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Organogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087632/sequential-organogenesis-sets-two-parallel-sensory-lines-in-medaka
#1
Ali Seleit, Isabel Krämer, Elizabeth Ambrosio, Nicolas Dross, Ulrike Engel, Lázaro Centanin
Animal organs are typically formed during embryogenesis by following one specific developmental programme. Here we report that neuromast organs are generated by two distinct and sequential programmes that result in parallel sensory lines in medaka embryos. A ventral posterior lateral line (pLL) is composed of neuromasts deposited by collectively migrating cells while a midline pLL is formed by individually migrating cells. Despite the variable number of neuromasts among embryos, the sequential programmes that we describe here fix an invariable ratio between ventral and midline neuromasts...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087625/faithful-mrna-splicing-depends-on-the-prp19-complex-subunit-faint-sausage-and-is-required-for-tracheal-branching-morphogenesis-in-drosophila
#2
Julia Sauerwald, Charlotte Soneson, Mark D Robinson, Stefan Luschnig
Morphogenesis requires the dynamic regulation of gene expression, including transcription, mRNA maturation and translation. Dysfunction of the general mRNA splicing machinery can cause surprisingly specific cellular phenotypes, but the basis for these effects is not clear. Here we show that the Drosophila faint sausage (fas) locus, implicated in epithelial morphogenesis and previously reported to encode a secreted immunoglobulin domain protein, in fact encodes a subunit of the spliceosome-activating Prp19 complex, which is essential for efficient pre-mRNA splicing...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086797/sep-class-genes-in-prunus-mume-and-their-likely-role-in-floral-organ-development
#3
Yuzhen Zhou, Zongda Xu, Xue Yong, Sagheer Ahmad, Weiru Yang, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Flower phylogenetics and genetically controlled development have been revolutionised during the last two decades. However, some of these evolutionary aspects are still debatable. MADS-box genes are known to play essential role in specifying the floral organogenesis and differentiation in numerous model plants like Petunia hybrida, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, belonging to the MADS-box gene family, are members of the ABCDE and quartet models of floral organ development and play a vital role in flower development...
January 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073007/mesenchymal-microrna-function-branches-out
#4
Huojun Cao, Liu Hong, Brad A Amendt
Significant amounts of microRNAs (miRs) are detected in exosomes, but their function during fetal development is poorly understood. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Hayashi et al. (2017) show that exosomal miRs secreted by mesenchymal cells can regulate epithelial KIT(+) progenitor cell expansion during murine salivary gland organogenesis.
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072387/embryonic-origin-of-adult-stem-cells-required-for-tissue-homeostasis-and-regeneration
#5
Erin L Davies, Kai Lei, Christopher W Seidel, Amanda E Kroesen, Sean A McKinney, Longhua Guo, Sofia Mc Robb, Eric J Ross, Kirsten Gotting, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Planarian neoblasts are pluripotent, adult somatic stem cells and lineage-primed progenitors required for production and maintenance of all differentiated cell types, including the germline. Neoblasts, originally defined as undifferentiated cells residing in the adult parenchyma, are frequently compared to embryonic stem cells yet their developmental origin remains obscure. We investigated the provenance of neoblasts during S. mediterranea embryogenesis, and report that neoblasts arise from an anarchic, cycling piwi-1+ population wholly responsible for production of all temporary and definitive organs during embryogenesis...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068194/the-erf-required-for-nodulation1-ern1-transcription-factor-is-required-for-infection-thread-formation-in-lotus-japonicus
#6
Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Euan K James, Simon Kelly, Niels Sandal, Jens Stougaard
Several hundred genes are transcriptionally regulated during infection thread formation and development of nitrogen fixing root nodules. We have characterized a set of Lotus japonicus mutants impaired in root nodule formation and found that the causative gene, Ern1, encodes a protein with a characteristic APETALA2/Ethylene Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor domain. Phenotypic characterisation of four ern1 alleles shows that infection pockets are formed but root hair infection threads are absent...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067323/stromal-cell-subsets-directing-neonatal-spleen-regeneration
#7
Jonathan K H Tan, Takeshi Watanabe
Development of lymphoid tissue is determined by interactions between stromal lymphoid tissue organiser (LTo) and hematopoietic lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. A failure for LTo to receive appropriate activating signals during embryogenesis through lymphotoxin engagement leads to a complete cessation of lymph node (LN) and Peyer's patch development, identifying LTo as a key stromal population for lymphoid tissue organogenesis. However, little is known about the equivalent stromal cells that induce spleen development...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065852/gut-development-in-c-elegans
#8
REVIEW
Morris F Maduro
The midgut (intestine) of the nematode, C. elegans, is a tube consisting of 20 cells that arises from a single embryonic precursor. Owing to its comparatively simple anatomy and the advantages inherent to the C. elegans system, the gut has been used as a model for organogenesis for more than 25 years. In this review, the salient features of C. elegans gut development are described from the E progenitor through to the 20-cell intestine. The core gene regulatory network that drives specification of the gut, and other genes with roles in organogenesis, lumen morphogenesis and the cell cycle, are also described...
January 5, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062752/arabidopsis-seed-mitochondria-are-bioenergetically-active-immediately-upon-imbibition-and-specialize-via-biogenesis-in-preparation-for-autotrophic-growth
#9
Gael Paszkiewicz, Jose Manuel Gualberto, Abdelilah Benamar, David Macherel, David C Logan
Seed germination is a vital developmental transition for production of progeny by sexual reproduction in spermatophytes. Quiescent cells in non-dormant dry embryos are reawakened first by imbibition and then by perception of germination triggers. Reanimated tissues enter into a germination program requiring energy for expansion growth. However, germination requires that embryonic tissues develop to support the more energy-demanding processes of cell division and organogenesis of the new seedling. Reactivation of mitochondria to supply the required energy is thus a key process underpinning germination and seedling survival...
January 6, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057266/t-box-genes-in-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract
#10
A Kispert
T-box (Tbx) genes encode an ancient group of transcription factors that play important roles in patterning, specification, proliferation, and differentiation programs in vertebrate organogenesis. This is testified by severe organ malformation syndromes in mice homozygous for engineered null alleles of specific T-box genes and by the large number of human inherited organ-specific diseases that have been linked to mutations in these genes. One of the organ systems that has not been associated with loss of specific T-box gene function in human disease for long is the excretory system...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052333/on-the-prenatal-initiation-of-t-cell-development-in-the-opossum-monodelphis-domestica
#11
Victoria L Hansen, Robert D Miller
Thymus-dependent lymphocytes (T cells) are a critical cell lineage in the adaptive immune system of all jawed vertebrates. In eutherian mammals the initiation of T cell development takes place prenatally and the offspring of many species are born relatively immuno-competent. Marsupials, in contrast, are born in a comparatively altricial state and with a less well developed immune system. As such, marsupials are valuable models for studying the peri- and postnatal initiation of immune system development in mammals...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049691/pdgfr%C3%AE-controls-the-balance-of-stromal-and-adipogenic-cells-during-adipose-tissue-organogenesis
#12
Chengyi Sun, William L Berry, Lorin E Olson
Adipose tissue is distributed in depots throughout the body with specialized roles in energy storage and thermogenesis. PDGFRα is a marker of adipocyte precursors, and increased PDGFRα activity causes adipose tissue fibrosis in adult mice. However, the function of PDGFRα during adipose tissue organogenesis is unknown. Here, by analyzing mice with juxtamembrane or kinase domain point mutations that increase PDGFRα activity (V561D or D842V), we found that PDGFRα activation inhibits embryonic white adipose tissue organogenesis in a tissue-autonomous manner...
January 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049660/an-exclusive-cellular-and-molecular-network-governs-intestinal-smooth-muscle-cell-differentiation-in-vertebrates
#13
Dafne Gays, Christopher Hess, Annalisa Camporeale, Ugo Ala, Paolo Provero, Christian Mosimann, Massimo M Santoro
Intestinal smooth muscle cells (iSMCs) are a critical component of the adult gastrointestinal (GI) tract and support intestinal differentiation, peristalsis, and epithelial homeostasis during development. Despite these critical roles, the origin of iSMCs and the mechanisms responsible for their differentiation and function remain fairly unknown in vertebrates. Here, using genetic lineage tracing in zebrafish, we demonstrated that iSMCs arise from the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) in a stepwise process. Early during organogenesis, LPM cells progressively migrate ventral to the endoderm tube wrapping the developing gut...
January 3, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043866/investigation-into-the-effect-of-microsampling-on-mouse-fetuses-and-pregnant-mice-in-the-embryofetal-development-study-design
#14
Terri Mitchard, Sarah Kirk, Claire Grant, Jane Stewart
The effects on fetal weights and maternal health of taking 32μL blood microsamples at the end of organogenesis in a mouse embryofetal development (EFD) study design was investigated with the aim of reducing satellite animal usage. The effects of warming, handling and sampling either 3 or 6 times on gestation day 16 was evaluated. Maternal body weight gain was transiently reduced when animals underwent warming and handling with or without microsampling. Fetal weights on gestation day 18 were reduced after 6 occasion warming and handling alone or taking samples, but not when sampling was limited to 3 timepoints...
December 30, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041904/long-term-high-resolution-imaging-of-developing-c-%C3%A2-elegans-larvae-with-microfluidics
#15
Wolfgang Keil, Lena M Kutscher, Shai Shaham, Eric D Siggia
Long-term studies of Caenorhabditis elegans larval development traditionally require tedious manual observations because larvae must move to develop, and existing immobilization techniques either perturb development or are unsuited for young larvae. Here, we present a simple microfluidic device to simultaneously follow development of ten C. elegans larvae at high spatiotemporal resolution from hatching to adulthood (∼3 days). Animals grown in microchambers are periodically immobilized by compression to allow high-quality imaging of even weak fluorescence signals...
December 23, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041903/exosomal-microrna-transport-from-salivary-mesenchyme-regulates-epithelial-progenitor-expansion-during-organogenesis
#16
Toru Hayashi, Isabelle M A Lombaert, Belinda R Hauser, Vaishali N Patel, Matthew P Hoffman
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions involve fundamental communication between tissues during organogenesis and are primarily regulated by growth factors and extracellular matrix. It is unclear whether RNA-containing exosomes are mobile genetic signals regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Here we identify that exosomes loaded with mesenchyme-specific mature microRNA contribute mobile genetic signals from mesenchyme to epithelium. The mature mesenchymal miR-133b-3p, loaded into exosomes, was transported from mesenchyme to the salivary epithelium, which did not express primary miR-133b-3p...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039581/microrna-expression-profiles-of-human-ipscs-differentiation-into-insulin-producing-cells
#17
Guido Sebastiani, Marco Valentini, Giuseppina Emanuela Grieco, Giuliana Ventriglia, Laura Nigi, Francesca Mancarella, Silvia Pellegrini, Gianvito Martino, Valeria Sordi, Lorenzo Piemonti, Francesco Dotta
AIMS: MicroRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs, which control gene expression by inhibition of mRNA translation. MicroRNAs are involved in the control of biological processes including cell differentiation. Here, we aim at characterizing microRNA expression profiles during differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into insulin-producing cells. METHODS: We differentiated hiPSCs toward endocrine pancreatic lineage following a 18-day protocol...
December 30, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036067/drosophila-protein-kinase-ck2-genetics-regulatory-complexity-and-emerging-roles-during-development
#18
REVIEW
Mohna Bandyopadhyay, Scott Arbet, Clifton P Bishop, Ashok P Bidwai
CK2 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is highly conserved amongst all eukaryotes. It is a well-known oncogenic kinase that regulates vital cell autonomous functions and animal development. Genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila are providing unique insights into the roles of CK2 in cell signaling, embryogenesis, organogenesis, neurogenesis, and the circadian clock, and are revealing hitherto unknown complexities in CK2 functions and regulation. Here, we review Drosophila CK2 with respect to its structure, subunit diversity, potential mechanisms of regulation, developmental abnormalities linked to mutations in the gene encoding CK2 subunits, and emerging roles in multiple aspects of eye development...
December 29, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033194/neonatal-soft-tissue-reconstruction-using-a-bioengineered-skin-substitute
#19
Scott D Hirsch, Jeremy M Powers, Jennifer L Rhodes
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) can be a lifesaving intervention for premature neonates and it is often delivered through peripheral access in this unique population. However, extravasation and tissue damage can result. Current literature lacks strong evidence regarding the treatment and reconstruction of such injuries in this age group. The authors present a patient with a 30-week gestational age premature newborn whom suffered an extravasation injury with peripherally administered TPN leading to full thickness skin and soft tissue necrosis of the dorsum of the right hand...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032862/cullin-4-regulates-wingless-and-jnk-signaling-mediated-cell-death-in-the-drosophila-eye
#20
Meghana Tare, Ankita Sarkar, Shimpi Bedi, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh
In all multicellular organisms, the fundamental processes of cell proliferation and cell death are crucial for growth regulation during organogenesis. Strict regulation of cell death is important to maintain tissue homeostasis by affecting processes like regulation of cell number, and elimination of unwanted/unfit cells. The developing Drosophila eye is a versatile model to study patterning and growth, where complex signaling pathways regulate growth and cell survival. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of these processes is not fully understood...
December 29, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
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