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Organogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026837/binding-site-analysis-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-nr4a-nuclear-receptor-nhr-6-during-development
#1
Brandon Praslicka, Jeremy S Harmson, Joohyun Kim, Vittobai Rashika Rangaraj, Aikseng Ooi, Chris R Gissendanner
Members of the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors make up a highly conserved, functionally diverse group of transcription factors implicated in a multitude of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism and DNA repair. The gene nhr-6, which encodes the sole C. elegans NR4A nuclear receptor homolog, has a critical role in organogenesis and regulates the development of the spermatheca organ system. Our previous work revealed that nhr-6 is required for spermatheca cell divisions in late L3 and early L4 and spermatheca cell differentiation during the mid L4 stage...
2017: Nuclear Receptor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019755/interstitial-lung-disease-in-children-made-easier%C3%A2-well-almost
#2
Thomas R Semple, Michael T Ashworth, Catherine M Owens
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in pediatric patients is different from that in adults, with a vast array of pathologic conditions unique to childhood, varied modes of presentation, and a different range of radiologic appearances. Although rare, childhood ILD (chILD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, most notably in conditions of disordered surfactant function, with respiratory failure in 100% of neonates with surfactant protein B dysfunction and 100% mortality without lung transplantation...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994649/planar-cell-polarity-signaling-coordinates-oriented-cell-division-and-cell-rearrangement-in-clonally-expanding-growth-plate-cartilage
#3
Yuwei Li, Ang Li, Jason Junge, Marianne Bronner
Both oriented cell divisions and cell rearrangements are critical for proper embryogenesis and organogenesis. However, little is known about how these two cellular events are integrated. Here we examine the linkage between these processes in chick limb cartilage. By combining retroviral-based multicolor clonal analysis with live imaging, the results show that single chondrocyte precursors can generate both single-column and multi-column clones through oriented division followed by cell rearrangements. Focusing on single column formation, we show that this stereotypical tissue architecture is established by a pivot-like process between sister cells...
October 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993569/immunolocalization-of-%C3%AE-catenin-e-cadherin-and-n-cadherin-in-neonate-and-adult-rat-kidney
#4
Naomi Terada, Mohammad Rabiul Karim, Takeshi Izawa, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Jyoji Yamate
β-catenin, E-cadherin and N-cadherin are adhesion molecules that play important roles in organogenesis, tissue homeostasis, renal epithelial integrity and polarity. The present study demonstrated their immunolocalization in adult and neonate rat kidney. Membranous or cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin, E-cadherin and N-cadherin were seen in adult and developing renal tubular epithelial cells. Particularly, in adult kidney, E-cadherin and β-catenin were intensively expressed in distal renal tubules, whereas N-cadherin was expressed in proximal renal tubules...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992340/gremlin-and-renal-diseases-ready-to-jump-the-fence-to-clinical-utility
#5
Sergio Mezzano, Alejandra Droguett, Carolina Lavoz, Paola Krall, Jesús Egido, Marta Ruiz-Ortega
The current therapeutic strategy for the treatment of chronic kidney diseases only ameliorates disease progression. During renal injury, developmental genes are re-expressed and could be potential therapeutic targets. Among those genes reactivated in the adult damaged kidney, Gremlin is of particular relevance since recent data suggest that it could be a mediator of diabetic nephropathy and other progressive renal diseases. Earlier studies have shown that Gremlin is upregulated in trans-differentiated renal proximal tubular cells and in several chronic kidney diseases associated with fibrosis...
July 8, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992121/auxin-and-above-ground-meristems
#6
Ying Wang, Yuling Jiao
In contrast to animals, plants maintain life-long post-embryonic organogenesis from specialized tissues termed meristems. Shoot meristems give rise to all aerial tissues and are precisely regulated to balance stem cell renewal and differentiation. The phytohormone auxin has a dynamic and differential distribution within shoot meristems and during shoot meristem formation. Polar auxin transport and local auxin biosynthesis lead to auxin maxima and minima to direct cell fate specification, which are critical for meristem formation, lateral organ formation, and lateral organ patterning...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984791/sex-determining-region-y-box-9-induces-chemoresistance-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells-by-induction-of-putative-cancer-stem-cell-characteristics-and-its-high-expression-predicts-poor-prognosis
#7
Taku Higashihara, Hideyuki Yoshitomi, Yasuyuki Nakata, Shingo Kagawa, Shigetsugu Takano, Hiroaki Shimizu, Atsushi Kato, Katsunori Furukawa, Masayuki Ohtsuka, Masaru Miyazaki
OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic cancer is a highly chemoresistant tumor and underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Sex determining region Y box 9 (Sox9) is a transcription factor playing important roles on maintenance of pluripotent cells during pancreatic organogenesis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the roles of Sox9 in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: The Sox9 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis. Effects of Sox9 inhibition by siRNA or shRNA on chemosensitivity, sphere formation, stem cell markers expression, and in vivo tumor formation rate were examined using pancreatic cancer cell lines...
October 3, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984378/prenatal-development-in-greater-mouse-eared-bat-myotis-myotis-borkhausen-1797-chiroptera-%C3%A2-vespertilionidae
#8
E P Paksuz, S Hayretdağ, K Olgun
Order Chiroptera is the second largest mammal group after rodents. An understanding of the development of the bats, which is a very special mammal group in terms of their lifestyles, morphology and their ability to fly, is very important because most of the adult anatomical differences characterizing species occur during organogenesis. In this study, developmental stages were determined for Myotis myotis species based on external morphological characteristics from embryos obtained from wild-caught pregnant females...
October 6, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980679/cellular-behavior-controlled-by-bio-inspired-and-geometry-tunable-nanohairs
#9
Chaejeong Heo, Chanho Jeong, Hyeon Seong Im, Jong Uk Kim, Juhyun Woo, Ji Yeon Lee, Byeonghak Park, Minah Suh, Tae-Il Kim
A cicada wing has a biocidal feature of rupturing the membrane of cells, while the cactus spine can transmit a water drop to the stem of the plant. Both of these properties have evolved from their respective unique structures. Here, we endeavor to develop geometry-controllable nanohairs that mimic the cicada's wing-like vertical hairs and the cactus spine-like stooped hairs, and to quantitatively characterize the cell migration behavior of the hairy structures. It was found that the neuroblastoma cells are highly sensitive to the variation of surfaces: flat, vertical, and stooped nanohairs (100 nm diameter and 900 nm height)...
October 5, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979895/editorial-organogenesis-from-development-to-disease
#10
EDITORIAL
Sunder Sims-Lucas, Misty Good, Seppo J Vainio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978111/tbx2-subfamily-suppression-in-lung-cancer-pathogenesis-a-high-potential-marker-for-early-detection
#11
Athar A Khalil, Smruthy Sivakumar, Frances Anthony San Lucas, Tina McDowell, Wenhua Lang, Kazuhiro Tabata, Junya Fujimoto, Yasushi Yatabe, Avrum Spira, Paul Scheet, Georges Nemer, Humam Kadara
The TBX2 subfamily (TBXs 2, 3, 4 and 5) transactivates or represses genes involved in lung organogenesis. Yet TBX2 subfamily expression in pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common lung malignancy, remains elusive. We sought to probe the expression profile of the TBX2 subfamily in early phases of NSCLC. Expression of TBX2 subfamily was analyzed in datasets of pan-normal specimens as well as NSCLCs and normal lung tissues. TBX2 subfamily expression in matched normal lungs, premalignant hyperplasias and NSCLCs was profiled by transcriptome sequencing...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973878/yap-taz-cdc42-signaling-regulates-vascular-tip-cell-migration
#12
Masahide Sakabe, Jieqing Fan, Yoshinobu Odaka, Ning Liu, Aishlin Hassan, Xin Duan, Paige Stump, Luke Byerly, Megan Donaldson, Jiukuan Hao, Marcus Fruttiger, Qing Richard Lu, Yi Zheng, Richard A Lang, Mei Xin
Angiogenesis and vascular remodeling are essential for the establishment of vascular networks during organogenesis. Here we show that the Hippo signaling pathway effectors YAP and TAZ are required, in a gene dosage-dependent manner, for the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) during retinal angiogenesis. Intriguingly, nuclear translocation of YAP and TAZ induced by Lats1/2-deletion blocked endothelial migration and phenocopied Yap/Taz-deficient mutants. Furthermore, overexpression of a cytoplasmic form of YAP (YAPS127D) partially rescued the migration defects caused by loss of YAP and TAZ function...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973717/tissue-distribution-and-early-developmental-expression-patterns-of-aldolase-a-b-and-c-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus
#13
J J Fan, J J Bai, D M Ma, L Y Yu, P Jiang
Aldolase is a key enzyme involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. To establish the expression patterns of all three aldolase isozyme genes in different tissues and during early embryogenesis in lower vertebrates, as well as to explore the functional differences between these three isozymes, the grass carp was selected as a model owing to its relatively high glucose-metabolizing capability. Based on the cDNA sequences of the aldolase A, B, and C genes, the expression patterns of these three isozymes were analyzed in different tissues and during early embryogenesis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968512/breakout-lateral-root-emergence-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
REVIEW
Dorothee Stoeckle, Martha Thellmann, Joop Em Vermeer
Lateral roots are determinants of plant root system architecture. Besides providing anchorage, they are a plant's means to explore the soil environment for water and nutrients. Lateral roots form post-embryonically and initiate deep within the root. On its way to the surface, the newly formed organ needs to grow through three overlying cell layers; the endodermis, cortex and epidermis. A picture is emerging that a tight integration of chemical and mechanical signalling between the lateral root and the surrounding tissue is essential for proper organogenesis...
September 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963548/constrained-vertebrate-evolution-by-pleiotropic-genes
#15
Haiyang Hu, Masahiro Uesaka, Song Guo, Kotaro Shimai, Tsai-Ming Lu, Fang Li, Satoko Fujimoto, Masato Ishikawa, Shiping Liu, Yohei Sasagawa, Guojie Zhang, Shigeru Kuratani, Jr-Kai Yu, Takehiro G Kusakabe, Philipp Khaitovich, Naoki Irie
Despite morphological diversification of chordates over 550 million years of evolution, their shared basic anatomical pattern (or 'bodyplan') remains conserved by unknown mechanisms. The developmental hourglass model attributes this to phylum-wide conserved, constrained organogenesis stages that pattern the bodyplan (the phylotype hypothesis); however, there has been no quantitative testing of this idea with a phylum-wide comparison of species. Here, based on data from early-to-late embryonic transcriptomes collected from eight chordates, we suggest that the phylotype hypothesis would be better applied to vertebrates than chordates...
September 25, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962630/%C3%AE-catenin-mediated-yap-signaling-promotes-human-glioma-growth
#16
Yan Wang, Peng Pan, Zhaohao Wang, Yu Zhang, Peng Xie, Decheng Geng, Yang Jiang, Rutong Yu, Xiuping Zhou
BACKGROUND: Hippo/YAP pathway is known to be important for development, growth and organogenesis, and dysregulation of this pathway leads to tumor progression.We and others find that YAP is up-regulated in human gliomas and associated with worse prognosis of patients. However, the role and mechanism of YAP in glioma progression is largely unknown. METHODS: The expression of YAP in glioma tissues was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunoblotting...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954101/molecular-basis-of-basal-cell-carcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Erik Montagna, Otávio Sérgio Lopes
Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer, presenting low mortality but high morbidity, and it has as risk factor exposure to sunlight, especially UVB spectrum. The most important constitutional risk factors for basal cell carcinoma development are clear phototypes (I and II, Fitzpatrick classification), family history of basal cell carcinoma (30-60%), freckles in childhood, eyes and light hair. The environmental risk factor better established is exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, different solar exposure scenarios probably are independent risk factors for certain clinical and histological types, topographies and prognosis of this tumor, and focus of controversy among researchers...
July 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950935/neural-stem-cells-induce-the-formation-of-their-physical-niche-during-organogenesis
#18
Ali Seleit, Isabel Krämer, Bea F Riebesehl, Elizabeth M Ambrosio, Julian S Stolper, Colin Q Lischik, Nicolas Dross, Lazaro Centanin
Most organs rely on stem cells to maintain homeostasis during post-embryonic life. Typically, stem cells of independent lineages work coordinately within mature organs to ensure proper ratios of cell types. Little is known, however, on how these different stem cells locate to forming organs during development. Here we show that neuromasts of the posterior lateral line in medaka are composed of two independent life-long lineages with different embryonic origins. Clonal analysis and 4D imaging revealed a hierarchical organisation with instructing and responding roles: an inner, neural lineage induces the formation of an outer, border cell lineage (nBC) from the skin epithelium...
September 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933645/rar%C3%AE-and-rar%C3%AE-reciprocally-control-k5-progenitor-cell-expansion-in-developing-salivary-glands
#19
Kara A DeSantis, Adam R Stabell, Danielle C Spitzer, Kevin J O'Keefe, Deirdre A Nelson, Melinda Larsen
Understanding the mechanisms of controlled expansion and differentiation of basal progenitor cell populations during organogenesis is essential for developing targeted regenerative therapies. Since the cytokeratin 5-positive (K5(+)) basal epithelial cell population in the salivary gland is regulated by retinoic acid signaling, we interrogated how isoform-specific retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling impacts the K5(+) cell population during salivary gland organogenesis to identify RAR isoform-specific mechanisms that could be exploited in future regenerative therapies...
September 21, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931341/the-neurotoxic-effects-of-prenatal-gabapentin-and-oxcarbazepine-exposure-on-newborn-rats
#20
Zuleyha Erisgin, Bulent Ayas, Jens R Nyengaard, N Ercument Beyhun, Yuksel Terzi
Teratogenicity is a problematic issue for pregnant women because of x-ray radiation, drugs, genetic and unknown variables. First generation antiepileptic drugs (AED) like valproic acid are well-known teratogens for developing foetuses. However, their usage is necessary in order to prevent maternal seizures. The underlying mechanism of birth defects associated with AED exposure remains unclear and information about the neurotoxic effects of prenatal exposure to AED is still limited. Oxcarbazepine (OXC) and gabapentin (GBP) are second generation antiepileptic drugs...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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