To investigate if generic Wondfo ovulation sticks (WLH) are sufficiently sensitive to the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in urine when used with the Marquette Fertility Algorithm. The electronic hormonal fertility monitor (EHFM) is highly accurate in detecting the LH surge but cost of the monitor and the accompanying test sticks has increased over the last several years. The EHFM is sensitive to detect the LH surge at milli-international units per milliliter (mIU/mL); the WLH sticks are slightly less sensitive at 25 mIU/mL...
February 27, 2018: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434672/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-comparison-of-subcutaneous-versus-intramuscular-leuprolide-acetate-formulations-in-male-subjects
#17
Daniel Saltzstein, Neal D Shore, Judd W Moul, Franklin Chu, Raoul Concepcion, Stephan de la Motte, John A McLane, Stuart Atkinson, Alex Yang, E David Crawford
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of two distinct formulations of leuprolide acetate (LA); subcutaneous (SC) injection and intramuscular (IM) injection. Methods: A total of 32 healthy men were randomized to receive a single 7.5 mg injection of SC-LA ( n = 16) or IM-LA ( n = 16) in this phase I, open-label, parallel-group study. PK was assessed via LA concentrations, and PD via serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) concentrations...
February 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403355/impact-of-triclosan-on-female-reproduction-through-reducing-thyroid-hormones-to-suppress-hypothalamic-kisspeptin-neurons-in-mice
#18
Xin-Yuan Cao, Xu Hua, Jian-Wei Xiong, Wen-Ting Zhu, Jun Zhang, Ling Chen
Triclosan (TCS), a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, is widely used in clinical settings and various personal care products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TCS on reproductive endocrine and function. Here, we show that the exposure of adult female mice to 10 or 100 mg/kg/day TCS caused prolongation of diestrus, and decreases in antral follicles and corpora lutea within 2 weeks. TCS mice showed decreases in the levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA with the lack of LH surge and elevation of prolactin (PRL)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392781/activated-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-in-granulosa-cells-of-ovulating-follicles-in-mice
#19
Yasmin Schuermann, Dayananda Siddappa, Melissa Pansera, Raj Duggavathi
Successful ovulation requires the actions of gonadotropins along with those mediated by growth factors binding to their receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). There are several growth factors such as epidermal growth factor family ligands and interleukins that play a role during ovulation initiated by the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH). The aim of this project was to analyze growth factor signaling pathways induced by LH in mouse granulosa cells. Immature female mice were treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed 48h later by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce follicular growth and ovulation...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371816/expression-of-the-gonadotropin-receptors-during-follicular-development
#20
REVIEW
Hiroshi Kishi, Yoshikazu Kitahara, Fumiharu Imai, Kohshiro Nakao, Hiroto Suwa
Background: Gonadotropins induce follicular development that leads to ovulation and luteinization. In women, the level of gonadotropins, along with the expression of their receptors, changes dynamically throughout the menstrual cycle. This study aimed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these phenomena. Methods: The literature was reviewed, including that published by the authors. Main findings Results: Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor expression in the granulosa cells was induced by androgens that were derived from growth differentiation factor-9-stimulated theca cells...
January 2018: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
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