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Organogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458060/crim1-is-required-for-maintenance-of-the-ocular-lens-epithelium
#1
Oliver H Tam, David Pennisi, Lorine Wilkinson, Melissa H Little, Fatima Wazin, Victor L Wan, Frank J Lovicu
The development and growth of the vertebrate ocular lens is dependent on the regulated proliferation of an anterior monolayer of epithelial cells, and their subsequent differentiation into elongate fiber cells. The growth factor rich ocular media that bathes the lens mediates these cellular processes, and their respective intracellular signaling pathways are in turn regulated to ensure that the proper lens architecture is maintained. Recent studies have proposed that Cysteine Rich Motor Neuron 1 (Crim1), a transmembrane protein involved in organogenesis of many tissues, might influence cell adhesion, polarity and proliferation in the lens by regulating integrin-signaling...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455007/embryoid-body-arrays-parallel-cryosectioning-of-spheroid-embryoid-body-samples-for-medium-through-put-analysis
#2
Ross Ferguson, Vasanta Subramanian
Three dimensional (3D) culture of mammalian cells is emerging as a powerful new tool to understand organogenesis as well as serve as models for diseases with implications for therapeutic evaluation. 3D cultures are referred to variously as spheroid, organoids or embryoid bodies. While many methods exist for large scale production of embryoid bodies or other spheroid cell aggregates, either at controlled sizes using microwell/micropatterned plates or uncontrolled sizes in suspension dishes, very few protocols exist for medium throughput analysis of differentiation at the histological level...
February 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454785/lymphoid-tissue-inducer-a-divergent-member-of-the-ilc-family
#3
REVIEW
Chao Zhong, Mingzhu Zheng, Jinfang Zhu
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that are capable of producing effector cytokines reminiscent of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells during infections and tissue inflammations have drawn much attention in the immunology field in recent years. Within the ILCs, the lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells that play a critical role in lymphoid organogenesis were identified long before the establishment of the ILC concept. LTi cells, developed and functioning mainly at the fetal stage, and LTi-like cells, presumably generated during the adulthood, are regarded as a subset of type 3 ILCs (ILC3s) because they express the ILC3 lineage-defining transcription factor RORγt, and like other ILC3s, can produce an ILC3 signature cytokine IL-22 and initiate protective immune responses against extracellular bacteria...
February 13, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450535/a-spatiotemporal-requirement-for-prickle-1-mediated-pcp-signaling-in-eyelid-morphogenesis-and-homeostasis
#4
Dianlei Guo, Zhaohui Yuan, Jiali Ru, Xinyu Gu, Wang Zhang, Fuxiang Mao, Hong Ouyang, Kaili Wu, Yizhi Liu, Chunqiao Liu
Purpose: Tissue closure/fusion is a fundamental process during organogenesis, driven in part by the Wnt/planar cell polarity (Wnt/PCP) pathway. This study explored the spatial and temporal aspects of PCP signaling in eyelid development through analysis of mice lacking Prickle 1, a core PCP component, and the Prickle1-dependent signaling networks underlying eyelid development. Methods: Wild type and Prickle 1 compound mutant mice with a hypomorphic and a null allele were bred and used to study eyelid morphogenesis...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449776/nkx2-3-a-slippery-slope-from-development-through-inflammation-toward-hematopoietic-malignancies
#5
REVIEW
Dóra Vojkovics, Zoltán Kellermayer, Béla Kajtár, Giovanna Roncador, Áron Vincze, Péter Balogh
The development of peripheral lymphoid tissues from the mesoderm is the result of a complex convergence combining lymphohematopoietic differentiation with the local specification of nonhematopoietic mesenchymal components. Although the various transcriptional regulators with fate-determining effects in diversifying the mobile leukocyte subsets have been thoroughly studied and identified, the tissue-specific determinants promoting the regional differentiation of resident mesenchyme are less understood. Of these factors, various members of the NK-class Nkx paralogues have emerged as key regulators for the organogenesis of spleen and mucosal lymphoid tissues, and recent data have also indicated their involvement in various pathological events, including gut inflammation and hematopoietic malignancies...
2018: Biomarker Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449453/conserved-and-divergent-features-of-human-and-mouse-kidney-organogenesis
#6
Nils O Lindström, Jill A McMahon, Jinjin Guo, Tracy Tran, Qiuyu Guo, Elisabeth Rutledge, Riana K Parvez, Gohar Saribekyan, Robert E Schuler, Christopher Liao, Albert D Kim, Ahmed Abdelhalim, Seth W Ruffins, Matthew E Thornton, Laurence Basking, Brendan Grubbs, Carl Kesselman, Andrew P McMahon
Human kidney function is underpinned by approximately 1,000,000 nephrons, although the number varies substantially, and low nephron number is linked to disease. Human kidney development initiates around 4 weeks of gestation and ends around 34-37 weeks of gestation. Over this period, a reiterative inductive process establishes the nephron complement. Studies have provided insightful anatomic descriptions of human kidney development, but the limited histologic views are not readily accessible to a broad audience...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442327/zic2-in-holoprosencephaly
#7
Kristen S Barratt, Ruth M Arkell
The ZIC2 transcription factor is one of the most commonly mutated genes in Holoprosencephaly (HPE) probands. HPE is a severe congenital defect of forebrain development which occurs when the cerebral hemispheres fail to separate during the early stages of organogenesis and is typically associated with mispatterning of the embryonic midline. Recent study of genotype-phenotype correlations in HPE cases has defined distinctive features of ZIC2-associated HPE presentation and genetics, revealing that ZIC2 mutation does not produce the craniofacial abnormalities generally thought to characterise HPE but leads to a range of non-forebrain phenotypes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442325/zic-family-proteins-in-emerging-biomedical-studies
#8
Jun Aruga
Zic family proteins have been investigated in various biomedical studies. Here we summarize the contact points between Zic proteins and recent medical research. The topics cover a wide range, reflecting the pleiotropic roles of these proteins in early embryogenesis and organogenesis. Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 proteins play important roles in the development of axial and limb bones, and of muscles, among the derivatives of the notochord and somites. Zic1 is involved in bone's response to mechanical stress, and it also serves as a marker specific for brown adipocytes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440662/wdr1-is-a-novel-eya3-substrate-and-its-dephosphorylation-induces-modifications-of-the-cellular-actin-cytoskeleton
#9
Mihaela Mentel, Aura E Ionescu, Ioana Puscalau-Girtu, Martin S Helm, Rodica A Badea, Silvio O Rizzoli, Stefan E Szedlacsek
Eyes absent (EYA) proteins are unusual proteins combining in a single polypeptide chain transactivation, threonine phosphatase, and tyrosine phosphatase activities. They play pivotal roles in organogenesis and are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes including innate immunity, DNA damage repair or cancer metastasis. The molecular targets of EYA tyrosine phosphatase activity are still elusive. Therefore, we sought to identify novel EYA substrates and also to obtain further insight into the tyrosine-dephosphorylating role of EYA proteins in various cellular processes...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439517/hyperglycemia-alters-the-structure-and-hemodynamics-of-the-developing-embryonic-heart
#10
Taylor B Lawson, Devon E Scott-Drechsel, Venkat Keshav Chivukula, Sandra Rugonyi, Kent L Thornburg, Monica T Hinds
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) represent the most common form of human birth defects; approximately one-third of heart defects involve malformations of the outflow tract (OFT). Maternal diabetes increases the risk of CHD by 3-5 fold. During heart organogenesis, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia on hemodynamics, which are critical to normal heart development. Heart development prior to septation in the chick embryo was studied under hyperglycemic conditions. Sustained hyperglycemic conditions were induced, raising the average plasma glucose concentration from 70 mg/dL to 180 mg/dL, akin to the fasting plasma glucose of a patient with diabetes...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436122/the-zebrafish-a-fintastic-model-for-hematopoietic-development-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Aniket V Gore, Laura M Pillay, Marina Venero Galanternik, Brant M Weinstein
Hematopoiesis is a complex process with a variety of different signaling pathways influencing every step of blood cell formation from the earliest precursors to final differentiated blood cell types. Formation of blood cells is crucial for survival. Blood cells carry oxygen, promote organ development and protect organs in different pathological conditions. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are responsible for generating all adult differentiated blood cells. Defects in HSPCs or their downstream lineages can lead to anemia and other hematological disorders including leukemia...
February 13, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432555/gibberellins-promote-nodule-organogenesis-but-inhibit-the-infection-stages-of-nodulation
#12
Erin L McAdam, James B Reid, Eloise Foo
Leguminous plant roots can form a symbiosis with soil dwelling nitrogen-fixing rhizobia leading to the formation of a new root organ, the nodule. Successful nodulation requires co-ordination of spatially separated events in the root, including infection in the root epidermis and nodule organogenesis deep in the root cortex. We show that the hormone gibberellin plays distinct roles in these epidermal and cortical programs. We employed a unique set of genetic material in pea that includes severely gibberellin-deficient lines and della-deficient lines that enabled us to characterise all stages of infection and nodule development...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429351/-genetic-factors-in-hypopituitarism-the-role-of-transcription-factors-in-pituitary-hormone-deficiency
#13
Judit Tőke, Rita Bertalan, Péter Gergics, Zita Halász
Developmental disorders affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary system can result in pituitary hormone deficiency showing a diverse clinical presentation. A significant majority of these disorders are closely linked to defects in transcription factor genes which play a major role in pituitary development. Those affecting the early phase of organogenesis typically lead to complex conditions affecting the pituitary as well as structures in the central nervous system. Transcription factors involved in the late phase can result in combined but rarely isolated pituitary hormone deficiency without extra-pituitary manifestation...
February 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425825/molecular-characterization-and-gene-expression-patterns-of-retinoid-receptors-in-normal-and-regenerating-tissues-of-the-sea-cucumber-holothuria-glaberrima
#14
Jorge Viera-Vera, José E García-Arrarás
Retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) are ligand-mediated transcription factors that synchronize intricate signaling networks in metazoans. Dimer formation between these two nuclear receptors mediates the recruitment of co-regulatory complexes coordinating the progression of signaling cascades during developmental and regenerative events. In the present study we identified and characterized the receptors for retinoic acid in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima; a model system capable of regenerative organogenesis during adulthood...
February 6, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415713/a-phosphoinositide-map-at-the-shoot-apical-meristem-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Thomas Stanislas, Matthieu Pierre Platre, Mengying Liu, Léa E S Rambaud-Lavigne, Yvon Jaillais, Olivier Hamant
BACKGROUND: In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) has two main functions, involving the production of all aerial organs on the one hand and self-maintenance on the other, allowing the production of organs during the entire post-embryonic life of the plant. Transcription factors, microRNA, hormones, peptides and forces have been involved in meristem function. Whereas phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) have been involved in almost all biological functions, including stem cell maintenance and organogenesis in animals, the processes in meristem biology to which PIPs contribute still need to be delineated...
February 7, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410779/exosomes-as-secondary-inductive-signals-involved-in-kidney-organogenesis
#16
Mirja Krause, Aleksandra Rak-Raszewska, Florence Naillat, Ulla Saarela, Christina Schmidt, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Geneviève Bart, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo J Vainio
The subfraction of extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, transfers biological molecular information not only between cells but also between tissues and organs as nanolevel signals. Owing to their unique properties such that they contain several RNA species and proteins implicated in kidney development, exosomes are putative candidates to serve as developmental programming units in embryonic induction and tissue interactions. We used the mammalian metanephric kidney and its nephron-forming mesenchyme containing the nephron progenitor/stem cells as a model to investigate if secreted exosomes could serve as a novel type of inductive signal in a process defined as embryonic induction that controls organogenesis...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403264/anticonvulsant-and-reproductive-toxicological-studies-of-the-imidazole-based-histamine-h3r-antagonist-2-18-in-mice
#17
Salim M Bastaki, Yousef M Abdulrazzaq, Mohamed Shafiullah, Małgorzata Więcek, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Bassem Sadek
The imidazole-based H3R antagonist 2-18 with high in vitro H3R antagonist affinity, excellent in vitro selectivity profile, and high in vivo H3R antagonist potency was tested for its anticonvulsant effect in maximal electroshock (MES)-induced convulsions in mice having valproic acid (VPA) as a reference antiepileptic drug (AED). Additionally, H3R antagonist 2-18 was evaluated for its reproductive toxicity in the same animal species. The results show that acute systemic administration (intraperitoneal; i.p.) of H3R antagonist 2-18 (7...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396915/p63-expression-plays-a-role-in-developmental-rate-embryo-size-and-local-morphogenesis
#18
Julia C Boughner, Matthijs C van Eede, Shoshana Spring, Lisa X Yu, Nasim Rostampour, R Mark Henkelman
BACKGROUND: The p63 gene is integral to the development of many body parts including limb, palate, teeth and urogenital tract. Loss of p63 expression may alter developmental rate, which is crucial to normal morphogenesis. To validate a novel, unbiased embryo phenotyping software tool, we tested whether delayed development contributes to the pathological phenotype of a p63 mouse mutant (p63-/- ). We quantified dysmorphology in p63-/- embryos and tested for universal growth delay relative to wild type (WT) embryos...
February 3, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396725/expression-of-gremlin1-in-gastric-cancer-and-its-clinical-significance
#19
Yoichi Yamasaki, Sumiya Ishigami, Takaaki Arigami, Yoshiaki Kita, Yasuto Uchikado, Hiroshi Kurahara, Yuko Kijima, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
As an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), 2, 4 and 7, gremlin1 plays a role in regulating organogenesis, tissue differentiation and angiogenesis. However, there is little information regarding gremlin1 in gastrointestinal cancer. We attempted to clarify how gremlin1 expression affects the clinical features and biological properties of gastric cancer. A total of 232 gastric cancer patients who received R0 gastrectomy at Kagoshima University Hospital were enrolled. Gremlin1 expression in gastric cancer was detected by immunohistochemical and western blotting methods...
February 2, 2018: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394376/direct-transfection-of-clonal-organoids-in-matrigel-microbeads-a-promising-approach-toward-organoid-based-genetic-screens
#20
Bastien Laperrousaz, Stephanie Porte, Sophie Gerbaud, Ville Härmä, Frédérique Kermarrec, Virginie Hourtane, Frédéric Bottausci, Xavier Gidrol, Nathalie Picollet-D'hahan
Organoid cultures in 3D matrices are relevant models to mimic the complex in vivo environment that supports cell physiological and pathological behaviors. For instance, 3D epithelial organoids recapitulate numerous features of glandular tissues including the development of fully differentiated acini that maintain apico-basal polarity with hollow lumen. Effective genetic engineering in organoids would bring new insights in organogenesis and carcinogenesis. However, direct 3D transfection on already formed organoids remains challenging...
January 31, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
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