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Brain cooling

Marianne S Joerger-Messerli, Byron Oppliger, Marialuigia Spinelli, Gierin Thomi, Ivana di Salvo, Philipp Schneider, Andreina Schoeberlein
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult in the perinatal phase harbors a high risk of encephalopathy in the neonate. Brain cells undergo apoptosis, initiating neurodegeneration. So far, therapeutic approaches such as cooling remain limited. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibits therapeutic success despite the short-time survival in the host brain, providing strong evidence that their beneficial effects are largely based on secreted factors, including extracellular vesicles (EVs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of human Wharton's jelly MSC (hWJ-MSC)-derived EVs on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, using an in vitro model of oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) mimicking HI injury in the mouse neuroblastoma cell line neuro2a (N2a)...
January 2018: Cell Transplantation
Patrizia Mecocci, Marta Baroni, Umberto Senin, Virginia Boccardi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common form of dementia in old age subjects, and despite decades of studies, the underlying etiopathogenetic mechanisms remain unsolved. The definition of AD has changed over the past years, offering an ever more detailed definition of pre-morbid and pre-clinical status, but without a similar strong emphasis on the role of aging as the main risk factor. In fact, while early-onset AD is a clear consequence of gene mutations, late-onset AD is more likely due to a gradual accumulation of age-related damages...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Thomas K F Foo, Evangelos Laskaris, Mark Vermilyea, Minfeng Xu, Paul Thompson, Gene Conte, Christopher Van Epps, Christopher Immer, Seung-Kyun Lee, Ek T Tan, Dominic Graziani, Jean-Baptise Mathieu, Christopher J Hardy, John F Schenck, Eric Fiveland, Wolfgang Stautner, Justin Ricci, Joseph Piel, Keith Park, Yihe Hua, Ye Bai, Alex Kagan, David Stanley, Paul T Weavers, Erin Gray, Yunhong Shu, Matthew A Frick, Norbert G Campeau, Joshua Trzasko, John Huston, Matt A Bernstein
PURPOSE: To build and evaluate a small-footprint, lightweight, high-performance 3T MRI scanner for advanced brain imaging with image quality that is equal to or better than conventional whole-body clinical 3T MRI scanners, while achieving substantial reductions in installation costs. METHODS: A conduction-cooled magnet was developed that uses less than 12 liters of liquid helium in a gas-charged sealed system, and standard NbTi wire, and weighs approximately 2000 kg...
March 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Hyun Jun Kim, Sang Yeoup Lee, Hwa Gyeong Lee, Yang Hee Cho, Eun Mi Ko
Few studies have been undertaken to develop cognitive functional improvement-focused exercise programs and determine their effect. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of a cognitive enhancement fitness program (CEFP) on short-term memory and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels according to the cognitive state in middle-aged women. A total of 30 healthy volunteers aged 40-59 years were divided into two groups, that is, a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group and a non-MCI group based on results from the Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Marek J Noga, Ronald Zielman, Robin M van Dongen, Sabine Bos, Amy Harms, Gisela M Terwindt, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Thomas Hankemeier, Michel D Ferrari
Introduction: Metabolic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a promising technique for studying brain diseases. Measurements should reflect the in vivo situation, so ex vivo metabolism should be avoided. Objective: To investigate the effects of temperature (room temperature vs. 4 °C), centrifugation and ethanol, as anti-enzymatic additive during CSF sampling on concentrations of glutamic acid, glutamine and other endogenous amines. Methods: CSF samples from 21 individuals were processed using five different protocols...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Guillaume Sescousse, Romain Ligneul, Ruth J van Holst, Lieneke K Janssen, Femke de Boer, Marcel Janssen, Anne S Berry, William J Jagust, Roshan Cools
Dopamine is central to a number of cognitive functions and brain disorders. Given the cost of neurochemical imaging in humans, behavioral proxy measures of dopamine have gained in popularity in the past decade, such as spontaneous eye blink rate (sEBR). Increased sEBR is commonly associated with increased dopamine function based on pharmacological evidence and patient studies. Yet, this hypothesis has not been validated using in vivo measures of dopamine function in humans. In order to fill this gap, we measured sEBR and striatal dopamine synthesis capacity using [18 F]DOPA PET in 20 participants (9 healthy individuals and 11 pathological gamblers)...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Bi Zhang, Jianke Gong, Wenyuan Zhang, Rui Xiao, Jianfeng Liu, X Z Shawn Xu
Tissue-tissue communications are integral to organismal aging, orchestrating a body-wide aging process. The brain plays a key role in this process by detecting and processing signals from the environment and then communicating them to distal tissues such as the gut to regulate longevity. How this is achieved, however, is poorly understood. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we identified two distinct neuroendocrine signaling circuits by which the worm nervous system senses cool and warm environmental temperatures through cool- and warm-sensitive neurons and then signals the gut to extend and shorten life span, respectively...
February 1, 2018: Genes & Development
Suneeti Gupta, Jayapalli Rajiv Bapuraj, Gabrielle Carlson, Emily Trumpower, Ronald E Dechert, Subrata Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Asphyxiated infants treated with therapeutic cooling can have persistent oral feeding difficulty because of involvement of neural pathways in the brainstem, cortex, and basal ganglia. The goal is to predict the composite adverse outcome of death or persistent oral feeding difficulty using precooling/cooling attributes, and the severity and distribution of hypoxic-ischemic lesions, especially brainstem lesions on post-cooling brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Retrospective review of 86 asphyxiated infants cooled from January 2006 to August 2014...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Patrick Beukema, Katherine L Cecil, Elena Peterson, Victor R Mann, Megumi Matsushita, Yoshio Takashima, Saket Navlakha, Alison L Barth
Somatosensation is a complex sense mediated by more than a dozen distinct neural subtypes in the periphery. Although pressure and touch sensation have been mapped to primary somatosensory cortex in rodents, it has been controversial whether pain and temperature inputs are also directed to this area. Here we use a well-defined somatosensory modality, cool sensation mediated by peripheral TrpM8-receptors, to investigate the neural substrate for cool perception in the mouse neocortex. Using activation of cutaneous TrpM8 receptor-expressing neurons, we identify candidate neocortical areas responsive for cool sensation...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Riki Ninomiya, Akiko Nakazawa, Tetsuya Mitsui, Yoichi Miyata, Masahiko Komagome, Fumiaki Ozawa, Yoshifumi Beck, Akihito Minegishi, Hideaki Yamabi, Kazuhito Imanaka
A 77-year-old man underwent extended right lobectomy of the liver for rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma. Recurrence in the inferior vena cava andright atrium was noted 30 months after surgery. We performedextirpation of this tumor thrombosis under retrograde cerebral perfusion during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. The pericardium was cut through sternotomy, and cooling was initiated. After cardiac arrest at 20.4°C, the inferior vena cava was separated. An incision was made in the right atrium andthe tumor thrombus was extirpated...
February 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Bernard W Laughlin, Isaac R Bailey, Sarah A Rice, Zeinab Barati, Lori K Bogren, Kelly L Drew
Targeted temperature management is standard of care for cardiac arrest and is in clinical trials for stroke. N6 -cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), an A1 adenosine receptor agonist, inhibits thermogenesis and induces onset of hibernation in hibernating species. Despite promising thermolytic efficacy of CHA, prior work has failed to achieve and maintain a prescribed target core body temperature (Tb ) between 32°C and 34°C for 24 hours. We instrumented Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 19) with indwelling arterial and venous cannulae and a transmitter for monitoring Tb and ECG, then administered CHA via continuous IV infusion or intraperitoneal (IP) injection...
February 26, 2018: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
Céline Jean-Xavier, Marie-Claude Perreault
The trunk plays a pivotal role in limbed locomotion. Yet, little is known about how the brain stem controls trunk activity during walking. In this study, we assessed the spatiotemporal activity patterns of axial and hindlimb motoneurons (MNs) during drug-induced fictive locomotor-like activity (LLA) in an isolated brain stem-spinal cord preparation of the neonatal mouse. We also evaluated the extent to which these activity patterns are affected by removal of brain stem. Recordings were made in the segments T7, L2, and L5 using calcium imaging from individual axial MNs in the medial motor column (MMC) and hindlimb MNs in lateral motor column (LMC)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Molly Potter, Ted Rosenkrantz, R Holly Fitch
The current study investigated behavioral and post mortem neuroanatomical outcomes in Wistar rats with a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury induced on postnatal day 6 (P6; Rice-Vannucci HI method; Rice et al., 1981). This preparation models brain injury seen in premature infants (gestational age (GA) 32-35 weeks) based on shared neurodevelopmental markers at time of insult, coupled with similar neuropathologic sequelae (Rice et al., 1981; Workman et al., 2013). Clinically, HI insult during this window is associated with poor outcomes that include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), motor coordination deficits, spatial memory deficits, and language/learning disabilities...
February 21, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Kiran S More, Pankaj Sakhuja, Regan E Giesinger, Joseph Y Ting, Matthew Keyzers, Jesal N Sheth, Anie Lapointe, Amish Jain, Aideen M Moore, Steven P Miller, Patrick J McNamara
OBJECTIVE:  This article compares hemodynamic characteristics of neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) receiving therapeutic hypothermia (TH) with normal versus abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS:  Serial echocardiography (echo) was performed within 24 hours, after 48 to 72 hours of cooling, within 24 hours of normothermia, and after starting feeds. Pulmonary hemodynamics, cardiac output, and ventricular function were evaluated...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Hans Jørgen Timm Guthe, Torbjørn Nedrebø, Jan Kristian Damås, Helge Wiig, Ansgar Berg
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia is neuroprotective in asphyxiated neonates by counteracting mechanisms contributing to brain injury. Although an initial increased permeability is part of an inflammatory reaction and thereby a natural healing process, an excessive endothelial permeability with edema formation may result in impaired hemodynamics. Reduced permeability may, however, benefit healing. Although plasma and interstitial colloid osmotic pressure are accessible and essential parameters for understanding fluid imbalance, the mechanisms of fluid exchange remain poorly understood...
February 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Mieke van Holstein, Monja I Froböse, Jacinta O'Shea, Esther Aarts, Roshan Cools
Motivational, cognitive and action goals are processed by distinct, topographically organized, corticostriatal circuits. We aimed to test whether processing in the striatum is under causal control by cortical regions in the human brain by investigating the effects of offline transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over distinct frontal regions associated with motivational, cognitive and action goal processing. Using a three-session counterbalanced within-subject crossover design, continuous theta burst stimulation was applied over the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or premotor cortex, immediately after which participants (N = 27) performed a paradigm assessing reward anticipation (motivation), task (cognitive) switching, and response (action) switching...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Josephine Herz, Christian Köster, Barbara S Reinboth, Mark Dzietko, Wiebke Hansen, Hemmen Sabir, Cindy van Velthoven, Ivo Bendix, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser
Acute hypothermia treatment (HT) is the only clinically established intervention following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. However, almost half of all cooled infants still die or suffer from long-lasting neurological impairments. Regenerative therapies, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) appear promising as adjuvant therapy. In the present study, we hypothesized that HT combined with delayed MSC therapy results in augmented protection, improving long-term neurological outcome. Postnatal day 9 (P9) C57BL/6 mice were exposed to hypoxia-ischemia followed by 4 hours HT...
February 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Fatema Al Amrani, Jaclyn Marcovitz, Priscille-Nice Sanon, May Khairy, Christine Saint-Martin, Michael Shevell, Pia Wintermark
AIM: To determine whether an MRI scoring system, which was validated in the pre-cooling era, can still predict the neurodevelopmental outcome of asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia at 2 years of age. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia. An MRI scoring system, which was validated in the pre-cooling era, was used to grade the severity of brain injury on the neonatal brain MRI. Their neurodevelopment was assessed around 2 years of age; adverse outcome included cerebral palsy, global developmental delay, and/or epilepsy...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Joost Wegman, Ilke van Loon, Paul A M Smeets, Roshan Cools, Esther Aarts
Labels on food packages inform our beliefs, shaping our expectations of food properties, such as its expected taste and healthiness. These beliefs can influence the processing of caloric rewards beyond objective sensory properties and have the potential to impact decision making. However, no studies, within or beyond the food domain, have assessed how written information, such as food labels, affect implicit motivation to obtain rewards, even though choices in daily life might be strongly driven by implicit motivational biases...
February 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Stephan A Bolliger, Doris Tomasin, Jakob Heimer, Henning Richter, Michael J Thali, Dominic Gascho
Due to slowing or even inhibition of postmortem processes, freezing may make an estimation of the time-since-death very difficult. This is also true in previously frozen and subsequently thawed bodies. Knowledge of prior freezing is important, as it may lead to a different assessment of the time since death. Twelve pig heads were frozen at -20 °C, and 6 heads were either kept at room temperature (approximately 20 °C) or in a cooling cell (approximately 5 °C). The frozen brains and cadavers were thawed at either room temperature or in a cooling cell...
February 12, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
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