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Children hepatic tumor

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707868/transarterial-chemoembolization-in-children-to-treat-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Krista E Weiss, Daniel Y Sze, Arun A Rangaswami, Carlos O Esquivel, Waldo Concepcion, Edward A Lebowitz, Nishita Kothary, Matthew P Lungren
Children with unresectable HCC have a dismal prognosis and few approved treatment options. TACE is an effective treatment option for adults with HCC, but experience in children is very limited. Retrospective analysis was performed of 8 patients aged 4-17 years (4 male, mean 12.5 years) who underwent TACE for unresectable HCC. Response to TACE was evaluated by change in AFP, RECIST and tumor volume, PRETEXT, and transplantation eligibility by UCSF and Milan criteria. Post-procedure mean follow-up was 8.2 years...
April 29, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705678/an-interesting-case-of-inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumor-presenting-as-cholangiocarcinoma
#2
Mehrdad Karimi, Adnan Tizmaghz, Ghazaal Shabestanipour
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a reactive or inflammatory state mostly affecting the pulmonary system and commonly occurs in children and young adults. IMT presentation in the hepatic duct bifurcation is very rare and has sporadically been reported before. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 12-year-old girl presented with jaundice, pruritus which had begun 5 weeks previously. Ultrasound revealed intrahepatic biliary ductal dilation and an isoechoic 25*30 mm lesion at or near the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts that were suggestive of a hilar cholangiocarcinoma...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693796/a-phase-1-study-of-cabozantinib-in-children-and-adolescents-with-recurrent-or-refractory-solid-tumors-including-cns-tumors-trial-advl1211-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#3
Meredith K Chuk, Brigitte C Widemann, Charles G Minard, Xiaowei Liu, AeRang Kim, Melanie Brooke Bernhardt, Rachel A Kudgus, Joel M Reid, Stephan D Voss, Susan Blaney, Elizabeth Fox, Brenda J Weigel
BACKGROUND: We conducted a phase 1 trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicity profile, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and preliminary activity of cabozantinib in children with refractory or relapsed solid tumors. METHODS: Patients received cabozantinib tablets on a continuous dosing schedule in a rolling-six escalating phase 1 trial design. PK and PD studies were performed. RESULTS: Forty-one patients, median (range) age 13 (4-18) years, received cabozantinib to achieve a weekly cumulative dose equivalent to 30 (n = 6), 40 (n = 23)...
April 25, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686569/pedunculated-focal-nodular-hyperplasia-in-a-healthy-toddler
#4
Juhi Koolwal, Krista L Birkemeier, Riyam T Zreik, Kelly D Mattix
Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign hepatic tumor rarely seen in pediatric patients, with most cases reported in school-aged children with a history of malignancy, liver disease, chemotherapy, or hematopoietic stem cell therapy. Despite having advanced radiographic imaging, diagnosing FNH before surgical resection can be difficult. We report a rare case of pedunculated FNH presenting as a large abdominal mass palpated on physical exam in a healthy 3-year-old girl with no history of malignancy or underlying liver disease...
January 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651794/celiac-trunk-and-common-hepatic-artery-variations-in-children-an-analysis-with-ct-angiography
#5
Emine Caliskan, Turker Acar, Mehmet Ozturk, Zuhal Bayramoglu, Ravza Yilmaz, Filiz Elbuken, Ibrahim Adaletli
BACKGROUND: Understanding the celiac trunk and hepatic artery anatomy is important not only in preventing iatrogenic injuries but also in planning surgical procedures in children. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of celiac trunk (CeT) and common hepatic artery (CHA) variations in the pediatric population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and seventy-four children (174) who underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography, either because of trauma or liver transplantation, were analyzed retrospectively...
April 13, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567877/a-practical-diagnostic-approach-to-hepatic-masses
#6
REVIEW
Monika Vyas, Dhanpat Jain
The differential diagnosis of hepatic mass lesions is broad and arriving at the right diagnosis can be challenging, especially on needle biopsies. The differential diagnosis of liver tumors in children is different from adults and is beyond the scope of this review. In adults, the approach varies depending on the age, gender, and presence of background liver disease. The lesions can be divided broadly into primary and metastatic (secondary), and the primary lesions can be further divided into those of hepatocellular origin and nonhepatocellular origin...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565153/inflammatory-cytokines-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#7
Silvana Neves Ferraz de Assunção, Ney Christian Amaral Boa Sorte, Crésio De Aragão Dantas Alves, Patrícia S Almeida Mendes, Carlos Roberto Brites Alves, Luciana Rodrigues Silva
INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by the intrahepatic deposition of fat. It is the most prevalent liver disease in the world, affecting obese children and adolescents. Its pathophysiology is not fully understood, although it is often related to insulin resistance. This in turn would be due to an inflammatory condition common to obesity. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe the behavior of proinflammatory cytokines in obese children and adolescents, with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
January 16, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547047/pediatric-visceral-adiposity-index-adaptation-correlates-with-homa-ir-matsuda-and-transaminases
#8
María José Garcés Hernández, Miguel Klünder, Nayely Garibay Nieto, Juan Carlos López Alvarenga, Jenny Vilchis Gil, Samuel Flores Huerta, Rosa Quispe Siccha, Joselin Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a mathematical model associated with cardiometabolic risk in adults, but studies on children failed to support this association. Our group has proposed a pediatric VAI model using pediatric ranges, but it has not yet been evaluated and needs further adjustments. The objective of this study was to further adjust the proposed pediatric VAI by age, creating a new pediatric metabolic index (PMI), and assess the correlation of the PMI with insulin resistance indexes and hepatic enzymes...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540190/development-of-neoplasms-in-pediatric-patients-with-rheumatic-disease-exposed-to-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapies-a-single-centre-retrospective-study
#9
Alexandra Okihiro, Rachana Hasija, Lillia Fung, Bonnie Cameron, Brian M Feldman, Ronald Laxer, Rayfel Schneider, Earl Silverman, Lynn Spiegel, Rae S M Yeung, Shirley M L Tse
BACKGROUND: Anti-TNF (Tumor necrosis factor) therapy is effective in treating pediatric patients with refractory rheumatic disease. There is however a concern that anti-TNF usage may increase the risk of malignancy. Reports on specific types of malignancy in this patient population have been emerging over the past decade, but there is a need for additional malignancy reports, as these events are rare. Therefore, a retrospective chart review was performed on the biologic database of pediatric rheumatology patients at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) from 1997 to 2013 for neoplasms, patient demographic information and rheumatologic treatment course...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537138/-pre-emptive-strike-the-case-for-early-treatment-of-hepatic-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-with-defibrotide
#10
Revathi Rajagopal, Marianne Phillips, Nicholas G Gottardo
The initial signs of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) can be challenging to recognize in children, especially outside the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting. To assist clinicians to promptly identify HSOS, the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation has proposed pediatric HSOS diagnostic criteria which emphasize unexplained consumptive and transfusion-refractory thrombocytopenia. To highlight the importance of these "bellwether" early signs of HSOS and the efficacy of pre-emptive treatment with defibrotide, we describe the case of a child with a right 11th rib primitive neuroectodermal tumor who developed HSOS following focal radiotherapy and actinomycin-D treatment...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524880/isoorientin-triggers-apoptosis-of-hepatoblastoma-by-inducing-dna-double-strand-breaks-and-suppressing-homologous-recombination-repair
#11
Dehong Huang, Lei Jin, Zhengkang Li, Ji Wu, Ni Zhang, Dianrong Zhou, Xiaorong Ni, Tieying Hou
Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common malignant liver tumor in children. DNA and DNA-associated processes are one of the most important targets of chemotherapeutic agents. Isoorientin (Iso), a natural flavonoid compound, can be extracted from several plant species. The effects of Iso and its molecular mechanisms on hepatic malignancies remain unclear. Herein, the anti-tumor effects of Iso in HB and its underlying mechanisms were explored. We found that Iso significantly inhibited the proliferation of HB cells both in vitro and in vivo...
March 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515345/adult-presentation-of-noncirrhotic-portal-hypertension-and-ascites-following-treatment-for-wilms-tumor-in-childhood
#12
Linda Kievit, Pia Kræmer, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Henning Grønbæk
A 37-year-old male, who at the age of 8 years had been treated for right-sided Wilms' tumor with nephrectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, presented with noncirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH), grade 2 esophageal varices, and ascites. A CT scan demonstrated hypoplasia of liver segments 2 and 3. A liver biopsy showed portal tract fibrosis without cirrhosis, with histological features of NCPH. Liver vein catheterization showed a normal portal pressure gradient of 5 mm Hg while spleen to hepatic vein pressure was 29 mm Hg...
January 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498629/hepatitis-b-virus-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-hepatic-cancer-stem-cells
#13
REVIEW
Saravana Kumar Kailasam Mani, Ourania Andrisani
Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is linked to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis. Despite the availability of a HBV vaccine, current treatments for HCC are inadequate. Globally, 257 million people are chronic HBV carriers, and children born from HBV-infected mothers become chronic carriers, destined to develop liver cancer. Thus, new therapeutic approaches are needed to target essential pathways involved in HCC pathogenesis. Accumulating evidence supports existence of hepatic cancer stem cells (hCSCs), which contribute to chemotherapy resistance and cancer recurrence after treatment or surgery...
March 2, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487714/ribavirin-as-a-potential-therapeutic-for-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumors
#14
Joshua Casaos, Sakibul Huq, Tarik Lott, Raphael Felder, John Choi, Noah Gorelick, Michael Peters, Yuanxuan Xia, Russell Maxwell, Tianna Zhao, Chenchen Ji, Thomas Simon, Julie Sesen, Sarah J Scotland, Richard E Kast, Jeffrey Rubens, Eric Raabe, Charles G Eberhart, Eric M Jackson, Henry Brem, Betty Tyler, Nicolas Skuli
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are highly aggressive, malignant tumors and are the most common malignant brain tumor in children under 6 months of age. Currently, there is no standard treatment for AT/RT. Recent studies have reported potential anti-tumoral properties of ribavirin, a guanosine analog and anti-viral molecule approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of hepatitis C. We previously demonstrated that ribavirin inhibited glioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo . Based on these results and the fact that no pre-clinical model of ribavirin in AT/RT exists, we decided to investigate the effect of ribavirin on several human AT/RT cell lines (BT12, BT16, and BT37) both in vitro and in vivo ...
January 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427028/2017-pretext-radiologic-staging-system-for-primary-hepatic-malignancies-of-childhood-revised-for-the-paediatric-hepatic-international-tumour-trial-phitt
#15
REVIEW
Alexander J Towbin, Rebecka L Meyers, Helen Woodley, Osamu Miyazaki, Christopher B Weldon, Bruce Morland, Eiso Hiyama, Piotr Czauderna, Derek J Roebuck, Greg M Tiao
Imaging is crucial in the assessment of children with a primary hepatic malignancy. Since its inception in 1992, the PRETEXT (PRE-Treatment EXTent of tumor) system has become the primary method of risk stratification for hepatoblastoma and pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma in numerous cooperative group trials across the world. The PRETEXT system is made of two components: the PRETEXT group and the annotation factors. The PRETEXT group describes the extent of tumor within the liver while the annotation factors help to describe associated features such as vascular involvement (either portal vein or hepatic vein/inferior vena cava), extrahepatic disease, multifocality, tumor rupture and metastatic disease (to both the lungs and lymph nodes)...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396792/role-of-interventional-radiology-in-managing-pediatric-liver-tumors-part-2-percutaneous-interventions
#16
REVIEW
C Matthew Hawkins, Alexander J Towbin, Derek J Roebuck, Eric J Monroe, Anne E Gill, Avnesh S Thakor, Richard B Towbin, Anne Marie Cahill, Matthew P Lungren
Hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are the most common pediatric liver malignancies, with hepatoblastoma occurring more commonly in younger children and HCC occurring more commonly in older children and adolescents. Although surgical resection (including transplant when necessary) and systemic chemotherapy have improved overall survival rate for hepatoblastoma to approximately 80% from 30%, a number of children with this tumor type are not eligible for operative treatment. In contradistinction, pediatric HCC continues to carry a dismal prognosis with an overall 5-year survival rate of 30%...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383241/co-existing-infantile-hepatic-hemangioma-and-mesenchymal-hamartoma-in-a-neonate
#17
Nicolas Berte, Alya Filfilan, Laurence Mainard, Ludovic Mansuy, Jean-Louis Lemelle
Infantile hepatic hemangioma (IHH) and mesenchymal hamartoma (MH) form the first and second most common benign hepatic tumors in children. In this case report, we present a newborn child in whom a growing hepatic mass was discovered at the age of 7 days. She suffered also from anemia, respiratory and renal failure. No signs of heart disease or cutaneous lesions were detected. Alpha-fetoprotein was elevated for her age (3562.2 ng/ml). Imaging studies showed multifocal large cystic lesions associated with heterogeneous small solid lesions with arterial enhancement of the liver...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381980/circulating-d-dimer-level-correlates-with-disease-characteristics-in-hepatoblastoma-patients
#18
BinBin Zhang, GongBao Liu, XiangQi Liu, Shan Zheng, Kuiran Dong, Rui Dong
OBJECTIVES: Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common pediatric liver malignancy, typically affecting children within the first 4 years of life. However, only a few validated blood biomarkers are used in clinical evaluation. The current study explored the clinical application and significance of D-dimer levels in patients with HB. METHOD: Forty-four patients with HB were included in this retrospective study. D-dimer and plasma fibrinogen levels were examined, and their correlation with other clinical features was analyzed...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375822/hepatoblastoma-current-understanding-recent-advances-and-controversies
#19
REVIEW
Piotr Czauderna, Hanna Garnier
Introduction : Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary malignant liver neoplasm in children. Its increasing survival rate is related to the progress in modern imaging, surgical techniques, and new chemotherapy regimens. Clinical approach : One of the past achievements was the development of the pretreatment extension of disease (PRETEXT) system. Gradually, the HB therapeutic approach has become more individualized with better stratification of patients. Controversies : These include the need for preoperative chemotherapy and its optimal duration; intensity of preoperative chemotherapy required for locally advanced cases (PRETEXT 4); optimal surgical treatment for locally advanced tumors: aggressive hepatic resections versus liver transplantation; the role of postoperative chemotherapy in the post-transplant setting; the timing and role of metastasectomy in patients with disseminated disease who undergo partial liver resection; and the prognostic significance of several HB pathology variants...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362840/role-of-interventional-radiology-in-managing-pediatric-liver-tumors-part-1-endovascular-interventions
#20
REVIEW
Matthew P Lungren, Alexander J Towbin, Derek J Roebuck, Eric J Monroe, Anne E Gill, Avnesh Thakor, Richard B Towbin, Anne Marie Cahill, C Matthew Hawkins
Primary liver malignancies are rare in children. Hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) together represent the overwhelming majority of cases. Overall survival of hepatoblastoma approaches 80% with multimodal treatment approaches that include chemotherapy, surgery and transplantation. However, there remains a subset of children with hepatoblastoma in whom resection or transplantation is not possible. The 5-year survival for children diagnosed with HCC is less than 30% and remains a significant therapeutic challenge...
April 2018: Pediatric Radiology
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