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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219950/nutritional-modulation-of-mouse-and-human-liver-bud-growth-through-a-branched-amino-acid-metabolism
#1
Hiroyuki Koike, Ran-Ran Zhang, Yasuharu Ueno, Keisuke Sekine, Yun-Wen Zheng, Takanori Takebe, Hideki Taniguchi
Liver bud progenitors experience a transient amplification during early organ growth phase, yet the responsible mechanism was not fully understood. Collective evidence highlighted the specific requirements in stem cell metabolism for expanding organ progenitors during organogenesis and regeneration. Here, transcriptome analyses showed progenitors of mouse and human liver bud growth stage specifically expressed branched chain aminotransferase1 gene, a known breakdown enzyme of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) for energy generation...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219948/genomic-integration-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-and-bmp-smad1-signaling-coordinates-foregut-and-hindgut-transcriptional-program
#2
Mariana L Stevens, Praneet Chaturvedi, Scott A Rankin, Melissa Macdonald, Sajjeev Jagannathan, Masashi Yukawa, Artem Barski, Aaron M Zorn
Digestive system development is orchestrated by combinatorial signaling interactions between endoderm and mesoderm, but how these signals are integrated in the genome is poorly understood. Here we identified the transcriptomes of Xenopus foregut and hindgut progenitors, which are conserved with mammals. Using RNA-seq and ChIP-seq we show that BMP/Smad1 regulates dorsal-ventral gene expression in both the endoderm and mesoderm, whereas Wnt/β-catenin acts as a genome-wide toggle between foregut and hindgut programs...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219945/novel-fixed-z-dimension-fizd-kidney-primordia-and-an-organoid-culture-system-for-time-lapse-confocal-imaging
#3
Ulla Saarela, Saad Ullah Akram, Audrey Desgrange, Aleksandra Rak-Raszewska, Jingdong Shan, Silvia Cereghini, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Janne Heikkilä, Ilya Skovorodkin, Seppo J Vainio
Tissue, organ and organoid cultures provide suitable models for developmental studies, but our understanding of how the organs are assembled at the single cell level still remains unclear. We describe here a novel Fixed Z-Dimension (FiZD) culture setup that permits high-resolution confocal imaging of organoids and embryonic tissues. In a FiZD culture a permeable membrane compresses the tissues onto a glass coverslip and the spacers adjust the thickness, enabling the tissue to grow for up to 12 days. Thus the kidney rudiment and the organoids can adjust to the limited Z-dimensional space and yet advance the process of kidney morphogenesis, enabling long-term time-lapse and high-resolution confocal imaging...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215051/-pro-renin-receptor-atp6ap2-depletion-arrests-as4-1-cells-in-the-g0-g1-phase-thereby-increasing-formation-of-primary-cilia
#4
Heike Wanka, Philipp Lutze, Doreen Staar, Barbara Peters, Anica Morch, Lukas Vogel, Ravi Kumar Chilukoti, Georg Homuth, Jaroslaw Sczodrok, Inga Bäumgen, Jörg Peters
The (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR, ATP6AP2] is a multifunctional transmembrane protein that activates local renin-angiotensin systems, but also interacts with Wnt pathways and vacuolar H(+) -ATPase (V-ATPase) during organogenesis. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of ATP6AP2 in the cell cycle in more detail. ATP6AP2 down-regulation by siRNA in renal As4.1 cells resulted in a reduction in the rate of proliferation and a G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. We identified a number of novel target genes downstream of ATP6AP2 knock-down that were related to the primary cilium (Bbs-1, Bbs-3, Bbs-7, Rabl5, Ttc26, Mks-11, Mks-5, Mks-2, Tctn2, Nme7) and the cell cycle (Pierce1, Clock, Ppif)...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213465/epithelial-morphogenesis-during-liver-development
#5
Naoki Tanimizu, Toshihiro Mitaka
Tissue stem/progenitor cells supply multiple types of epithelial cells that eventually acquire specialized functions during organ development. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) tissue structures need to be established for organs to perform their physiological functions. The liver contains two types of epithelial cells, namely, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, which are derived from hepatoblasts, fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (LPCs), in mid-gestation. Hepatocytes performing many metabolic reactions form cord-like structures, whereas cholangiocytes, biliary epithelial cells, form tubular structures called intrahepatic bile ducts...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212658/c-met-expression-and-activity-in-urogenital-cancers-novel-aspects-of-signal-transduction-and-medical-implications
#6
REVIEW
Ralf Hass, Susanne Jennek, Yuanyuan Yang, Karlheinz Friedrich
C-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase with multiple functions throughout embryonic development, organogenesis and wound healing and is expressed in various epithelia. The ligand of c-Met is Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) which is secreted among others by mesenchymal stroma/stem (MSC) cells.Physiological c-Met functions are centred around processes that underly cellular motility and invasive growth. Aberrant c-Met expression and activity is observed in numerous cancers and makes major contributions to cell malignancy...
February 17, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209435/contribution-of-equilibrative-nucleoside-transporter-ent-2-to-fluorouracil-transport-in-rat-placental-trophoblast-cells
#7
Akinori Takagi, Tomohiro Nishimura, Tomoya Akashi, Masatoshi Tomi, Emi Nakashima
Fluorouracil is used for treatment of breast cancer even in pregnant women, except during fetal organogenesis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the transport mechanism of fluorouracil at the rat placental barrier. Maternal-to-fetal transfer of [(3)H]fluorouracil in rats at gestational day 19.5 was saturable and much higher than that of [(14)C]sucrose. The uptake of [(3)H]fluorouracil was also saturable in rat placental trophoblast TR-TBT 18d-1 cells, which express both equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 and ENT2...
December 8, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196330/decellularized-human-dental-pulp-as-a-scaffold-for-regenerative-endodontics
#8
J S Song, K Takimoto, M Jeon, J Vadakekalam, N B Ruparel, A Diogenes
Teeth undergo postnatal organogenesis relatively late in life and only complete full maturation a few years after the crown first erupts in the oral cavity. At this stage, development can be arrested if the tooth organ is damaged by either trauma or caries. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) are a treatment alternative to conventional root canal treatment for immature teeth. These procedures rely on the transfer of apically positioned stem cells, including stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP), into the root canal system...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193855/bmp-singling-controls-buckling-forces-to-modulate-looping-morphogenesis-of-the-gut
#9
Nandan L Nerurkar, L Mahadevan, Clifford J Tabin
Looping of the initially straight embryonic gut tube is an essential aspect of intestinal morphogenesis, permitting proper placement of the lengthy small intestine within the confines of the body cavity. The formation of intestinal loops is highly stereotyped within a given species and results from differential-growth-driven mechanical buckling of the gut tube as it elongates against the constraint of a thin, elastic membranous tissue, the dorsal mesentery. Although the physics of this process has been studied, the underlying biology has not...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192468/matrix-metalloproteinases-are-required-for-membrane-motility-and-lumenogenesis-during-drosophila-heart-development
#10
Qanber S Raza, Jessica L Vanderploeg, J Roger Jacobs
Matrix Metalloproteinases (Mmps) degrade glycoproteins and proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix (ECM) or cell surface and are crucial for morphogenesis. Mmps and their inhibitors are expressed during early stages of cardiac development in vertebrates and expression is altered in multiple congenital cardiomyopathies such as cardia bifida. Drosophila genome encodes two copies of Mmps, Mmp1 and Mmp2 whereas in humans up to 25 Mmps have been identified with overlapping functions. We investigated the role of Mmps during embryonic heart development in Drosophila, a process which is morphogenetically similar to early heart tube formation in vertebrates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187500/basement-membrane-type-iv-collagen-and-laminin-an-overview-of-their-biology-and-value-as-fibrosis-biomarkers-of-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Ki M Mak, Rena Mei
Basement membranes provide structural support to epithelium, endothelium, muscles, fat cells, Schwann cells and axons. Basement membranes are multifunctional: they modulate cellular behavior, regulate organogenesis, promote tissue repair, form a barrier to filtration and tumor metastasis, bind growth factors and mediate angiogenesis. All basement membranes contain type IV collagen (Col IV), laminin, nidogen, and perlecan. Col IV and laminin self-assemble into two independent supramolecular networks that are linked to nidogen and perlecan to form a morphological discernable basement membrane/basal lamina...
February 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180983/scoliosis-convexity-and-organ-anatomy-are-related
#12
Tom P C Schlösser, Tom Semple, Siobhán B Carr, Simon Padley, Michael R Loebinger, Claire Hogg, René M Castelein
PURPOSE: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a respiratory syndrome in which 'random' organ orientation can occur; with approximately 46% of patients developing situs inversus totalis at organogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between organ anatomy and curve convexity by studying the prevalence and convexity of idiopathic scoliosis in PCD patients with and without situs inversus. METHODS: Chest radiographs of PCD patients were systematically screened for existence of significant lateral spinal deviation using the Cobb angle...
February 8, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179256/zebrafish-mesonephric-renin-cells-are-functionally-conserved-and-comprise-of-two-distinct-morphological-populations
#13
Sebastien A Rider, Helen C Christian, Linda J Mullins, Amelia R Howarth, Calum A MacRae, John J Mullins
Zebrafish provide an excellent model in which to assess the role of the renin-angiotensin system in renal development, injury and repair. In contrast to mammals, zebrafish kidney organogenesis terminates with the mesonephros. Despite this, the basic functional structure of the nephron is conserved across vertebrates. The relevance of teleosts for studies relating to the regulation of the renin-angiotensin system was established by assessing the phenotype and functional regulation of renin-expressing cells in zebrafish...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176764/foxn1-%C3%AE-5t-transcriptional-axis-controls-cd8-t-cell-production-in-the-thymus
#14
Muhammad Myn Uddin, Izumi Ohigashi, Ryo Motosugi, Tomomi Nakayama, Mie Sakata, Jun Hamazaki, Yasumasa Nishito, Immanuel Rode, Keiji Tanaka, Tatsuya Takemoto, Shigeo Murata, Yousuke Takahama
The thymus is an organ that produces functionally competent T cells that protect us from pathogens and malignancies. Foxn1 is a transcription factor that is essential for thymus organogenesis; however, the direct target for Foxn1 to actuate thymic T-cell production is unknown. Here we show that a Foxn1-binding cis-regulatory element promotes the transcription of β5t, which has an essential role in cortical thymic epithelial cells to induce positive selection of functionally competent CD8(+) T cells. A point mutation in this genome element results in a defect in β5t expression and CD8(+) T-cell production in mice...
February 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167492/disruption-of-pdgfra-alters-endocardial-and-myocardial-fusion-during-zebrafish-cardiac-assembly
#15
Suzan El-Rass, Shahram Eisa-Beygi, Edbert Khong, Koroboshka Brand-Arzamendi, Antonio Mauro, Haibo Zhang, Karl J Clark, Stephen C Ekker, Xiao-Yan Wen
Cardiac development in vertebrates is a finely tuned process regulated by a set of conserved signaling pathways. Perturbations of these processes are often associated with congenital cardiac malformations. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) is a highly conserved tyrosine kinase receptor, which is essential for development and organogenesis. Disruption of Pdgfrα function in murine models are embryonic lethal due to severe cardiovascular defects, suggesting a role in cardiac development, thus necessitating the use of alternative models to explore its precise function...
February 6, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163984/fluid-mechanics-as-a-driver-of-tissue-scale-mechanical-signaling-in-organogenesis
#16
Rachel M Gilbert, Joshua T Morgan, Elizabeth S Marcin, Jason P Gleghorn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Organogenesis is the process during development by which cells self-assemble into complex, multi-scale tissues. Whereas significant focus and research effort has demonstrated the importance of solid mechanics in organogenesis, less attention has been given to the fluid forces that provide mechanical cues over tissue length scales. RECENT FINDINGS: Fluid motion and pressure is capable of creating spatial gradients of forces acting on cells, thus eliciting distinct and localized signaling patterns essential for proper organ formation...
December 2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159716/cellular-self-assembly-and-biomaterials-based-organoid-models-of-development-and-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Shivem B Shah, Ankur Singh
: Organogenesis and morphogenesis have informed our understanding of physiology, pathophysiology, and avenues to create new curative and regenerative therapies. Thus far, this understanding has been hindered by the lack of a physiologically relevant yet accessible model that affords biological control. Recently, three-dimensional ex vivo cellular cultures created through cellular self-assembly under natural extracellular matrix cues or through biomaterial-based directed assembly have been shown to physically resemble and recapture some functionality of target organs...
January 31, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155855/evolution-of-shh-endoderm-enhancers-during-morphological-transition-from-ventral-lungs-to-dorsal-gas-bladder
#18
Tomoko Sagai, Takanori Amano, Akiteru Maeno, Tetsuaki Kimura, Masatoshi Nakamoto, Yusuke Takehana, Kiyoshi Naruse, Norihiro Okada, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Toshihiko Shiroishi
Shh signalling plays a crucial role for endoderm development. A Shh endoderm enhancer, MACS1, is well conserved across terrestrial animals with lungs. Here, we first show that eliminating mouse MACS1 causes severe defects in laryngeal development, indicating that MACS1-directed Shh signalling is indispensable for respiratory organogenesis. Extensive phylogenetic analyses revealed that MACS1 emerged prior to the divergence of cartilaginous and bony fishes, and even euteleost fishes have a MACS1 orthologue. Meanwhile, ray-finned fishes evolved a novel conserved non-coding sequence in the neighbouring region...
February 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144783/development-of-the-lung
#19
REVIEW
Johannes C Schittny
To fulfill the task of gas exchange, the lung possesses a huge inner surface and a tree-like system of conducting airways ventilating the gas exchange area. During lung development, the conducting airways are formed first, followed by the formation and enlargement of the gas exchange area. The latter (alveolarization) continues until young adulthood. During organogenesis, the left and right lungs have their own anlage, an outpouching of the foregut. Each lung bud starts a repetitive process of outgrowth and branching (branching morphogenesis) that forms all of the future airways mainly during the pseudoglandular stage...
January 31, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143844/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-tooth-root-development
#20
REVIEW
Jingyuan Li, Carolina Parada, Yang Chai
The tooth root is an integral, functionally important part of our dentition. The formation of a functional root depends on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and integration of the root with the jaw bone, blood supply and nerve innervations. The root development process therefore offers an attractive model for investigating organogenesis. Understanding how roots develop and how they can be bioengineered is also of great interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tooth root formation...
February 1, 2017: Development
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