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Mucosal immunology.

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423120/primary-cultures-of-mouse-small-intestinal-epithelial-cells-using-the-dissociating-enzyme-type-i-collagenase-and-hyaluronidase
#1
H J Ren, C L Zhang, R D Liu, N Li, X G Li, H K Xue, Y Guo, Z Q Wang, J Cui, L Ming
The epithelium is a highly dynamic system, which plays a crucial role in the homeostasis of the intestinal tract. However, studies on the physiological and pathophysiological functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been hampered due to lack of normal epithelial cell models. In the present study, we established a reproducible method for primary culture of mouse IECs, which were isolated from the viable small intestinal crypts of murine fetuses (on embryonic day 19), using type I collagenase and hyaluronidase in a short span of time (≤20 min)...
April 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422188/resolvin-d1-enhances-the-resolution-of-lung-inflammation-caused-by-long-term-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#2
M Codagnone, E Cianci, A Lamolinara, V C Mari, A Nespoli, E Isopi, D Mattoscio, M Arita, A Bragonzi, M Iezzi, M Romano, A Recchiuti
Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is a main cause of disability and mortality worldwide. Acute inflammation and its timely resolution are crucial for ensuring bacterial clearance and limiting tissue damage. Here, we investigated protective actions of resolvin (Rv) D1 in lung infection induced by the RP73 clinical strain of P. aeruginosa. RvD1 significantly diminished bacterial growth and neutrophil infiltration during acute pneumonia caused by RP73. Inoculum of RP73, immobilized in agar beads, resulted in persistent lung infection up to 21 days, leading to a non resolving inflammation reminiscent of human pathology...
April 19, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422187/a-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-agonist-inhibits-tertiary-lymphoid-tissue-reactivation-and-hypersensitivity-in-the-lung
#3
C A Huppé, P Blais Lecours, A Lechasseur, D R Gendron, A M Lemay, E Y Bissonnette, M R Blanchet, C Duchaine, M C Morissette, H Rosen, D Marsolais
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is characterized by pulmonary accumulation of B-cell-rich tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs), which are alleged sites of amplification for antigen-specific responses. The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) regulates key mechanisms underlying lymphoid tissue biology and its chemical modulation causes lymphocyte retention in lymph nodes. Given the putative immunopathogenic impact of lymphocyte accumulation in TLTs, we investigated whether or not chemical modulation of S1P1 caused lymphocyte retention within TLTs in a model of hypersensitivity pneumonitis...
April 19, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422186/high-fat-diet-induces-systemic-b-cell-repertoire-changes-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#4
T D Pham, M H Y Chng, K M Roskin, K J L Jackson, K D Nguyen, J Glanville, J-Y Lee, E G Engleman, S D Boyd
The development of obesity-associated insulin resistance is associated with B-lymphocyte accumulation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and is prevented by B-cell ablation. To characterize potentially pathogenic B-cell repertoires in this disorder, we performed high-throughput immunoglobulin (Ig) sequencing from multiple tissues of mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) and regular diet (RD). HFD significantly changed the biochemical properties of Ig heavy-chain complementarity-determining region-3 (CDRH3) sequences, selecting for IgA antibodies with shorter and more hydrophobic CDRH3 in multiple tissues...
April 19, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407984/review-allergic-contact-stomatitis
#5
REVIEW
Liviu Feller, Neil Hamilton Wood, Razia Abdool Gafaar Khammissa, Johan Lemmer
Allergic contact stomatitis (ACS) is an oral mucosal immunoinflammatory disorder variably characterized clinically by erythematous plaques, vesiculation, ulceration, and/or hyperkeratosis and by pain, burning sensation, or itchiness. ACS is brought about by a T cell-mediated, delayed hypersensitivity immune reaction generated by a second or subsequent contact exposure of an allergen with the oral mucosa, in a genetically susceptible, sensitized subject. Lichenoid contact reaction is a variant of ACS brought about by direct contact with the oral mucosa of certain metals in dental restorations...
May 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406322/mass-spectrometry-based-proteomic-exploration-of-the-human-immune-system-focus-on-the-inflammasome-global-protein-secretion-and-t-cells
#6
Tuula A Nyman, Martina B Lorey, Wojciech Cypryk, Sampsa Matikainen
The immune system is our defense system against microbial infections and tissue injury, and understanding how it works in detail is essential for developing drugs for different diseases. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can provide in-depth information on the molecular mechanisms involved in immune responses. Areas covered: Summarized are the key immunology findings obtained with MS-based proteomics in the past five years, with a focus on inflammasome activation, global protein secretion, mucosal immunology, immunopeptidome and T cells...
April 13, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405551/spectrum-of-lip-lesions-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-an-epidemiological-study-of-3009-indian-patients
#7
Shivani Bansal, Sana Shaikh, Rajiv S Desai, Islam Ahmad, Pavan Puri, Pooja Prasad, Pankaj Shirsat, Dipali Gundre
AIM: Large-scale population-based screening studies have identified lip lesions to be the most common oral mucosal lesions; however, few studies have been carried out to estimate the prevalence of lip lesions exclusively. The aim of present study is to highlight the diversity of lip lesions and determine their prevalence in an unbiased Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lip lesions were selected from 3009 patients who visited the department over a period of 3 years (January 2012 to December 2014)...
March 2017: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401939/mdr1-deficiency-impairs-mitochondrial-homeostasis-and-promotes-intestinal-inflammation
#8
G-T Ho, R E Aird, B Liu, R K Boyapati, N A Kennedy, D A Dorward, C L Noble, T Shimizu, R N Carter, E T S Chew, N M Morton, A G Rossi, R B Sartor, J P Iredale, J Satsangi
The multidrug resistance-1 (MDR1) gene encodes an ATP-dependent efflux transporter that is highly expressed in the colon. In mice, loss of MDR1 function results in colitis with similarities to human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Here, we show that MDR1 has an unexpected protective role for the mitochondria where MDR1 deficiency results in mitochondrial dysfunction with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) driving the development of colitis. Exogenous induction of mROS accelerates, while inhibition attenuates colitis in vivo; these effects are amplified in MDR1 deficiency...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401938/novel-protective-mechanism-for-interleukin-33-at-the-mucosal-barrier-during-influenza-associated-bacterial-superinfection
#9
K M Robinson, K Ramanan, M E Clay, K J McHugh, H E Rich, J F Alcorn
Influenza A is a highly contagious respiratory virus that causes seasonal epidemics and occasional worldwide pandemics. The primary cause of influenza-related mortality is bacterial superinfection. There are numerous mechanisms by which preceding influenza infection attenuates host defense, allowing for increased susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia. Herein, we demonstrate that influenza inhibits Staphylococcus aureus-induced production of interleukin-33 (IL-33). Restoration of IL-33 during influenza A and methicillin-resistant S...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401937/progesterone-based-compounds-affect-immune-responses-and-susceptibility-to-infections-at-diverse-mucosal-sites
#10
REVIEW
Olivia J Hall, Sabra L Klein
Over 100 million women worldwide are currently on progesterone-based contraceptives to improve their health outcomes through reduced maternal mortality and family planning. In addition to their role in reproduction, progesterone-based compounds modulate immune responses throughout the body, particularly at mucosal sites. By binding to receptors located in immune cells, including natural killer cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells, as well in non-immune cells, such as epithelial and endothelial cells, progesterone-based compounds alter cellular signaling and activity to affect the outcome of infections at diverse mucosal sites, including the genital, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401936/bmal1-links-the-circadian-clock-to-viral-airway-pathology-and-asthma-phenotypes
#11
A Ehlers, W Xie, E Agapov, S Brown, D Steinberg, R Tidwell, G Sajol, R Schutz, R Weaver, H Yu, M Castro, L B Bacharier, X Wang, M J Holtzman, J A Haspel
Patients with asthma experience circadian variations in their symptoms. However it remains unclear how specific aspects of this common airway disease relate to clock genes, which are critical to the generation of circadian rhythms in mammals. Here, we used a viral model of acute and chronic airway disease to examine how circadian clock disruption affects asthmatic lung phenotypes. Deletion of the core clock gene bmal1 or environmental disruption of circadian function by jet lag exacerbated acute viral bronchiolitis caused by Sendai virus (SeV) and influenza A virus in mice...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401935/unique-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-promote-intestinal-polyps-by-suppressing-th1-immunity-and-promoting-regulatory-t-cells
#12
Y Wang, S Sedimbi, L Löfbom, A K Singh, S A Porcelli, S L Cardell
CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are known as potent early regulatory cells of immune responses. Besides the established roles in the regulation of inflammation and autoimmune disease, studies have shown that iNKT cells have important roles in tumor surveillance and the control of tumor metastasis. Here we found that the absence of iNKT cells markedly decreased the total number of intestinal polyps in APC(Min/+) mice, a model for colorectal cancer. Polyp iNKT cells were enriched for interleukin-10 (IL-10)- and IL-17-producing cells, showed a distinct phenotype being CD4(+), NK1...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401934/vaginal-lactic-acid-elicits-an-anti-inflammatory-response-from-human-cervicovaginal-epithelial-cells-and-inhibits-production-of-pro-inflammatory-mediators-associated-with-hiv-acquisition
#13
A C Hearps, D Tyssen, D Srbinovski, L Bayigga, D J D Diaz, M Aldunate, R A Cone, R Gugasyan, D J Anderson, G Tachedjian
Inflammation in the female reproductive tract (FRT) is associated with increased HIV transmission. Lactobacillus spp. dominate the vaginal microbiota of many women and their presence is associated with reduced HIV acquisition. Here we demonstrate that lactic acid (LA), a major organic acid metabolite produced by lactobacilli, mediates anti-inflammatory effects on human cervicovaginal epithelial cells. Treatment of human vaginal and cervical epithelial cell lines with LA (pH 3.9) elicited significant increases in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1RA...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401933/bcl-xl-mediates-ripk3-dependent-necrosis-in-m-tuberculosis-infected-macrophages
#14
X Zhao, N Khan, H Gan, F Tzelepis, T Nishimura, S-Y Park, M Divangahi, H G Remold
Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) triggers necrosis in host Mϕ, which is essential for successful pathogenesis in tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate that necrosis of Mtb-infected Mϕ is dependent on the action of the cytosolic Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 3 (RIPK3) and the mitochondrial Bcl-2 family member protein B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL). RIPK3-deficient Mϕ are able to better control bacterial growth in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, cytosolic RIPK3 translocates to the mitochondria where it promotes necrosis and blocks caspase 8-activation and apoptosis via Bcl-xL...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401932/inflammasomes-and-intestinal-inflammation
#15
REVIEW
N Zmora, M Levy, M Pevsner-Fischer, E Elinav
The inflammasome is a cytosolic multi-protein innate immune rheostat, sensing a variety of endogenous and environmental stimuli, and regulating homeostasis or damage control. In the gastrointestinal tract, inflammasomes orchestrate immune tolerance to microbial and potentially food-related signals or drive the initiation of inflammatory responses to invading pathogens. When inadequately regulated, intestinal inflammasome activation leads to a perpetuated inflammatory response leading to immune pathology and tissue damage...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391291/rejuvenation-of-mucosal-immunosenescence-by-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Akitoshi Tsuruhara, Kazuyoshi Aso, Daisuke Tokuhara, Junichiro Ohori, Masaki Kawabata, Yuichi Kurono, Jerry R McGhee, Kohtaro Fujihashi
Age-associated alterations in the mucosal immune system are generally termed mucosal immunosenescence. The major change seen in the aged mucosa is a failure to elicit an antigen-specific secretory IgA (SIgA) antibody response, which is a central player for host defense from various pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this regard, it would be a first priority to compensate for mucosal dysregulation in the elderly in order to maintain their health in aging. We have successfully established antigen-specific SIgA antibody responses in aged (2 years old) mice, which provide protective immunity from Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza virus infections, by using a new adjuvant system consisting of a plasmid encoding Flt3 ligand (pFL) and CpG ODN...
January 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388308/identification-of-type-iii-interferon-ifn-%C3%AE-in-chinese-goose-gene-structure-age-dependent-expression-profile-and-antiviral-immune-characteristics-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#17
Qin Zhou, Wei Zhang, Shun Chen, Anqi Wang, Lipei Sun, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiaoyue Chen, Anchun Cheng
Type III interferons (IFN-λ1/λ2/λ3, also known as IL-29/28A/28B, and IFN-λ4) are a recently discovered interferon group. In this study, we first identified the Chinese goose IFN-λ (goIFN-λ). The full-length sequence of goIFN-λ was found to be 823 bp. There was only one open reading frame that contained 570 bp, and, encoded 189 amino acids. The predicted goIFN-λ protein showed 78%, 67%, and 40% amino acid identity with duIFN-λ, chIFN-λ, and hIFN-λ3, respectively. The tissue distribution of goIFN-λ existed as a parallel distribution with goIFNLR1 as its functional receptor, which was mainly expressed in epithelium-rich tissues, such as lung, gizzard, proventriculus, skin and pancreas, and immune tissues, such as harderian gland and thymus...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387430/esophageal-mucosa-in-hiv-infection-a-deeper-look-at-this-little-spoken-organ
#18
Ana Luiza Werneck-Silva, Carla Pagliari, Roseli A Patzina, Cleusa Fumica Hirata Takakura, Maria Irma Duarte
BACKGROUND: Although the esophagus is a common site of opportunistic infection in AIDS patients little is known about the impact of HIV as well as opportunistic infection in the esophageal mucosa. Our aim is to analyze the esophageal immune profile in HIV+ patients with different immunological status with and without the opportunistic Candida infection. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry to CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, IFN-γ, TGF-β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-13 and IL-17 was performed in esophageal samples of 40 chronically HIV+ patients under HAART (16 with Candida esophagitis, 12 virologicaly non-supressed with blood CD4 count <500, and 12 virologicaly suppressed with blood CD4 count >500; the latter two groups without esophageal candidiasis)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385737/lack-of-stat6-attenuates-inflammation-and-drives-protection-against-early-steps-of-colitis-associated-colon-cancer
#19
Sonia A Leon-Cabrera, Emmanuel Molina-Guzman, Yael G Delgado-Ramirez, Armando Vázquez-Sandoval, Yadira Ledesma-Soto, Carlos G Pérez-Plasencia, Yolanda I Chirino, Norma L Delgado-Buenrostro, Miriam Rodríguez-Sosa, Felipe Vaca-Paniagua, Federico Ávila-Moreno, Emma B Gutierrez-Cirlos, Luis E Arias-Romero, Luis I Terrazas
Colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms and a leading cause of death. The immunologic factors associated with CAC development are not completely understood. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) is part of an important signaling pathway for modulating intestinal immune function and homeostasis. However, the role of STAT6 in colon cancer progression is unclear. Following CAC induction in wild-type (WT) and STAT6-deficient mice (STAT6(-/-)), we found that 70% of STAT6(-/-) mice were tumor-free after 8 weeks, whereas 100% of WT mice developed tumors...
April 6, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384290/mait-cells-are-reduced-in-frequency-and-functionally-impaired-in-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-infection-potential-clinical-implications
#20
Dominic Paquin-Proulx, Benjamin C Greenspun, Emanuela A S Costa, Aluisio C Segurado, Esper G Kallas, Douglas F Nixon, Fabio E Leal
HTLV-1 infection is associated with several inflammatory disorders, including the neurodegenerative condition HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). It is unclear why a minority of infected subjects develop HAM/TSP. The cellular immune response has been implicated in the development of inflammatory alterations in these patients; however the pathogenic mechanisms for disease progression remain unclear. Furthermore, HTLV-1-infected individuals have an increase incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, suggesting that immunological defect are associated with HTLV-1 infection...
2017: PloS One
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