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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727410/exosomes-mediate-epithelium-mesenchyme-crosstalk-in-organ-development
#1
Nan Jiang, Lusai Xiang, Ling He, Guodong Yang, Jinxuan Zheng, Chenglin Wang, Yimei Zhang, Sainan Wang, Yue Zhou, Tzong-Jen Sheu, Jiaqian Wu, Kenian Chen, Paulo G Coelho, Nicky M Tovar, Shin Hye Kim, Mo Chen, Yan-Heng Zhou, Jeremy J Mao
Organ development requires complex signaling by cells in different tissues. Epithelium and mesenchyme interactions are crucial for the development of the skin, hair follicles, kidney, lungs, prostate, major glands and the teeth. Despite myriad literature on cell-cell interactions and ligand-receptor binding, the roles extracellular vesicles in epithelium-mesenchyme interactions during organogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we discovered that ~100 nm exosomes were secreted by the epithelium and mesenchyme of a developing tooth organ, and diffused through the basement membrane...
July 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720483/left-right-patterning-breaking-symmetry-to-asymmetric-morphogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Daniel T Grimes, Rebecca D Burdine
Vertebrates exhibit striking left-right (L-R) asymmetries in the structure and position of the internal organs. Symmetry is broken by motile cilia-generated asymmetric fluid flow, resulting in a signaling cascade - the Nodal-Pitx2 pathway - being robustly established within mesodermal tissue on the left side only. This pathway impinges upon various organ primordia to instruct their side-specific development. Recently, progress has been made in understanding both the breaking of embryonic L-R symmetry and how the Nodal-Pitx2 pathway controls lateralized cell differentiation, migration, and other aspects of cell behavior, as well as tissue-level mechanisms, that drive asymmetries in organ formation...
July 15, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715412/cell-fate-specification-in-the-lingual-epithelium-is-controlled-by-antagonistic-activities-of-sonic-hedgehog-and-retinoic-acid
#3
Maha El Shahawy, Claes-Göran Reibring, Cynthia L Neben, Kristina Hallberg, Pauline Marangoni, Brian D Harfe, Ophir D Klein, Anders Linde, Amel Gritli-Linde
The interaction between signaling pathways is a central question in the study of organogenesis. Using the developing murine tongue as a model, we uncovered unknown relationships between Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and retinoic acid (RA) signaling. Genetic loss of SHH signaling leads to enhanced RA activity subsequent to loss of SHH-dependent expression of Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1. This causes a cell identity switch, prompting the epithelium of the tongue to form heterotopic minor salivary glands and to overproduce oversized taste buds...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709801/lymphatic-endothelial-cells-control-initiation-of-lymph-node-organogenesis
#4
Lucas Onder, Urs Mörbe, Natalia Pikor, Mario Novkovic, Hung-Wei Cheng, Thomas Hehlgans, Klaus Pfeffer, Burkhard Becher, Ari Waisman, Thomas Rülicke, Jennifer Gommerman, Christopher G Mueller, Shinichiro Sawa, Elke Scandella, Burkhard Ludewig
Lymph nodes (LNs) are strategically situated throughout the body at junctures of the blood vascular and lymphatic systems to direct immune responses against antigens draining from peripheral tissues. The current paradigm describes LN development as a programmed process that is governed through the interaction between mesenchymal lymphoid tissue organizer (LTo) cells and hematopoietic lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Using cell-type-specific ablation of key molecules involved in lymphoid organogenesis, we found that initiation of LN development is dependent on LTi-cell-mediated activation of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and that engagement of mesenchymal stromal cells is a succeeding event...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708332/oxidative-stress-and-cellular-and-tissue-damage-in-organogenic-outbred-mouse-embryos-after-moderate-perigestational-alcohol-intake
#5
Tamara A Coll, Gabriela Chaufan, Leticia Pérez-Tito, Martín R Ventureira, Cristian M A Sobarzo, María Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Elisa Cebral
Perigestational alcohol consumption by CF-1 mouse, from before mating up to the period of embryo organogenesis, leads to retarded early embryo development and neural tube defects. Here, we addressed if perigestational alcohol ingestion up to Day 10 of pregnancy induces oxidative stress and changes in macromolecules and organ tissues of early organogenic embryos. Adult CF-1 female mice were administered 10% ethanol in their drinking water for 17 days prior to mating and until Day 10 of gestation, whereas control females were administered ethanol-free water...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705881/defining-a-novel-role-for-the-pdx1-transcription-factor-in-islet-%C3%AE-cell-maturation-and-proliferation-during-weaning
#6
Jason M Spaeth, Manisha Gupte, Mark Perelis, Yu-Ping Yang, Holly Cyphert, Shuangli Guo, Jin-Hua Liu, Min Guo, Joseph Bass, Mark A Magnuson, Christopher Wright, Roland Stein
The transcription factor encoded by the Pancreas Duodenum Homeobox-1 (Pdx1) gene is a critical transcriptional regulator, as it has fundamental actions in the formation of all pancreatic cell types, islet β cell development, and adult islet β cell function. Transgenic- and cell line-based experiments have identified 5'-flanking conserved sequences that control pancreatic and β cell-type-specific transcription, which are found within Area I (base pairs (bp) -2694 to -2561), II (bp -2139 to -1958), III (bp -1879 to -1799), and IV (bp -6200 to -5670)...
July 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700594/hierarchical-patterning-modes-orchestrate-hair-follicle-morphogenesis
#7
James D Glover, Kirsty L Wells, Franziska Matthäus, Kevin J Painter, William Ho, Jon Riddell, Jeanette A Johansson, Matthew J Ford, Colin A B Jahoda, Vaclav Klika, Richard L Mort, Denis J Headon
Two theories address the origin of repeating patterns, such as hair follicles, limb digits, and intestinal villi, during development. The Turing reaction-diffusion system posits that interacting diffusible signals produced by static cells first define a prepattern that then induces cell rearrangements to produce an anatomical structure. The second theory, that of mesenchymal self-organisation, proposes that mobile cells can form periodic patterns of cell aggregates directly, without reference to any prepattern...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699036/spatiotemporal-expression-of-a-twist-homolog-in-the-leech-helobdella-austinensis
#8
Jin-Se Kim, Brenda Irene Medina Jiménez, Hee-Jin Kwak, Soon Cheol Park, Ping Xiao, David A Weisblat, Sung-Jin Cho
Genes of the twist family encode bHLH transcription factors known to be involved in the regulation and differentiation of early mesoderm. Here, we report our characterization of Hau-twist, a twist homolog from the leech Helobdella austinensis, a tractable lophotrochozoan representative. Hau-twist was expressed in segmental founder cells of the mesodermal lineage, in subsets of cells within the mesodermal lineage of the germinal plate, in circumferential muscle fibers of a provisional integument during segmentation and organogenesis stages and on the ventral side of the developing proboscis...
July 11, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693796/regulatory-effects-of-berberine-on-micrornome-in-cancer-and-other-conditions
#9
REVIEW
Seyed Hasan Ayati, Badrieh Fazeli, Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Arrigo F G Cicero, Matteo Pirro, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid found in different plant families such as Berberidaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Papaveraceae. BBR is well-known for its anti-inflammatory, lipid-modifying, anticancer, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antiparasitic and fungicide activities. Multiple pharmacological actions of BBR stem from different molecular targets of this phytochemical. MicroRNAs (miRs) are single-stranded, evolutionary conserved, small non-coding RNA molecules with a length of 19-23 nucleotides that are involved in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of target mRNA...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688895/differential-requirement-of-sufu-in-tissue-development-discovered-in-a-hypomorphic-mouse-model
#10
Maria A Hoelzl, Karin Heby-Henricson, Marco Gerling, José M Dias, Raoul V Kuiper, Cornelius Trünkle, Åsa Bergström, Johan Ericson, Rune Toftgård, Stephan Teglund
Suppressor of Fused (SUFU) is an essential negative regulator of the Hedgehog (HH) pathway and involved in GLI transcription factor regulation. Due to early embryonic lethality of Sufu(-/-) mice, investigations of SUFU's role later in development are limited to conditional, tissue-specific knockout models. In this study we developed a mouse model (Sufu(Ex456(fl)/Ex456(fl))) with hypomorphic features where embryos were viable up to E18.5, although with a spectrum of developmental defects of varying severity, including polydactyly, exencephaly and omphalocele...
July 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685479/neoteric-trends-in-tissue-culture-mediated-biotechnology-of-indian-ipecac-tylophora-indica-burm-f-merrill
#11
REVIEW
Saikat Gantait, Suprabuddha Kundu
Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill, an ethno-pharmacologically important perennial climber of Asclepiadaceae, is commonly known as Antamul or Indian ipecac. It is essentially accredited for its medicinal properties owing to its wide range of alkaloids in the form of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as tylophorine, tylophorinine, and tylophorinidine. Accelerated mass propagation of Tylophora is challenging because of its reduced seed germination frequency that consequently headed the pursuit for efficient protocols on in vitro propagation for the large-scale regeneration, conservation as well as sustainable supply of quality propagules...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684626/acetylcholinesterase-plays-a-non-neuronal-non-esterase-role-in-organogenesis
#12
Melissa A Pickett, Michael K Dush, Nanette M Nascone-Yoder
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is crucial for degrading acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses. In vitro studies suggest that, in addition to its role in nervous signaling, AChE can also modulate non-neuronal cell properties, although it remains controversial whether AChE functions in this capacity in vivo Here, we show that AChE plays an essential non-classical role in vertebrate gut morphogenesis. Exposure of Xenopus embryos to AChE-inhibiting chemicals results in severe defects in intestinal development. Tissue-targeted loss of function assays (via microinjection of antisense morpholino or CRISPR-Cas9) confirm that AChE is specifically required in the gut endoderm tissue, a non-neuronal cell population, where it mediates adhesion to fibronectin and regulates cell rearrangement events that drive gut lengthening and digestive epithelial morphogenesis...
July 6, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680760/tbet-and-il-36%C3%AE-cooperate-in-therapeutic-dc-mediated-promotion-of-ectopic-lymphoid-organogenesis-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#13
Aliyah M Weinstein, Lu Chen, Emily A Brzana, Prashanti R Patil, Jennifer L Taylor, Kellsye L Fabian, Callen T Wallace, Sabrina D Jones, Simon C Watkins, Binfeng Lu, David F Stroncek, Timothy L Denning, Yang-Xin Fu, Peter A Cohen, Walter J Storkus
We have previously reported that direct injection of dendritic cells (DC) engineered to express the Type-1 transactivator Tbet (i.e., DC.Tbet) into murine tumors results in antitumor efficacy in association with the development of structures resembling tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO) in the tumor microenvironment (TME). These TLO contained robust infiltrates of B cells, DC, NK cells, and T cells in proximity to PNAd(+) blood vessels; however, they were considered incomplete, since the recruited B cells failed to organize into classic germinal center-like structures...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680641/concurrent-intrathyroidal-thymus-and-parathyroid-in-a-patient-with-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-a-challenging-diagnosis
#14
Georgios Velimezis, Argyrios Ioannidis, Sotirios Apostolakis, Maria Chorti, Charalampos Avramidis, Evripidis Papachristou
During embryogenesis, the thymus and inferior parathyroid glands develop from the third pharyngeal pouch and migrate to their definite position. During this process, several anatomic variations may arise, with the thyroid being one of the most common sites of ectopic implantation for both organs. Here, we report the case of a young female patient, who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The patient's history was remarkable for disorders of the genitourinary system. Histologic examination revealed the presence of well-differentiated intrathyroidal thymic tissue, containing an inferior parathyroid gland...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680477/human-pluripotent-stem-cell-differentiation-to-functional-pancreatic-cells-for-diabetes-therapies-innovations-challenges-and-future-directions
#15
REVIEW
Elena F Jacobson, Emmanuel S Tzanakakis
Recent advances in the expansion and directed pancreatogenic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have intensified efforts to generate functional pancreatic islet cells, especially insulin-secreting β-cells, for cell therapies against diabetes. However, the consistent generation of glucose-responsive insulin-releasing cells remains challenging. In this article, we first present basic concepts of pancreatic organogenesis, which frequently serves as a basis for engineering differentiation regimens...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674292/diverse-functions-of-a-disintegrin-and-metalloproteinase-with-thrombospondin-motif-1
#16
Satoshi Hirohata, Junko Inagaki, Takashi Ohtsuki
 A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif-1 (ADAMTS1) was initially cloned from a colon cachexia cell line. In the last 20 years, novel matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes were found, and in addition to their original members (MMPs and membrane-type MMPs), the current MMP family contains a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and ADAMTS. ADAM and ADAMTS play essential roles in organogenesis as well as various diseases including osteoarthritis. ADAMTS has 19 members and can be divided into several groups according to their substrates...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667644/somatic-embryogenesis-in-guava-psidium-guajava-l-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Madhu Kamle, Kwang-Hyun Baek
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a highly perishable fruit crop comparable to mango owing to its high medicinal value and intense aroma. The presence of high genetic variability limits the chances of further expansion of guava improvement using biotechnological interventions. Conventional methods of guava improvement encountered with restricted achievement in progress of disease resistant varieties because of existing high genetic variability in the germplasm. There is a considerable demand for the establishment of successful and efficient regeneration protocols via somatic embryogenesis...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663332/the-microrna390-tas3-pathway-mediates-in-symbiotic-nodulation-and-lateral-root-growth
#18
Karen Vanesa Hobecker, Mauricio Alberto Reynoso, Pilar Bustos Sanmamed, Jiangqi Wen, Kirankumar S Mysore, Martin Crespi, Flavio Antonio Blanco, María Eugenia Zanetti
Legume roots form two types of post-embryonic organs, lateral roots and symbiotic nodules. Nodule formation is the result of the interaction of legumes with rhizobia, and requires the mitotic activation and differentiation of root cells, as well as an independent, but coordinated, program that allows infection by rhizobia. MicroRNA390 (miR390) is an evolutionarily conserved miRNA that targets the non-coding Trans Acting Short Interference RNA3 (TAS3). Cleavage of TAS3 by ARGONAUTE7 results in the production of tasiRNAs, which target mRNAs encoding the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 (ARF2), ARF3 and ARF4...
June 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654864/wolf-hirschhorn-syndrome-candidate-1-whsc1-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-by-governing-cell-differentiation
#19
Chuan Yu, Xiaomin Yao, Linjie Zhao, Ping Wang, Qian Zhang, Chengjian Zhao, Shaohua Yao, Yuquan Wei
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1 (WHSC1) is a histone 3 lysine 36 (H3K36) specific methyltransferase that is frequently deleted in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). Whsc1 is also found mutated in a subgroup of B-cell derived malignant diseases by genomic translocation or point mutation, both of which resulted in hyperactivity of WHSC1 mediated H3K36 methylation and uncontrolled cell proliferation, suggesting that whsc1 functions as an oncogene. However, here we provided evidences to show that whsc1 also has tumor suppressor functions...
June 24, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653287/role-of-jagged1-notch-pathway-in-thyroid-development
#20
REVIEW
F Marelli, L Persani
The zebrafish thyroid gland shows a unique pattern of growth. Despite the lack of a compact gland, the zebrafish thyroid tissue originates from the pharyngeal endoderm and the main genes involved in its patterning and early development are conserved between zebrafish and mammals. In recent years, the research has been focused to the search of novel candidate genes and environmental factors underlying congenital hypothyroidism. Among these, it has been demonstrated that the Notch signalling plays a central role during zebrafish thyroid development...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
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