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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341301/disease-modeling-in-stem-cell-derived-3d-organoid-systems
#1
REVIEW
Devanjali Dutta, Inha Heo, Hans Clevers
Organoids are 3D in vitro culture systems derived from self-organizing stem cells. They can recapitulate the in vivo architecture, functionality, and genetic signature of original tissues. Thus, organoid technology has been rapidly applied to understanding stem cell biology, organogenesis, and various human pathologies. The recent development of human patient-derived organoids has enabled disease modeling with precision, highlighting their great potential in biomedical applications, translational medicine, and personalized therapy...
March 21, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340341/tridimensional-visualization-and-analysis-of-early-human-development
#2
Morgane Belle, David Godefroy, Gérard Couly, Samuel A Malone, Francis Collier, Paolo Giacobini, Alain Chédotal
Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337452/teratogenic-effect-of-usnic-acid-from-cladonia-substellata-vainio-during-organogenesis
#3
C R Silva, K S N Marinho, T D S Silva, D K S Ferreira, G M Aguiar, M C B Martins, K R P Santos, F C A Aguiar Júnior, N P S Santos, E C Pereira, N H Silva
Studies about toxicological potential of usnic acid are limited. This way, the vast majority of data available in the literature are related only to biological activities. This is the first study that aimed to evaluate the oral toxicity of usnic acid during the period of organogenesis. Females rats were distributed in the control groups, treated I and II, at doses of 15 and 25 mg/kg, administered by gavage during the 6° to 15° days of pregnancy. After 20 days the fetuses were removed and analyzed. A reduction in weight gain during pregnancy, increased resorption, reduction in the number of viable fetuses, and their body weight were observed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326341/cdc42-is-crucial-for-facial-and-palatal-formation-during-craniofacial-development
#4
Mutsuko Oshima-Nakayama, Atsushi Yamada, Tamaki Kurosawa, Ryo Aizawa, Dai Suzuki, Yoshiro Saito, Hidetoshi Kassai, Yuki Sato, Matsuo Yamamoto, Tatsuo Shirota, Atsu Aiba, Koutaro Maki, Ryutaro Kamijo
Craniofacial deformities with multifactorial etiologies, such as cleft palate and facial dysmorphism, represent some of the most frequent congenital birth defects seen in humans. Their pathogeneses are often related to cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. During CNC cell migration, changes in cell shape and formation, as well as maintenance of subcellular structures, such as filopodia and lamellipodia, are dependent on the complex functions of Rho family small GTPases, which are regulators of actin cytoskeletal organization...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324646/from-snapshots-to-movies-understanding-early-tooth-development-in-four-dimensions
#5
Rebecca Kim, Jeremy B A Green, Ophir D Klein
The developing tooth offers a model for the study of ectodermal appendage organogenesis. The signaling networks that regulate tooth development have been intensively investigated, but how cell biological responses to signaling pathways regulate dental morphogenesis remains an open question. The increasing use of ex vivo imaging techniques has enabled live tracking of cell behaviors over time in high resolution. While recent studies using these techniques have improved our understanding of tooth morphogenesis, important gaps remain that require additional investigation...
March 21, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321257/class-specific-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-promote-11-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-2-expression-in-jeg-3-cells
#6
Katie L Togher, Louise C Kenny, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Exposure to maternal cortisol plays a crucial role in fetal organogenesis. However, fetal overexposure to cortisol has been linked to a range of short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Normally, this is prevented by the expression of an enzyme in the placenta called 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) which converts active cortisol to its inactive metabolite cortisone. Placental 11β-HSD2 is known to be reduced in a number of adverse pregnancy complications, possibly through an epigenetic mechanism...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299195/microfilament-coordinated-adhesion-dynamics-drives-single-cell-migration-and-shapes-whole-tissues
#7
REVIEW
Rocio Aguilar-Cuenca, Clara Llorente-Gonzalez, Carlos Vicente, Miguel Vicente-Manzanares
Cell adhesion to the substratum and/or other cells is a crucial step of cell migration. While essential in the case of solitary migrating cells (for example, immune cells), it becomes particularly important in collective cell migration, in which cells maintain contact with their neighbors while moving directionally. Adhesive coordination is paramount in physiological contexts (for example, during organogenesis) but also in pathology (for example, tumor metastasis). In this review, we address the need for a coordinated regulation of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions during collective cell migration...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296336/a-comprehensive-study-of-palate-development-in-miniature-pig
#8
Lindong Sun, Jiangyi Wang, Huina Liu, Zhipeng Fan, Songlin Wang, Juan Du
Palate development is an important morphogenetic event in facial development, including the fusion of the lateral and medial nasal portions of the frontonasal process and maxilla. Derailments of any of these events may result in cleft palate, the most frequent congenital craniofacial abnormality. Recent research has shown that the microanatomy of the miniature pig oral maxillofacial region is quite similar to that of humans, and the use of miniature pigs as a large animal model for dental and orofacial research is increasing...
March 15, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292841/pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-organoids-using-principles-of-developmental-biology-to-grow-human-tissues-in-a-dish
#9
REVIEW
Heather A McCauley, James M Wells
Pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived organoids are miniature, three-dimensional human tissues generated by the application of developmental biological principles to PSCs in vitro The approach to generate organoids uses a combination of directed differentiation, morphogenetic processes, and the intrinsically driven self-assembly of cells that mimics organogenesis in the developing embryo. The resulting organoids have remarkable cell type complexity, architecture and function similar to their in vivo counterparts...
March 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292839/the-physics-of-organoids-a-biophysical-approach-to-understanding-organogenesis
#10
Svend Dahl-Jensen, Anne Grapin-Botton
Organoids representing a diversity of tissues have recently been created, bridging the gap between cell culture and experiments performed in vivo Being small and amenable to continuous monitoring, they offer the opportunity to scrutinize the dynamics of organ development, including the exciting prospect of observing aspects of human embryo development live. From a physicist's perspective, their ability to self-organize - to differentiate and organize cells in space - calls for the identification of the simple rules that underlie this capacity...
March 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285791/immunohistochemical-study-of-the-neural-development-transcription-factors-ttf1-ascl1-and-brn2-in-neuroendocrine-prostate-tumours
#11
E Rodríguez-Zarco, A Vallejo-Benítez, S Umbría-Jiménez, S Pereira-Gallardo, S Pabón-Carrasco, A Azueta, R González-Cámpora, P S Espinal, A García-Escudero
OBJECTIVE: Prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that constitutes 0.5-1% of all prostate malignancies. The median cancer-specific survival of patients with prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is 19 months, and 60.5% of the patients have metastatic disease. Neural development transcription factors are molecules involved in the organogenesis of the central nervous system and of neuroendocrine precursors of various tissues, including the suprarenal gland, thyroid glands, lungs and prostate...
March 9, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276311/overexpression-of-t-box-transcription-factor-5-tbx5-inhibits-proliferation-and-invasion-in-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-cells
#12
Ruoting Ma, Yu Yang, Qiuyun Tu, Ke Hu
T-box transcription factor 5 (TBX5), a member of the conserved T-box transcription factor family which functions in organogenesis and embryogenesis, has been recently identified as a critical player in cancer development. The aim of this study is to determine the role of TBX5 in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the correlation between levels of TBX5 and clinicpathological features of NSCLC patients in tissue microarray. Expression of TBX5 in NSCLC tissue and cell lines were evaluated by, quantitative PCR and western-blot...
March 8, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275010/epithelial-and-non-epithelial-patched-1-ptch1-play-opposing-roles-to-regulate-proliferation-and-morphogenesis-of-the-mouse-mammary-gland
#13
Teresa Monkkonen, John D Landua, Adriana P Visbal, Michael T Lewis
Patched-1 (Ptch1) has epithelial, stromal, and systemic roles in murine mammary gland organogenesis, yet specific functions remain undefined. Cre-recombinase-mediated Ptch1 ablation in mammary epithelium increased proliferation and branching, but did not phenocopy transgenic expression of activated Smoothened (SmoM2). Epithelium showed no evidence of canonical hedgehog signaling, and hyperproliferation was not blocked by SMO inhibition, suggesting a non-canonical function of PTCH1. Consistent with this possibility, nuclear localization of Cyclin B1 was increased...
March 8, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275009/paracrine-signals-regulate-human-liver-organoid-maturation-from-ipsc
#14
Akihiro Asai, Eitaro Aihara, Carey Watson, Reena Mourya, Tatsuki Mizuochi, Pranavkumar Shivakumar, Kieran Phelan, Christopher Mayhew, Michael Helmrath, Takanori Takebe, James Wells, Jorge A Bezerra
A self-organizing organoid model provides a new approach to study the mechanism of human liver organogenesis. Previous animal models documented that simultaneous paracrine signaling and cell-to-cell surface contact regulate hepatocyte differentiation. To dissect the relative contributions of the paracrine effects, we first established a liver organoid using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as previously reported. Time-lapse imaging showed the iPSC-derived hepatic endoderm (HE-iPSC) self-assembled into three-dimensional organoids, resulting in hepatic gene induction...
March 8, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273182/protocol-for-efficient-regulation-of-in-vitro-morphogenesis-in-einkorn-triticum-monococcum-l-a-recalcitrant-diploid-wheat-species
#15
Dmitry Miroshnichenko, Inna Chaban, Mariya Chernobrovkina, Sergey Dolgov
Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) is A-genome diploid wheat that has a potential to become a useful model for understanding the biology and genomics in Triticeae. Unfortunately, the application of modern technologies such as genetic engineering, RNAi-based gene silencing and genome editing is not available for einkorn as there is no efficient in vitro tissue culture and plant regeneration system. In the present study an efficient and simple protocol for plant regeneration via direct or indirect somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis has been developed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272988/chlorophyllide-a-oxygenase-cao-deficiency-affects-the-levels-of-singlet-oxygen-and-formation-of-plasmodesmata-in-leaves-and-shoot-apical-meristems-of-barley
#16
Valeria A Dmitrieva, Alexandra N Ivanova, Elena V Tyutereva, Anastasiia I Evkaikina, Ekaterina A Klimova, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja
In plants, organogenesis and specification of cell layers and tissues rely on precise symplastic delivery of regulatory molecules via plasmodesmata. Accordingly, abundance and aperture of plasmodesmata at individual cell boundaries should be controlled by the plant. Recently, studies in Arabidopsis established reactive oxygen species as major regulators of plasmodesmata formation and gating. We show that in a barley mutant deficient in the synthesis of chlorophyll b, the numbers of plasmodesmata in leaves and in the shoot apical meristem are significantly higher than in the corresponding wild type, probably due to redox imbalance in the mutant...
March 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271491/role-of-skeletal-muscle-in-ear-development
#17
REVIEW
Irena Rot, Mark Baguma-Nibasheka, Willard J Costain, Paul Hong, Robert Tafra, Snjezana Mardesic-Brakus, Natasa Mrduljas-Djujic, Mirna Saraga-Babic, Boris Kablar
The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration...
March 8, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267574/applying-evolutionary-genetics-to-developmental-toxicology-and-risk-assessment
#18
REVIEW
Maxwell C K Leung, Andrew C Procter, Jared V Goldstone, Jonathan Foox, Robert DeSalle, Carolyn J Mattingly, Mark E Siddall, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
Evolutionary thinking continues to challenge our views on health and disease. Yet, there is a communication gap between evolutionary biologists and toxicologists in recognizing the connections among developmental pathways, high-throughput screening, and birth defects in humans. To increase our capability in identifying potential developmental toxicants in humans, we propose to apply evolutionary genetics to improve the experimental design and data interpretation with various in vitro and whole-organism models...
March 4, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263025/poly-adp-ribose-polymerases-regulate-cell-division-and-development-in-arabidopsis-roots
#19
Caifeng Liu, Qiao Wu, Weiwei Liu, Zongyin Gu, Wenjing Wang, Ping Xu, Hong Ma, Xiaochun Ge
Root organogenesis involves cell division, differentiation and expansion. The molecular mechanisms regulating root development are not fully understood. In this study, we identified poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) as new players in root development. PARP catalyzes poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation of proteins by repeatedly adding ADP-ribose units onto proteins using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+) ) as the donor. We found that inhibition of PARP activities by 3-aminobenzomide (3-AB) increased the growth rates of both primary and lateral roots, leading to a more developed root system...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257786/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-morphogenesis-cancer-progression-and-angiogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Domenico Ribatti
All organs consist of an epithelium and an associated mesenchyme, so these epithelial-mesenchymal intercations are among the most important phenomena in nature. The aim of this article is the summarize the common mechanisms involved in the establishment of epithelial mesenchymal transition in three biological processes, namely organogenesis, tumor progression and metastasis, and angiogenesis, apparently independent each from other. A common feature of these processes is the fact that specialized epithelial cells lose their features, including cell adhesion and polarity, reorganize their cytoskeleton, and acquire a mesenchymal morphology and the ability to migrate...
February 28, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
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