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Organogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220864/the-nature-of-catecholamine-containing-neurons-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-in-relationship-with-organogenesis-normal-human-anatomy-and-neurodegeneration
#1
G Natale, L Ryskalin, C L Busceti, F Biagioni, F Fornai
The gastrointestinal tract is provided with extrinsic and intrinsic innervation. The extrinsic innervation includes the classic vagal parasympathetic and sympathetic components, with afferent sensitive and efferent secretomotor fibers. The intrinsic innervations is represented by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is recognized as a complex neural network controlling a variety of cell populations, including smooth muscle cells, mucosal secretory cells, endocrine cells, microvasculature, immune and inflammatory cells...
September 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218056/respiratory-burst-oxidase-homolog-gene-a-is-crucial-for-rhizobium-infection-and-nodule-maturation-and-function-in-common-bean
#2
Manoj-Kumar Arthikala, Jesús Montiel, Rosana Sánchez-López, Noreide Nava, Luis Cárdenas, Carmen Quinto
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) regulate numerous plant cell processes, including the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Rapid and transient ROS production was reported after Phaseolus vulgaris root hairs were treated with Nod factors, indicating the presence of a ROS-associated molecular signature in the symbiosis signaling pathway. Rboh is a multigene family containing nine members (RbohA-I) in P. vulgaris. RNA interference of RbohB suppresses ROS production and attenuates rhizobial infection thread (IT) progression in P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217575/spatiotemporal-gene-expression-trajectories-reveal-developmental-hierarchies-of-the-human-cortex
#3
Tomasz J Nowakowski, Aparna Bhaduri, Alex A Pollen, Beatriz Alvarado, Mohammed A Mostajo-Radji, Elizabeth Di Lullo, Maximilian Haeussler, Carmen Sandoval-Espinosa, Siyuan John Liu, Dmitry Velmeshev, Johain Ryad Ounadjela, Joe Shuga, Xiaohui Wang, Daniel A Lim, Jay A West, Anne A Leyrat, W James Kent, Arnold R Kriegstein
Systematic analyses of spatiotemporal gene expression trajectories during organogenesis have been challenging because diverse cell types at different stages of maturation and differentiation coexist in the emerging tissues. We identified discrete cell types as well as temporally and spatially restricted trajectories of radial glia maturation and neurogenesis in developing human telencephalon. These lineage-specific trajectories reveal the expression of neurogenic transcription factors in early radial glia and enriched activation of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in outer radial glia...
December 8, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217200/timing-is-everything-reiterative-wnt-bmp-and-ra-signaling-regulate-developmental-competence-during-endoderm-organogenesis
#4
Scott A Rankin, Kyle W McCracken, David M Luedeke, Lu Han, James M Wells, John M Shannon, Aaron M Zorn
A small number of signaling pathways are used repeatedly during organogenesis, and they can have drastically different effects on the same population of cells depending on the embryonic stage. How cellular competence changes over developmental time is not well understood. Here we used Xenopus, mouse, and human pluripotent stem cells to investigate how the temporal sequence of Wnt, BMP, and retinoic acid (RA) signals regulates endoderm developmental competence and organ induction, focusing on respiratory fate...
December 4, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215726/sel1l-knockdown-negatively-influences-zebrafish-embryos-endothelium
#5
A Barbieri, S Carra, P De Blasio, F Cotelli, I Biunno
SEL1L (Suppressor/Enhancer of Lin-12-like) is a highly conserved gene associated with the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation (ERAD) pathway and involved in mediating the balance between stem cells self-renewal and differentiation of neural progenitors. It has been recently shown that SEL1L KO mice are embryonic lethal and display altered organogenesis. To better characterize the function of SEL1L in the early stages of embryonic development, we turned to the zebrafish model (D. rerio). After exploring sel1l expression by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, we employed a morpholino-mediated down-regulation approach...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215720/gsk3%C3%AE-regulates-ameloblast-differentiation-via-wnt-and-tgf-%C3%AE-pathways
#6
Yaling Yang, Ziyue Li, Guoqing Chen, Jie Li, Hui Li, Mei Yu, Weiping Zhang, Weihua Guo, Weidong Tian
Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways participate in regulating a variety of cell fates during organogenesis, including tooth development. Despite well-documented, the specific mechanisms, especially how these two pathways act coordinately in regulating enamel development, remain unknown. In this study, we identified Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), a negative regulator of Wnt signal pathway, participated in ameloblast differentiation via Wnt and TGF-β pathways during enamel development. In vitro rat mandible culture treated with specific GSK3β inhibitor SB415286 displayed enamel defects, accompanied by disrupted ameloblasts polarization, while odontoblasts and dentin appeared to be unaffected...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210663/dna-methylation-a-frontier-in-tooth-organogenesis-and-developmental-dental-defects
#7
Liwei Zheng, Hongyu Li, Zhou Yachuan, Wei Du, Xin Xu, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Mian Wan
Tooth development relies on interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues, which is controlled by sophisticated networks of conserved signaling. The signaling networks regulating odontogenesis have been well characterized, but the mechanisms underlying remain to be elucidated. Researches on mammals have revealed that the genomic methylation, which occurs on cytosine residues, regulates certain genes transcription. Consequently, DNA methylation plays a crucial role in spatiotemporal organization of signaling pathways, and is essential for organogenesis...
December 6, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204825/stem-cell-microenvironments-and-beyond
#8
Alexander Birbrair
Endogenous stem cells are indispensable to keep tissue homeostasis due to their unique ability to generate more specialized cell types in an organized way depending on the body needs. Precise control over stem cell differentiation is essential for organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, also called niches, which maintain them in an undifferentiated and self-renewing state. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of stem cell maintenance are key to the regulation of homeostasis and likely contribute to several disorders when altered during adulthood...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193867/improved-safety-margin-for-embryotoxicity-in-rats-for-the-new-endoperoxide-artefenomel-oz439-as-compared-to-artesunate
#9
Robert L Clark, Tammye L Edwards, Monica Longo, Joseph Kinney, Don K Walker, Jon Rhodes, Sally A Clode, Thomas Rückle, Timothy Wells, Nicole Andenmatten, Anna Christine Huber
BACKGROUND: Combination medicines including an artemisinin are the mainstay of antimalarial therapy. Artemisinins are potent embryotoxicants in animal species due to their trioxane moiety. METHODS: As part of its development, the new synthetic trioxolane antimalarial artefenomel (OZ439) was tested in rat whole embryo culture and in rat embryo-fetal toxicity studies with dosing throughout organogenesis or with a single dose on Gestational Day (GD) 12. The single-dose studies included groups treated with artesunate to allow a direct comparison of the embryotoxicity of the two antimalarials and included toxicokinetics hematology and histological examination of embryos...
November 28, 2017: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187569/dynamics-of%C3%A2-lotus-japonicus%C3%A2-ethylene-production-in-response-to-compatible-nod-factor
#10
Dugald Elgin Reid, Huijun Liu, Simon Kelly, Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Terry Mun, Stig U Andersen, Guilhem J Desbrosses, Jens Stougaard
Establishment of symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in legumes is regulated by the plant hormone ethylene, but it has remained unclear whether and how its biosynthesis is regulated by the symbiotic pathway. We established a sensitive ethylene detection system for Lotus japonicus and found that ethylene production increased as early as six hours after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. This ethylene response was dependent on Nod factor production by compatible rhizobia. Analyses of nodulation mutants showed that perception of Nod factor was required for ethylene emission, while downstream transcription factors including CYCLOPS, NIN and ERN1 were not required for this response...
November 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187504/tissue-specific-gene-inactivation-in%C3%A2-xenopus-laevis-knockout-of%C3%A2-lhx1%C3%A2-in-the-kidney-with-crispr-cas9
#11
Bridget D DeLay, Mark E Corkins, Hannah L Hanania, Matthew Salanga, Jian Min Deng, Norihiro Sudou, Masanori Taira, Marko Horb, Rachel K Miller
Studying genes involved in organogenesis is often difficult because many of these genes are also essential for early development. The allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis, is commonly used to study developmental processes, but because of the presence of two homeologs for many genes, it has been difficult to use as a genetic model. Few studies have successfully used CRISPR in amphibians, and currently there is no tissue-targeted knockout strategy described in Xenopus The goal of this study is to determine whether CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout can be targeted to the Xenopus kidney without perturbing essential early gene function...
November 29, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184175/erratum-egfr-signalling-controls-cellular-fate-and-pancreatic-organogenesis-by-regulating-apicobasal-polarity
#12
Zarah M Löf-Öhlin, Pia Nyeng, Matthew E Bechard, Katja Hess, Eric Bankaitis, Thomas U Greiner, Jacqueline Ameri, Christopher V Wright, Henrik Semb
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncb3628.
November 29, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184141/development-and-growth-of-organs-in-living-whole-embryo-and-larval-grafts-in-zebrafish
#13
Toshihiro Kawasaki, Akiteru Maeno, Toshihiko Shiroishi, Noriyoshi Sakai
Age-related systemic environments influence neurogenesis and organ regeneration of heterochronic parabiotic partners; however, the difficulty of manipulating small embryos prevents the effects of aged systemic environments on primitive organs at the developmental stage from being analysed. Here, we describe a novel transplantation system to support whole living embryos/larvae as grafts in immunodeficient zebrafish by the intrusion of host blood vessels into the grafts, allowing bodies similar to those of heterochronic parabiosis to be generated by subcutaneous grafting...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183940/mechanical-regulation-of-musculoskeletal-system-development
#14
REVIEW
Neta Felsenthal, Elazar Zelzer
During embryogenesis, the musculoskeletal system develops while containing within itself a force generator in the form of the musculature. This generator becomes functional relatively early in development, exerting an increasing mechanical load on neighboring tissues as development proceeds. A growing body of evidence indicates that such mechanical forces can be translated into signals that combine with the genetic program of organogenesis. This unique situation presents both a major challenge and an opportunity to the other tissues of the musculoskeletal system, namely bones, joints, tendons, ligaments and the tissues connecting them...
December 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183737/cross-platform-single-cell-analysis-of-kidney-development-shows-stromal-cells-express-gdnf
#15
Bliss Magella, Mike Adam, Andrew S Potter, Meenakshi Venkatasubramanian, Kashish Chetal, Stuart B Hay, Nathan Salomonis, S Steven Potter
The developing kidney provides a useful model for study of the principles of organogenesis. In this report we use three independent platforms, Drop-Seq, Chromium 10x Genomics and Fluidigm C1, to carry out single cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq) analysis of the E14.5 mouse kidney. Using the software AltAnalyze, in conjunction with the unsupervised approach ICGS, we were unable to identify and confirm the presence of 16 distinct cell populations during this stage of active nephrogenesis. Using a novel integrative supervised computational strategy, we were able to successfully harmonize and compare the cell profiles across all three technological platforms...
November 25, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180763/identification-of-genes-expressed-in-a-mesenchymal-subset-regulating-prostate-organogenesis-using-tissue-and-single-cell-transcriptomics
#16
Nadia Boufaied, Claire Nash, Annie Rochette, Anthony Smith, Brigid Orr, O Cathal Grace, Yu Chang Wang, Dunarel Badescu, Jiannis Ragoussis, Axel A Thomson
Prostate organogenesis involves epithelial growth controlled by inductive signalling from specialised mesenchymal subsets. To identify pathways active in mesenchyme we used tissue and single cell transcriptomics to define mesenchymal subsets and subset-specific transcript expression. We documented transcript expression using Tag-seq and RNA-seq in female rat Ventral Mesenchymal Pad (VMP) as well as adjacent urethra comprised of smooth muscle and peri-urethral mesenchyme. Transcripts enriched in female VMP were identified with Tag-seq of microdissected tissue, RNA-seq of cell populations, and single cells...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180615/evolutionary-recruitment-of-flexible-esrp-dependent-splicing-programs-into-diverse-embryonic-morphogenetic-processes
#17
Demian Burguera, Yamile Marquez, Claudia Racioppi, Jon Permanyer, Antonio Torres-Méndez, Rosaria Esposito, Beatriz Albuixech-Crespo, Lucía Fanlo, Ylenia D'Agostino, Andre Gohr, Enrique Navas-Perez, Ana Riesgo, Claudia Cuomo, Giovanna Benvenuto, Lionel A Christiaen, Elisa Martí, Salvatore D'Aniello, Antonietta Spagnuolo, Filomena Ristoratore, Maria Ina Arnone, Jordi Garcia-Fernàndez, Manuel Irimia
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are crucial for the development of numerous animal structures. Thus, unraveling how molecular tools are recruited in different lineages to control interplays between these tissues is key to understanding morphogenetic evolution. Here, we study Esrp genes, which regulate extensive splicing programs and are essential for mammalian organogenesis. We find that Esrp homologs have been independently recruited for the development of multiple structures across deuterostomes. Although Esrp is involved in a wide variety of ontogenetic processes, our results suggest ancient roles in non-neural ectoderm and regulating specific mesenchymal-to-epithelial transitions in deuterostome ancestors...
November 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172539/proteome-comparisons-between-hemolymph-of-two-honeybee-strains-apis-mellifera-ligustica-reveal-divergent-molecular-basis-in-driving-hemolymph-function-and-high-royal-jelly-secretion
#18
Zewdu Ararso, Chuan Ma, Yuping Qi, Mao Feng, Bin Han, Han Hu, Lifeng Meng, Jianke Li
Hemolymph is vital for the immunity of honeybees, and offers a way to investigate their physiological status. To gain novel insight into the functionality and molecular details of the hemolymph in driving increased Royal Jelly (RJ) production, we characterized and compared hemolymph proteomes across the larval and adult ages of Italian bees (ITbs) and Royal Jelly bees (RJbs), a stock selected from ITbs for increasing RJ output. Unprecedented in-depth proteome was attained with the identification of 3394 hemolymph proteins in both bee lines...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170794/three-dimensional-microct-imaging-of-murine-embryonic-development-from-immediate-post-implantation-to-organogenesis-application-for-phenotyping-analysis-of-early-embryonic-lethality-in-mutant-animals
#19
Olga Ermakova, Tiziana Orsini, Alessia Gambadoro, Francesco Chiani, Glauco P Tocchini-Valentini
In this work, we applied three-dimensional microCT imaging to study murine embryogenesis in the range from immediate post-implantation period (embryonic day 5.5) to mid-gestation (embryonic day 12.5) with the resolution up to 1.4 µm/voxel. Also, we introduce an imaging procedure for non-invasive volumetric estimation of an entire litter of embryos within the maternal uterine structures. This method allows for an accurate, detailed and systematic morphometric analysis of both embryonic and extra-embryonic components during embryogenesis...
November 23, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169144/targeting-the-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-in-cancer-update-on-effectors-and-inhibitors
#20
REVIEW
Nithya Krishnamurthy, Razelle Kurzrock
The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is a family of proteins that is implicated in many vital cellular functions like stem cell regeneration and organogenesis. Several intra-cellular signal transduction pathways are induced by Wnt, notably the Wnt/beta-catenin dependent pathway or canonical pathway and the non-canonical or beta-catenin-independent pathway, the latter includes the Wnt/Ca2+ and Planar Cell Polarity pathway (PCP). Wnt activation occurs at the intestinal crypt floor, and is critical to optimal maintenance of stem cells...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
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