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Marissa A Scavuzzo, Jessica Teaw, Diane Yang, Malgorzata Borowiak
The pancreas is a complex organ composed of many different cell types that work together to regulate blood glucose homeostasis and digestion. These cell types include enzyme-secreting acinar cells, an arborized ductal system responsible for the transportation of enzymes to the gut, and hormone-producing endocrine cells. Endocrine beta-cells are the sole cell type in the body that produce insulin to lower blood glucose levels. Diabetes, a disease characterized by a loss or the dysfunction of beta-cells, is reaching epidemic proportions...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Swathi Balaji, Makhdum Ahmed, Elizabeth Lorence, Fangfang Yan, Krystle Nomie, Michael Wang
Mantle cell lymphoma is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma that is characterized by a poor prognosis determined by Ki67 and Mantle Cell International Prognostic Index scores, but it is becoming increasingly treatable. The majority of patients, especially if young, achieve a progression-free survival of at least 5 years. Mantle cell lymphoma can initially be treated with an anti-CD20 antibody in combination with a chemotherapy backbone, such as VR-CAP (the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab administered with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone) or R-CHOP (the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab administered with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Vincent Vanheule, Mieke Metzemaekers, Rik Janssens, Sofie Struyf, Paul Proost
Chemokines are important proteins involved in the regulation of directed leukocyte migration during inflammation and the homeostatic homing of immune cells. In addition, they play a role in angiogenesis, hematopoiesis, organogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, the chemokine/chemokine receptor network is highly complex and needs to be tightly controlled. An important mechanism of fine-tuning chemokine activity and reducing its apparent redundancy is post-translational modification (PTM) of chemokines and their receptors...
September 2018: Cytokine
Manaki Mimura, Toru Kudo, Shan Wu, Donald R McCarty, Masaharu Suzuki
In plants, establishment of the basic body plan during embryogenesis involves complex processes of axis formation, cell fate specification and organ differentiation. While molecular mechanisms of embryogenesis have been well studied in the eudicot Arabidopsis, only a small number of genes regulating embryogenesis has been identified in grass species. Here, we show that a RKD-type RWP-RK transcription factor encoded by Shohai1 (Shai1) is indispensable for embryo and endosperm development in maize. Loss of Shai1 function causes variable morphological defects in the embryo including small scutellum, shoot axis bifurcation and arrest during early organogenesis...
June 14, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Hiroaki Taniguchi, Akihiro Fujimoto, Hidetoshi Kono, Mayuko Furuta, Masashi Fujita, Hidewaki Nakagawa
Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF) are transcription factors that crucially regulate cell-specific gene expression in many tissues, including the liver. Of these factors, HNF4A acts both as a master regulator of liver organogenesis and a tumor suppressor in the liver. In our whole genome sequencing analysis, we found seven somatic mutations (three Zn-finger mutations, three deletion mutants, and one intron mutation) of HNF4A in liver cancers. Interestingly, three out of seven mutations were clustered in its Zn-finger DNA-binding domain; G79 and F83 are positioned in the DNA recognition helix and the sidechain of M125 is sticking into the core of domain...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Ninghai Kou, Zhixin Xiang, Weiti Cui, Longna Li, Wenbiao Shen
Previous results have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), mainly catalyzed by l-cysteine desulfhydrase (DES) in plants, triggers adventitious rooting. The objective of this study was to test whether H2 S is involved in methane (CH4 )-induced adventitious root development in cucumber explants. First, we observed that the activities of DES, endogenous H2 S production, and thereafter adventitious root development were induced by CH4 and NaHS (an H2 S donor). Some responses were sensitive to hypotaurine (HT; a scavenger of H2 S), showing that endogenous H2 S production and adventitious rooting were obviously blocked...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Saiqi Yang, Olena Poretska, Tobias Sieberer
Plants show an indeterminate mode of growth by the activity of organ forming stem cell niches in apically positioned meristems. The correct formation and activity of these meristems are a prerequisite for their adaptive development and also allow the maintenance of organogenesis under adverse circumstances such as wounding. Mutation of the putative Arabidopsis thaliana glutamate carboxypeptidase ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM1 (AMP1) results in Arabidopsis plants with enlarged shoot apical meristems, supernumerary stem cell pools and higher leaf formation rate...
June 8, 2018: Plant Physiology
Eric M Kernfeld, Ryan M J Genga, Kashfia Neherin, Margaret E Magaletta, Ping Xu, René Maehr
Thymus development is critical to the adaptive immune system, yet a comprehensive transcriptional framework capturing thymus organogenesis at single-cell resolution is still needed. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to capture 8 days of thymus development, perturbations of T cell receptor rearrangement, and in vitro organ cultures, producing profiles of 24,279 cells. We resolved transcriptional heterogeneity of developing lymphocytes, and genetic perturbation confirmed T cell identity of conventional and non-conventional lymphocytes...
May 25, 2018: Immunity
Makoto Takeo, Takashi Tsuji
In this decade, great progress has been made in the field of organ regeneration by incorporating emerging concepts from the fields of stem cell biology and developmental biology, and this progress has pioneered a new frontier in regenerative medicine. The generation of bioengineered organ germ-utilizing, fate-determined, organ-inductive epithelial and mesenchymal cells has provided evidence for the concept of functional organ regeneration in vivo. Organoid studies have verified that nearly all organs can be generated in the form of a mini-organ by recapitulating embryonic body patterning and establishing an organ-forming field among self-organizing pluripotent stem cells by utilizing cytokines that mimic the patterning and positional signals of organogenesis...
June 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Xingwang Liu, Ting Wang, Ezra Bartholomew, Kezia Black, Mingming Dong, Yaqi Zhang, Sen Yang, Yanling Cai, Shudan Xue, Yiqun Weng, Huazhong Ren
The cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) is an important vegetable crop worldwide, and fruit trichomes or spines are an important trait for external fruit quality. The mechanisms underlying spine formation are not well understood, but the plant-specific NAC family of transcription factors may play important roles in fruit spine initiation and development. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide survey and identified 91 NAC gene homologs in the cucumber genome. Clustering analysis classified these genes into six subfamilies; each contained a varying number of NAC family members with a similar intron-exon structure and conserved motifs...
2018: Horticulture Research
Edward E Morrisey, Anil K Rustgi
Lung and esophageal development and organogenesis involve a complex interplay of signaling pathways and transcriptional factors. Once the lung and esophagus do separate, their epithelial proliferation and differentiation programs share certain common properties that may fuel adaptive responses to injury and subsequent regeneration. Lung and esophageal tissue organogenesis and regeneration provide perspectives on squamous cell cancers and adenocarcinomas in each tissue.
June 2, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Romina Higa, Sabrina Roberti, María Belén Mazzucco, Verónica White, Alicia Jawerbaum
RESEARCH QUESTION: Can maternal treatments with idebenone, a structural analogue of coenzyme Q10, prevent alterations on markers of proinflammatory-prooxidant processes, on the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function, and on the apoptotic rate in embryos from mild diabetic rats? DESIGN: A mild diabetic rat model was induced by neonatal-streptozotocin administration (90 mg/kg subcutaneously). Female diabetic rats and controls were mated with healthy males...
May 21, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Alexander Ermakov, Alexandra Daks, Olga Fedorova, Oleg Shuvalov, Nickolai A Barlev
Ca2+-mediated signaling is widely spread in nature and plays critical role in the individual development of various organisms ranging from microorganisms to mammals. In vertebrates, Ca2+ is involved in important developmental events: fertilization, body plan establishment and organogenesis. The two later events are defined by embryonic stem cells (ESCs). ESCs are capable of self-renewal and are pluripotent by nature, i.e. can give rise to all types of cells that make up the body. Given the paramount importance of Ca2+ signalization in the development, it is therefore not surprising this process also plays role in the biology of stem cells...
May 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
Ricky W K Lau, Bo Wang, Sharon D Ricardo
Recent developments in targeted gene editing have paved the way for the wide adoption of cluster regular interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein-9 nucleases (Cas9) as a RNA guide molecular tool to modify the genome of eukaryotic cells or animals. Theoretically, the translation of CRISPR-Cas9 can be applied to the treatment of inherited or acquired kidney disease, kidney transplantation and genetic corrections of somatic cells from kidneys with inherited mutations such as polycystic kidney disease...
May 30, 2018: Nephrology
Reiko Kishi, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Sachiko Itoh, Machiko Minatoya, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Keiko Yamazaki, Yu Ait Bamai, Ryu Miura, Naomi Tamura
Since "Our Stolen Future" by Theo Colborn was published in 1996, global interest on the impact of chemical substances, such as the endocrine-disrupting action of chemicals, has increased. In Japan, "The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health: Malformation, Development and Allergy" was launched in 2001. It was a model of Japan Environment and Children's Study of the Ministry of the Environment. In a large-scale, Hokkaido cohort, we obtained the consent of 20,926 mothers at the organogenesis stage with the cooperation of 37 obstetrics clinics in Hokkaido...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Akihisa Oda, Toshiki Tezuka, Yuta Ueno, Shoko Hosoda, Yusuke Amemiya, Chihiro Notsu, Toru Kasahara, Chiharu Nishiyama, Ryo Goitsuka
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) in postnatal life is a pathological process in which the differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) occurs outside the bone marrow (BM) to respond to hematopoietic emergencies. The spleen is a major site for EMH; however, the cellular and molecular nature of the stromal cell components supporting HSPC maintenance, the niche for EMH in the spleen remain poorly understood compared to the growing understanding of the BM niche at the steady-state as well as in emergency hematopoiesis...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robert F Hillary, Una FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localised protein and member of the leucine zipper family of transcription factors. Best known for its role in transducing signals linked to stress to the endoplasmic reticulum, the 50 kDa activated form of ATF6 is now emerging as a major regulator of organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Responsible for the correct folding, secretion and membrane insertion of a third of the proteome in eukaryotic cells, the ER encompasses a dynamic, labyrinthine network of regulators, chaperones, foldases and cofactors...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Caitlin E Stallings, Buffy S Ellsworth
The process by which the somatotrope lineage emerges in the developing pituitary is regulated by the activity of specific signaling and transcription factors expressed during development. We set out to understand the contribution of FOXO1 to that process by using a mouse model in which FOXO1 is prematurely expressed in the pituitary primordium. Expression of FOXO1 in the oral ectoderm as early as embryonic day (e)9.5 results in pituitary gland hypoplasia and reduced expression of anterior lobe hormone transcripts at e18...
May 22, 2018: Endocrinology
Jose Ignacio Rojo-Laguna, Sergi Garcia-Cabot, Emili Saló
Freshwater planarians are well known for their remarkable plasticity and regenerative capabilities. Most studies of planarian regeneration have specifically examined regeneration after transverse or longitudinal sectioning or during homeostasis in intact adults. However, tissue transplantation, first performed over a century ago, constitutes another important tool in the study of regeneration in planarians, and can be easily performed given this species' extraordinary healing capacity and its lack of a circulatory system...
May 21, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Cathy Pichol-Thievend, Kelly L Betterman, Xiaolei Liu, Wanshu Ma, Renae Skoczylas, Emmanuelle Lesieur, Frank L Bos, Dorte Schulte, Stefan Schulte-Merker, Benjamin M Hogan, Guillermo Oliver, Natasha L Harvey, Mathias Francois
Despite the essential role of the lymphatic vasculature in tissue homeostasis and disease, knowledge of the organ-specific origins of lymphatic endothelial progenitor cells remains limited. The assumption that most murine embryonic lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) are venous derived has recently been challenged. Here, we show that the embryonic dermal blood capillary plexus constitutes an additional, local source of LECs that contributes to the formation of the dermal lymphatic vascular network. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rare PROX1-positive endothelial cells exit the capillary plexus in a Ccbe1 -dependent manner to establish discrete LEC clusters...
May 17, 2018: Development
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