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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677682/potential-benefits-and-phytotoxicity-of-bulk-and-nano-chitosan-on-the-growth-morphogenesis-physiology-and-micropropagation-of-capsicum-annuum
#1
Ghasem Asgari-Targhi, Alireza Iranbakhsh, Zahra Oraghi Ardebili
Concerning environmental issues of metal based-nanomaterials and increasing demand for nano-based products; various strategies have been employed to find eco-friendly natural nano-compounds, among which nano-polymer chitosan is mostly considered. Herein, the various aspects of the way in which bulk or nano-chitosan may modify growth, morphogenesis, micropropagation, and physiology of Capsicum annuum L. were considered. Culture medium was manipulated with different concentrations of bulk chitosan or synthesized chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) nano-particle...
April 12, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676826/epidermal-auxin-biosynthesis-facilitates-rhizobial-infection-in-lotus-japonicus
#2
Marcin Nadzieja, Simon Kelly, Jens Stougaard, Dugald Reid
Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes requires nodule organogenesis to be coordinated with infection by rhizobia. The plant hormone auxin influences symbiotic infection, but the precise timing of auxin accumulation and the genetic network governing it remain unclear. We used a Lotus japonicus optimised variant of the DII-based auxin accumulation sensor and identify a rapid accumulation of auxin in the epidermis, specifically in the root hair cells. This auxin accumulation occurs in the infected root hairs during rhizobia invasion, while Nod factor application induces this response across a broader range of root hairs...
April 20, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673177/the-hippo-yap-pathway-regulates-3d-organ-formation-and-homeostasis
#3
Erika Ishihara, Hiroshi Nishina
The vertebrate body shape is formed by the specific sizes and shapes of its resident tissues and organs, whose alignments are essential for proper functioning. To maintain tissue and organ shape, and thereby function, it is necessary to remove senescent, transformed, and/or damaged cells, which impair function and can lead to tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying three-dimensional (3D) organ formation and homeostasis are not fully clear. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional co-activator that is involved in organ size control and tumorigenesis...
April 17, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663647/novel-de-novo-pathogenic-variant-in-the-nr2f2-gene-in-a-boy-with-congenital-heart-defect-and-dysmorphic-features
#4
Jariya Upadia, Patrick R Gonzales, Nathaniel H Robin
The NR2F2 gene plays an important role in angiogenesis and heart development. Moreover, this gene is involved in organogenesis in many other organs in mouse models. Variants in this gene have been reported in a number of patients with nonsyndromic atrioventricular septal defect, and in one patient with congenital heart defect and dysmorphic features. Here we report an 11-month-old Caucasian male with global developmental delay, dysmorphic features, coarctation of the aorta, and ventricular septal defect. He was later found to have a pathogenic mutation in the NR2F2 gene by whole exome sequencing...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653020/developmental-toxicity-of-flucytosine-following-administration-to-pregnant-rats-at-a-specific-time-point-of-organogenesis
#5
Sakiko Fujii, Kaoru Yabe, Yuki Kariwano-Kimura, Masatoshi Furukawa, Kouta Itoh, Masao Matsuura, Masao Horimoto
To investigate the abnormalities that are specific to administration of flucytosine at one time point during embryonic organogenesis, flucytosine was administered orally to pregnant SD rats in a single dose on day 11 of pregnancy at 25 or 35 mg/kg. Fetuses on day 20 of pregnancy were externally, viscerally and skeletally examined. Maternal body weight gain and food consumption were suppressed the day after administration of a 35 mg/kg. Fetal examinations revealed various alterations in both dose groups: externally preaxial polydactyly in the hind limb; skeletally fused lumbar centrum, absent sacral centrum, supernumerary sacral vertebra, and absent ribs...
April 13, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651417/aging-mouse-models-reveal-complex-tumor-microenvironment-interactions-in-cancer-progression
#6
REVIEW
Hidetoshi Mori, Robert D Cardiff, Alexander D Borowsky
Mouse models and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) are essential experimental tools for the understanding molecular mechanisms within complex biological systems. GEMM are especially useful for inferencing phenocopy information to genetic human diseases such as breast cancer. Human breast cancer modeling in mice most commonly employs mammary epithelial-specific promoters to investigate gene function(s) and, in particular, putative oncogenes. Models are specifically useful in the mammary epithelial cell in the context of the complete mammary gland environment...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651380/a-combined-pathway-of-organogenesis-and-somatic-embryogenesis-for-an-efficient-large-scale-propagation-in-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-cv-mejhoul
#7
Mouaad Amine Mazri, Reda Meziani, Ilham Belkoura, Boutaïna Mokhless, Souad Nour
An efficient regeneration system via a combined pathway of organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was developed for date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Mejhoul. Adventitious buds were obtained from shoot-tip explants with a frequency of 53.3% after 9 months of culture: 6 months on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS/2) medium containing 14.2 µM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 13.4 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.5 µM 6-(dimethylallylamino) purine (2iP), and 3 months on MS/2 medium supplemented with 1...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643069/an-m6a-yth-module-controls-developmental-timing-and-morphogenesis-in-arabidopsis
#8
Laura Arribas-Hernández, Simon Bressendorff, Mathias Henning Hansen, Christian Poulsen, Susanne Erdmann, Peter Brodersen
Methylation of N6-adenosine (m6A) in mRNA is an important post-transcriptional gene regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes. m6A provides a binding site for effector proteins ("readers") that influence pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA degradation or translational efficiency. YT521-B homology (YTH) domain proteins are important m6A readers with established functions in animals. Plants contain more YTH domain proteins than other eukaryotes, but their biological importance remains unknown. Here, we show that the cytoplasmic Arabidopsis thaliana YTH domain proteins EVOLUTIONARILY CONSERVED C-TERMINAL REGION2/3 (ECT2/3) are required for the correct timing of leaf formation and for normal leaf morphology...
April 11, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625565/sall1-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-breast-cancer-by-regulating-cancer-cell-senescence-and-metastasis-through-the-nurd-complex
#9
Chunling Ma, Fang Wang, Bing Han, Xiaoli Zhong, Fusheng Si, Jian Ye, Eddy C Hsueh, Lynn Robbins, Susan M Kiefer, Yanping Zhang, Pamela Hunborg, Mark A Varvares, Michael Rauchman, Guangyong Peng
BACKGROUND: SALL1 is a multi-zinc finger transcription factor that regulates organogenesis and stem cell development, but the role of SALL1 in tumor biology and tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. METHODS: We analyzed SALL1 expression levels in human and murine breast cancer cells as well as cancer tissues from different types of breast cancer patients. Using both in vitro co-culture system and in vivo breast tumor models, we investigated how SALL1 expression in breast cancer cells affects tumor cell growth and proliferation, metastasis, and cell fate...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625321/secreted-wnt-antagonists-in-leukemia-a-road-yet-to-be-paved
#10
REVIEW
Melek Pehlivan, Ceyda Çalışkan, Zeynep Yüce, Hakki Ogun Sercan
Wnt signaling has been a topic of research for many years for its diverse and fundamental functions in physiological (such as embryogenesis, organogenesis, proliferation, tissue repair and cellular differentiation) and pathological (carcinogenesis, congenital/genetic diseases, and tissue degeneration) processes. Wnt signaling pathway aberrations are associated with both solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Unregulated Wnt signaling observed in malignancies may be due to a wide spectrum of abnormalities, from mutations in the genes of key players to epigenetic modifications of Wnt antagonists...
March 28, 2018: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617362/a-novel-approach-to-improve-immune-effector-responses-post-transplant-by-restoration-of-ccl21-expression
#11
Heather E Stefanski, Leslie Jonart, Emily Goren, James J Mulé, Bruce R Blazar
Chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy conditioning regimens required for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) cause significant morbidity and mortality as a result of insufficient immune surveillance mechanisms leading to increased risks of infection and tumor recurrence. Such conditioning causes host stromal cell injury, impairing restoration of the central (thymus) and peripheral (spleen and lymph node) T cell compartments and slow immune reconstitution. The chemokine, CCL21, produced by host stromal cells, recruits T- and B-cells that provide lymphotoxin mediated instructive signals to stromal cells for lymphoid organogenesis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616741/avian-models-and-the-study-of-invariant-asymmetry-how-the-chicken-and-the-egg-taught-us-to-tell-right-from-left
#12
Anne H Monsoro-Burq, Michael Levin
While the external vertebrate body plan appears bilaterally symmetrical with respect to anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes, the internal organs are arranged with a striking and invariant left-right asymmetry. This laterality is important for normal body function, as alterations manifest as numerous human birth defect syndromes. The left-right axis is set up very early during embryogenesis by an initial and still poorly understood break in bilateral symmetry, followed by a cascade of molecular events that was discovered 20 years ago in the chick embryo model...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616219/developmental-functions-of-the-dynamic-dna-methylome-and-hydroxymethylome-in-the-mouse-and-zebrafish-similarities-and-differences
#13
REVIEW
Peter Jessop, Alexey Ruzov, Martin Gering
5-methylcytosine (5mC) is the best understood DNA modification and is generally believed to be associated with repression of gene expression. Over the last decade, sequentially oxidized forms of 5mC (oxi-mCs) have been discovered within the genomes of vertebrates. Their discovery was accompanied by that of the ten-eleven translocation (TET) methylcytosine dioxygenases, the enzymes that catalyze the formation of the oxi-mCs. Although a number of studies performed on different vertebrate models and embryonic stem cells demonstrated that both TET enzymes and oxi-mCs are likely to be important for several developmental processes it is currently unclear whether their developmental roles are conserved among vertebrates...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616182/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-mads-box-genes-associated-with-reproductive-development-in-momordica-dioica-roxb
#14
Jatindra Nath Mohanty, Raj Kumar Joshi
The repertoire and functions of MADS-box family transcription factors (TFs) largely remains unexplored with respect to floral organogenesis of Momordica dioica Roxb. Degenerative PCR followed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends was employed in the present study to clone and characterize 17 MADS-box genes (designated as MdMADS01 to MdMADS17 ) from the floral buds of M. dioica. The cloned genes were clustered into three subgroups (11 MIKCC , 4 MIKC* and 2 Mα) based on phylogenetic relationships with the MADS-box genes from Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo and Arabidopsis thaliana ...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616050/ipd3-and-ipd3l-function-redundantly-in-rhizobial-and-mycorrhizal-symbioses
#15
Yue Jin, Zixuan Chen, Jun Yang, Kirankumar S Mysore, Jiangqi Wen, Jirong Huang, Nan Yu, Ertao Wang
Legume plants form symbiotic associations with either nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which are regulated by a set of common symbiotic signaling pathway genes. Central to the signaling pathway is the activation of the DMI3/IPD3 protein complex by Ca2+ oscillations, and the initiation of nodule organogenesis and mycorrhizal symbiosis. DMI3 is essential for rhizobial infection and nodule organogenesis; however, ipd3 mutants have been shown to be impaired only in infection thread formation but not in root nodule organogenesis in Medicago truncatula ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615568/roles-of-the-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-in-epidermal-and-hair-follicle-development-homeostasis-and-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Yoshinori Abe, Nobuyuki Tanaka
The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and provides a protective barrier against environmental insults. It is a rapidly-renewing tissue undergoing constant regeneration, maintained by several types of stem cells. The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is one of the fundamental signaling pathways that contributes to epidermal development, homeostasis, and repair, as well as to hair follicle development and follicle bulge stem cell maintenance. The HH pathway interacts with other signal transduction pathways, including those activated by Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein, platelet-derived growth factor, Notch, and ectodysplasin...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615567/the-roles-of-the-wnt-antagonists-axin-and-lrp4-during-embryogenesis-of-the-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#17
Romy Prühs, Anke Beermann, Reinhard Schröder
In both vertebrates and invertebrates, the Wnt-signaling pathway is essential for numerous processes in embryogenesis and during adult life. Wnt activity is fine-tuned at various levels by the interplay of a number of Wnt-agonists (Wnt ligands, Frizzled-receptors, Lrp5/6 coreceptors) and Wnt-antagonists (among them Axin, Secreted frizzled and Lrp4) to define anterior-posterior polarity of the early embryo and specify cell fate in organogenesis. So far, the functional analysis of Wnt-pathway components in insects has concentrated on the roles of Wnt-agonists and on the Wnt-antagonist Axin...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615553/dynamic-tissue-rearrangements-during-vertebrate-eye-morphogenesis-insights-from-fish-models
#18
REVIEW
Florencia Cavodeassi
Over the last thirty years, fish models, such as the zebrafish and medaka, have become essential to pursue developmental studies and model human disease. Community efforts have led to the generation of wide collections of mutants, a complete sequence of their genomes, and the development of sophisticated genetic tools, enabling the manipulation of gene activity and labelling and tracking of specific groups of cells during embryonic development. When combined with the accessibility and optical clarity of fish embryos, these approaches have made of them an unbeatable model to monitor developmental processes in vivo and in real time...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608154/quantification-of-endogenous-auxin-and-cytokinin-during-internode-culture-of-ipecac
#19
Imari Koike, Koichiro Shimomura, Mikihisa Umehara
Adventitious shoot formation is an important technique for the propagation of economically important crops and for the regeneration of transgenic plants. Phytohormone treatment is required for the induction of adventitious shoots in most species. Whether adventitious shoots can be induced is determined by the balance between auxin and cytokinin (CK) levels. Much effort goes into determining optimum concentrations and combinations of phytohormones in each tissue used as explants and in each plant species. In ipecac, however, adventitious shoots can be induced on internodal segments in culture medium without phytohormone treatment...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605230/an-efficient-protocol-for-in-vivo-labeling-of-proliferating-epithelial-cells
#20
Chloé Michel, Rita Küchler, Iris Martin, Bruno Kyewski, Sheena Pinto
The study of organogenesis, tissue-homeostasis and regeneration requires the precise assessment of in vivo cell proliferation. To this end a host of methods have been developed to detect and quantify DNA synthesis in proliferating cells. These include cell labeling with various nucleotide analogues and fluorescence reporter-based animal models with each method presenting its idiosyncratic shortcomings. Quantitative assessment of epithelial cell turnover has been partly hampered due to their variable and limited in vivo accessibility and the requirement for harsher isolation procedures to procure single cells for FACS analysis...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
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