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Nia King, Rachael Vriezen, Victoria L Edge, James Ford, Michele Wood, Sherilee Harper
BACKGROUND: Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) incidence and per-capita healthcare expenditures are higher in some Inuit communities as compared to elsewhere in Canada. Consequently, there is a demand for strategies that will reduce the individual-level costs of AGI; this will require a comprehensive understanding of the economic costs of AGI. However, given Inuit communities' unique cultural, economic, and geographic contexts, there is a knowledge gap regarding the context-specific indirect costs of AGI borne by Inuit community members...
2018: PloS One
Marie E Burns, Beth Stevens
The cellular environment of the CNS is non-permissive for growth and regeneration. In the retina, transplantation of stem cells has been limited by inefficient survival and integration into existing circuits. In November 2016, as part of the National Eye Institute's Audacious Goals Initiative (AGI), a diverse collection of investigators gathered for a workshop devoted to articulating the gaps in knowledge, barriers to progress, and ideas for new approaches to understanding cellular environments within the retina and how these environments may be manipulated...
March 2018: ENeuro
Shijie Li, Shiwei Hu, Wei Jiang, Yanping Liu, Yu Liu, Yingtang Zhou, Liuye Mo, Jianshe Liu
To develop efficient and stable visible-light-driven (VLD) photocatalysts for pollutant degradation, we synthesized novel heterojunction photocatalysts comprised of AgI nanoparticle-decorated Ag2 WO4 nanorods via a facile method. Various characterization techniques, including XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, and UV-vis DRS were used to investigate the morphology and optical properties of the as-prepared AgI/Ag2 WO4 catalyst. With AgI acting as the cocatalyst, the resulting AgI/Ag2 WO4 heterostructure shows excellent performance in degrading toxic, stable pollutants such as rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO) and para -chlorophenol (4-CP)...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Xian Zhang, Lyu Wang, De-Chang Chen
Background: Gastrointestinal dysfunction plays a critical role in the prognosis of critically ill patients. Previous studies showed rhubarb, a traditional Chinese herb, can protect the intestinal barrier function, prevent intestinal bacterial translocation, and promote gastrointestinal peristalsis, but the clinical studies are less. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rhubarb on gastrointestinal dysfunction in critically ill patients. Methods: From June 2015 to May 2017, a total of 368 critically ill patients with Grade I-III acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) were enrolled in this study...
May 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Yossi Ventura, Brian I Carr, Issac Kori, Vito Guerra, Oren Shibolet
AIM: To investigate novel predictors of survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients following transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). METHODS: One hundred sixty seven patients with un-resectable HCC were retrospectively analyzed to identify factors that might contribute to their HCC biology and aggressiveness. We correlated routine laboratory results (total bilirubin, AST, ALKP, GGTP, albumin etc .) to maximum tumor diameter, number of tumor nodules, portal vein thrombosis and blood alpha-fetoprotein levels...
April 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Joshua L Mieher, Matthew R Larson, Norbert Schormann, Sangeetha Purushotham, Ren Wu, Kanagalaghatta R Rajashankar, Hui Wu, Champion Deivanayagam
The high-resolution structure of Glucan binding protein C (GbpC) at 1.14 Å, a sucrose-dependent virulence factor of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans , has been determined. GbpC not only shares structural similarities with the V-regions of AgI/II and SspB, but also functional adherence to SAG and its scavenger receptor cysteine rich domains (SRCRs) which is not only a newly identified function for GbpC, but also an additional fail-safe binding mechanism for S. mutans Despite the structural similarities with S...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Meir Lahav, Sofia Curland, Elena Meirzadeh, Hagai Cohen, David Ehre, Joachim Maier, Igor Lubomirsky
Understanding the formation of ice from super-cooled water, at the molecular level, has recently been identified as one of the top ten open questions in the ice science. In 1947, Vonnegut discovered that crystallites of hexagonal AgI induce heterogeneous icing of super-cooled water around ≈-3 °C. Ever since, the icing mechanism of such crystals is comprehensively investigated, since they are used for glaciogenic cloud seeding for rain precipitation. The interpretation of this effect was considered to arise mostly due to epitaxy, resulting from a close match between the crystallographic parameters of these crystals with those of hexagonal ice...
April 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Todd N Poe, Frankie D White, Vanessa Proust, Eric M Villa, Matthew J Polinski
Two new isotypic d/f-heterometallic purely inorganic cationic materials, [Ag2 M(Te2 O5 )2 ]SO4 (M = CeIV or ThIV ), were synthesized using the metal oxides (MO2 and TeO2 ), silver nitrate, and sulfuric acid under mild hydrothermal conditions. The prepared materials were characterized via single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which revealed that the materials possess a 3D framework of corner-sharing Te2 O5 2- units. The tellurite framework creates four unique pores, three of which are occupied by the MIV and AgI metal centers...
April 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Pavithra Viswanath, Marina Radoul, Jose Luis Izquierdo-Garcia, Hema Artee Luchman, J Gregory Cairncross, Russell O Pieper, Joanna J Phillips, Sabrina M Ronen
Background: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies have identified elevated levels of the phospholipid precursor phosphocholine (PC) and phosphoethanolamine (PE) as metabolic hallmarks of cancer. Unusually, however, PC and PE levels are reduced in mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDHmut) gliomas that produce the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) relative to wild-type IDH1 (IDHwt) gliomas. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism underlying this unusual metabolic reprogramming in IDHmut gliomas...
2018: Cancer & Metabolism
Hamed Esfandiari, Tarek Shazly, Susannah Waxman, Sushma Kola, Kevin B Kaplowitz, Eric N Brown, Nils A Loewen
PURPOSE: To apply propensity score matching to Ahmed glaucoma drainage implants (AGI) to trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy (AIT). Recent data suggests that AIT can produce results similar to AGI traditionally reserved for more severe glaucoma. METHODS: AGI and AIT patients with at least one year of follow-up were included. The primary outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma medications, and a Glaucoma Index (GI) score. GI reflected glaucoma severity based on visual field, the number of preoperative medications, and preoperative IOP...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Anthony Obeid, Xinxiao Gao, Ferhina S Ali, Katherine E Talcott, Christopher M Aderman, Leslie Hyman, Allen C Ho, Jason Hsu
PURPOSE: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) may contribute to vision loss in patients with active proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The aim of this study is to determine and compare the rates of LTFU in patients with PDR receiving panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) or intravitreal injections (IVIs) with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) over approximately 4 years. Moreover, this study evaluates various risk factors for LTFU. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
March 29, 2018: Ophthalmology
Patrick Schuss, Alexis Hadjiathanasiou, Simon Brandecker, Christian Wispel, Valeri Borger, Ági Güresir, Hartmut Vatter, Erdem Güresir
Patients presenting with spontaneous, non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) achieve better outcomes compared to patients with aneurysmal SAH. Nevertheless, some patients develop shunt-dependent hydrocephalus during treatment course. We therefore analyzed our neurovascular database to identify factors determining shunt dependency after non-aneurysmal SAH. From 2006 to 2016, 131 patients suffering from spontaneous, non-aneurysmal SAH were admitted to our department. Patients were stratified according to the distribution of cisternal blood into patients with perimesencephalic SAH (pSAH) versus non-perimesencephalic SAH (npSAH)...
March 29, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Hanbo Yu, Binbin Huang, Hou Wang, Xingzhong Yuan, Longbo Jiang, Zhibin Wu, Jin Zhang, Guangming Zeng
A novel Z-scheme AgI/BiOBr hybrid photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by a solvothermal-precipitation method, and its photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP, a typical antibiotic). The crystallization, morphology, photo-response, surface structure and electrochemical properties of the as-obtained photocatalyst were characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, BET, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectra (PL) measurements, respectively. The optimized AgI(20 wt%)/BiOBr composite exhibited a remarkable photocatalytic activity and a rapid degradation ability for CIP with a removal efficiency of 90...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yan Wang, Jianrong Wang, Weiwei Liu, Guangliang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To develop the comprehensive prediction model of acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) grades of critically ill patients. METHODS: From April 2015 to November 2015, the binary channel gastrointestinal sounds (GIS) monitor system which has been developed and verified by the research group was used to gather and analyze the GIS of 60 consecutive critically ill patients who were admitted in Critical Care Medicine of Chinese PLA General Hospital. Also, the AGI grades (Grande I(-IIII(, the higher the level, the heavier the gastrointestinal dysfunction) were evaluated...
March 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Ángel Agis-Torres, Paz Recio, María Elvira López-Oliva, María Pilar Martínez, María Victoria Barahona, Sara Benedito, Salvador Bustamante, Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Cidre, Albino García-Sacristán, Dolores Prieto, Vítor S Fernandes, Medardo Hernández
Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) play a pivotal role in nerve-mediated relaxation of the bladder outflow region. In the bladder neck, a marked phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) expression has also been described and PDE4 inhibitors, as rolipram, produce smooth muscle relaxation. This study investigates the role of PDE4 isoenzyme in bladder neck gaseous inhibitory neurotransmission. We used Western blot and double immunohistochemical staining for the detection of NPP4 (PDE4) and PDE4A and organ baths for isometric force recording to roflumilast and tadalafil, PDE4 and PDE5, respectively, inhibitors in pig and human samples...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jialiang Liang, Fuyang Liu, Mian Li, Wen Liu, Meiping Tong
Magnetic Fe3 O4 @BiOI@AgI (FBA) spheres were synthesized through a multi-step process. The fabricated photocatalysts were characterized by different techniques. To testify the visible light driven photocatalytic activity of FBA, Rhodamine B and Bisphenol A were chosen as model common and emerging organic contaminants, respectively. While, gram-negative strain Escherichia coli was selected as model waterborne bacteria. The results showed that under visible light irradiation, FBA contained strong photocatalytic degradation capacity towards both RhB and BPA...
March 10, 2018: Water Research
Mohammad Kassem, Igor Alekseev, Maria Escorne-Bokova, David Le Coq, Eugene Bychkov
Conductivity isotherms of (CdTe)x (AgI)0.5- x/2 (As2Te3)0.5- x/2 glasses (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) reveal a non-monotonic behavior with increasing CdTe content reminiscent of mixed cation effect in oxide and chalcogenide glasses. Nevertheless, the apparent similarity appears to be partly incorrect. Using110m Ag tracer diffusion measurements, we show that semiconducting CdTe additions produce a dual effect: (1) decreasing the Ag+ ion transport by a factor of ≈200 with a simultaneous increase of the diffusion activation energy, and (2) increasing the electronic conductivity by 1...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Klara Janjić, Barbara Cvikl, Christoph Kurzmann, Andreas Moritz, Hermann Agis
BACKGROUND: To understand the responses of the dental pulp to hypoxia is of high relevance for regenerative endodontics and dental traumatology. Here, we aimed to reveal the effects of hypoxia and the hypoxia mimetic agent L-mimosine (L-MIM) on the production of sclerostin (SOST) and dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) in human dental pulp-derived cells (DPC). METHODS: DPC in monolayer, spheroid and tooth slice cultures were treated with L-MIM or hypoxia. Resazurin-based toxicity and MTT assays were performed to determine cell viability...
March 9, 2018: BMC Oral Health
B B Li, Y Cai, Y Z Pan, M Li, Y Fang, T Tian, X M Yan
Objective: To evaluate the association between corneal biomechanical parameters and visual field (VF) progression in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) using the Corvis-ST device, and to evaluate the ability of corneal biomechanical parameters to predict the VF progression. Methods: Corneal biomechanical parameters of newly diagnosed NTG patients were obtained using Corvis-ST in the baseline follow-up visit. The VF progression was defined as a 4-point increase in the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS) score compared to the baseline in three consecutive follow-up visits (per 3-6 months)...
March 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Daiki Mori, Tomoki Yoneda, Tyuji Hoshino, Saburo Neya
A meso-aryl and β-alkyl substituted sapphyrin and its rhodium(I) and silver complexes were synthesized. This sapphyrin was so stable that the non-inverted and warped structure could be analyzed by X-ray crystallography even in its neutral state. Its bis-rhodium(I) complex has a more planar structure than the sapphyrin with enhanced aromaticity over the conjugation circuit. On the other hand, silver metalation of the sapphyrin caused a marked core rearrangement into a neo-confused sapphyrin derivative with a C(α)-N bond and a twisted macrocycle...
April 16, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
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