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Mucosal immunology.

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754190/allergic-and-immunologic-perspectives-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
REVIEW
Kofi Clarke, Jayakrishna Chintanaboina
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory condition primarily involving the gastrointestinal tract. It includes Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and a less common phenotype-indeterminate colitis. It is thought to result from a complex interplay of environmental, microbial, and host factors including genetic factors, although the exact mechanism is not known. Dietary factors have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD and can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota as well as disrupt the immune function in the gut...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752861/immunohistochemical-diagnosis-of-mucous-membrane-pemphigoid
#2
Iakov Shimanovich, Julia Marie Nitz, Mareike Witte, Detlef Zillikens, Christian Rose
BACKGROUND: Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is an autoimmune subepithelial blistering disease with predominant involvement of mucosal surfaces. It is usually diagnosed by direct immunofluorescence microscopy of frozen biopsies, demonstrating linear deposits of complement, IgG or IgA along the basement membrane. The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility of immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies for the diagnosis of MMP and to compare its sensitivity to that of direct immunofluorescence microscopy...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749611/proteomic-definition-of-human-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-determines-their-unique-molecular-effector-phenotype
#3
Björn Bulitta, Werner Zuschratter, Isabel Bernal, Dunja Bruder, Frank Klawonn, Martin von Bergen, Henrikus Stephanus Paulus Garritsen, Lothar Jänsch
Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) constitute the most abundant anti-bacterial CD8+ T cell population in humans. MR1/TCR-activated MAIT cells were reported to organize cytotoxic and innate-like responses but knowledge about their molecular effector phenotype is still fragmentary. Here, we have examined the functional inventory of human MAIT cells (CD3+Vα7.2+CD161+) in comparison with those from conventional non-MAIT CD8+ T cells (cCD8+ ) and NK cells. Quantitative mass spectrometry characterized 5500 proteins of primary MAIT cells and identified 160 and 135 proteins that discriminate them from cCD8+ T cells and NK cells donor-independently...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738872/combined-effects-of-dietary-low-molecular-weight-sodium-alginate-and-pediococcus-acidilactici-ma18-5m-on-growth-performance-haematological-and-innate-immune-responses-of-asian-sea-bass-lates-calcalifer-juveniles
#4
Ghasem Ashouri, Nasrollah Mahboobi Soofiani, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Seyed Amir Hossein Jalali, Vahid Morshedi, Hien Van Doan, Mansour Torfi Mozanzadeh
Six weeks feeding trial was conducted to examine the effects of dietary administration of low molecular weight sodium alginate (LMWSA) and Pediococcus acidilactici MA 18/5M (PA) on humoral and mucosal immune responses, haematological parameters and growth performance, of Lates calcarifer juveniles. Fish (12.0 ± 0.2 g) were fed experimental diets as follows: Control (diet 1, basal diet), 5 g kg-1 LMWSA (diet 2), 10 g kg-1 LMWSA (diet 3), 0.9 × 107  CFU g-1 PA (diet 4), 5 g kg-1 LMWSA + 0...
May 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737913/pathophysiology-of-ibd-associated-diarrhea
#5
Arivarasu N Anbazhagan, Shubha Priyamvada, Waddah A Alrefai, Pradeep K Dudeja
Inflammatory bowel diseases broadly categorized into Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with increasing prevalence worldwide. The etiology of the disease is complex and involves a combination of genetic, environmental, immunological and gut microbial factors. Recurring and bloody diarrhea is the most prevalent and debilitating symptom in IBD. The pathogenesis of IBD-associated diarrhea is multifactorial and is essentially an outcome of mucosal damage caused by persistent inflammation resulting in dysregulated intestinal ion transport, impaired epithelial barrier function and increased accessibility of the pathogens to the intestinal mucosa...
May 8, 2018: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726281/exopolysaccharide-from-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-longum-35624%C3%A2-modulates-murine-allergic-airway-responses
#6
E Schiavi, S Plattner, N Rodriguez-Perez, W Barcik, R Frei, R Ferstl, M Kurnik-Lucka, D Groeger, R Grant, J Roper, F Altmann, D van Sinderen, C A Akdis, L O'Mahony
Interactions between the host and the microbiota are thought to significantly influence immunological tolerance mechanisms at mucosal sites. We recently described that the loss of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Bifidobacterium longum 35624™ eliminated its protective effects in colitis and respiratory allergy murine models. Our goal was to investigate the immune response to purified EPS from B. longum 35624, determine if it has protective effects within the lung and identify the protective mechanisms. Isolated EPS from B...
May 4, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713319/debunking-the-myth-of-exercise-induced-immune-suppression-redefining-the-impact-of-exercise-on-immunological-health-across-the-lifespan
#7
REVIEW
John P Campbell, James E Turner
Epidemiological evidence indicates that regular physical activity and/or frequent structured exercise reduces the incidence of many chronic diseases in older age, including communicable diseases such as viral and bacterial infections, as well as non-communicable diseases such as cancer and chronic inflammatory disorders. Despite the apparent health benefits achieved by leading an active lifestyle, which imply that regular physical activity and frequent exercise enhance immune competency and regulation, the effect of a single bout of exercise on immune function remains a controversial topic...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706647/the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity-a-paradigm-from-the-gut-liver-axis
#8
REVIEW
Bo Li, Carlo Selmi, Ruqi Tang, M E Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects...
April 30, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705830/the-mammary-microenvironment-in-mastitis-in-humans-dairy-ruminants-rabbits-and-rodents-a-one-health-focus
#9
REVIEW
Katherine Hughes, Christine J Watson
The One Health concept promotes integrated evaluation of human, animal, and environmental health questions to expedite advances benefiting all species. A recognition of the multi-species impact of mastitis as a painful condition with welfare implications leads us to suggest that mastitis is an ideal target for a One Health approach. In this review, we will evaluate the role of the mammary microenvironment in mastitis in humans, ruminants and rabbits, where appropriate also drawing on studies utilising laboratory animal models...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705211/assessment-of-microbiota-host-interactions-at-the-vaginal-mucosa-interface
#10
REVIEW
Pamela Pruski, Holly V Lewis, Yun S Lee, Julian R Marchesi, Phillip R Bennett, Zoltan Takats, David A MacIntyre
There is increasing appreciation of the role that vaginal microbiota play in health and disease throughout a woman's lifespan. This has been driven partly by molecular techniques that enable detailed identification and characterisation of microbial community structures. However, these methods do not enable assessment of the biochemical and immunological interactions between host and vaginal microbiota involved in pathophysiology. This review examines our current knowledge of the relationships that exist between vaginal microbiota and the host at the level of the vaginal mucosal interface...
April 26, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704909/gut-immunity-its-development-and-reasons-and-opportunities-for-modulation-in-monogastric-production-animals
#11
Leon J Broom, Michael H Kogut
The intestine performs the critical roles of nutrient acquisition, tolerance of innocuous and beneficial microorganisms, while retaining the ability to respond appropriately to undesirable microbes or microbial products and preventing their translocation to more sterile body compartments. Various components contribute to antimicrobial defenses in the intestine. The mucus layer(s), antimicrobial peptides and IgA provide the first line of defense, and seek to trap and facilitate the removal of invading microbes...
April 29, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685874/impact-of-oral-side-effects-from-conditioning-therapy-before-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-protocol-for-a-multicenter-study
#12
Michael T Brennan, Bengt Hasséus, Allan J Hovan, Judith E Raber-Durlacher, Nicole Ma Blijlevens, Marie-Charlotte Huysmans, Karin Garming Legert, Jan-Erik Johansson, Charity G Moore, Inger von Bültzingslöwen
BACKGROUND: The oral cavity is a common site of complications related to the cytotoxic effect of high-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Considering our limited understanding of the burden of illness in the oral cavity from various cytotoxic therapies, it is difficult to produce evidence-based, preventive and management protocols. A prospective multicenter study is necessary to collect data on the burden of illness from various cytotoxic regimens. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this prospective international observational multicenter study in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients are to establish the nature, incidence and temporal relationship of oral complications related to conditioning regimens (chemotherapy with or without total body irradiation), stem cell transplantation and the immunologic reactions (mainly graft-vs-host-disease) that may follow, and to determine what subjective and objective oral complications related to treatment can predict negative clinical and economic outcomes and reduced quality of life...
April 23, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685024/oral-lichen-planus
#13
L Giannetti, A M Dello Diago, E Spinas
Oral Lichen planus (OLP) is the most frequent mucosal localization of Lichen planus, affecting about 1-2% of the population. It is associated with skin lesions in 60-70% of cases, while occurring as the only manifestations in 15-25% of patients. Six clinical forms of OLP are identified: reticular (the most common), plaque, papular, atrophic, vesicles/bullous and erosive. The evolution is chronic, especially in the erosive form. A 1% incidence of squamous-cell carcinoma has been reported, thus considering OLP as a potential premalignant condition...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676074/immune-characterization-of-bone-marrow-derived-models-of-mucosal-and-connective-tissue-mast-cells
#14
Sara Benedé, Evan Cody, Charuta Agashe, M Cecilia Berin
PURPOSE: It is well appreciated that mast cells (MCs) demonstrate tissue-specific imprinting, with different biochemical and functional properties between connective tissue MCs (CTMCs) and mucosal MCs (MMCs). Although in vitro systems have been developed to model these different subsets, there has been limited investigation into the functional characteristics of the 2 major MC subsets. Here, we report the immunologic characterization of 2 MCs subsets developed in vitro from bone marrow progenitors modeling MMCs and CTMCs...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666981/an-early-life-mucosal-insult-temporarily-decreases-acute-oxazolone-induced-inflammation-in-mice
#15
Katja M Bendtsen, Peter Tougaard, Axel K Hansen
Inflammatory priming of immune cells in early life may optimize the response to a subsequent inflammatory challenge later in life. To prime the immune cells in the gut in vivo through a short inflammatory insult, we administered a low dose of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to 5-weeks-old BALB/c mice in the drinking water. We hypothesized that DSS-primed mice would show decreased inflammation and difference in immunological profiling, when subjected to presensitizing and oxazolone-induced colitis by rectal instillation at 9 weeks compared to non-DSS-primed control mice...
April 18, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662486/mucosal-involvement-in-bullous-pemphigoid-is-mostly-associated-with-disease-severity-and-to-absence-of-anti-bp230-autoantibody
#16
Ariane Clapé, Céline Muller, Grégory Gatouillat, Sébastien Le Jan, Coralie Barbe, Bach-Nga Pham, Frank Antonicelli, Philippe Bernard
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune bullous disease and typically affects the elderly. Binding of specific autoantibodies to BP180/230 hemidesmosomal components induces an inflammatory response leading to skin blister formation. Unusual manifestations of BP include additional mucous membrane involvement, without pathophysiological knowledge associated to the formation of these lesions. We here performed a prospective study on series of consecutive BP patients with ( n  = 77) and without ( n  = 18) mucosal involvements at baseline to further investigate why some BP patients display mucosal lesion and other not...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653414/new-insights-on-the-modulatory-roles-of-metformin-or-alpha-lipoic-acid-versus-their-combination-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-chronic-colitis-in-rats
#17
Fatma S Samman, Samah M Elaidy, Soha S Essawy, Mohammad S Hassan
BACKGROUND: Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis is the most widely used model that resembles ulcerative colitis (UC) in human with challenging chronic mechanistic oxidative stress-inflammatory/immunological cascades. In models of acute colitis, reduction of oxidative stress and inflammatory burdens beside manipulation of many transcriptional factors were achieved by metformin or alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA). Currently, in vivo DSS-induced chronic colitis was conducted and the possible therapeutic roles of metformin and/or α-LA were explored...
November 24, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625076/lymphatic-cannulation-models-in-sheep-recent-advances-for-immunological-and-biomedical-research
#18
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Washington, Stuart R Barber, Christina M Murray, Helen M S Davies, Wayne G Kimpton, Hung-Hsun Yen
Lymphatic cannulation models are useful tools for studying the immunobiology of the lymphatic system and the immunopathology of specific tissues in diseases. Sheep cannulations have been used extensively, as models for human physiology, fetal and neonatal development, human diseases, and for studies of ruminant pathobiology. The development of new and improved cannulation techniques in recent years has meant that difficult to access sites, such as mucosal associated tissues, are now more readily available to researchers...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624615/efficacy-and-synergy-of-live-attenuated-and-inactivated-influenza-vaccines-in-young-chickens
#19
Hyesun Jang, Mohamed Elaish, Mahesh Kc, Michael C Abundo, Amir Ghorbani, John M Ngunjiri, Chang-Won Lee
Outbreaks of novel highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been reported in poultry species in the United States since 2014. These outbreaks have proven the limitations of biosecurity control programs, and new tools are needed to reinforce the current avian influenza control arsenal. Some enzootic countries have implemented inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in their control programs, but there are serious concerns that a long-term use of IIV without eradication may result in the selection of novel antigenically divergent strains...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623674/current-state-of-knowledge-on-implications-of-gut-microbiome-for-surgical-conditions
#20
Edmund B Chen, Cori Cason, Jack A Gilbert, Karen J Ho
The role of the microbiome in human health has become a central tenant of current medical research, infiltrating a diverse disciplinary base whereby microbiology, computer science, ecology, gastroenterology, immunology, neurophysiology and psychology, metabolism, and cardiovascular medicine all intersect. Traditionally, commensal gut microbiota have been assumed to play a significant role only in the metabolic processing of dietary nutrients and host metabolites, the fortification of gut epithelial barrier function, and the development of mucosal immunity...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
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