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Mucosal immunology.

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Tetanus is an acute specific infection caused by obligate anaerobes, which is still a serious public health problem. Tetanus bacterium is an obligate anaerobic bacterium, widely distributed in nature, which can exist in dust, soil, human or animal excrement. The bacteria invade the body primarily through the skin or mucosal wounds, and most commonly in trauma and burn patients, unclean newborns, and unsafe surgical instruments. Exotoxin produced by tetanus bacteria can cause temporary changes in the central nervous system, manifested as systemic skeletal muscle persistence and paroxysmal spasm, severe cases of laryngospasm, asphyxia, lung infections and organ failure, which is a very serious and potentially fatal disease...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Michael Schörghuber, Sonja Fruhwald
Nutritional management is a cornerstone of therapy for patients who are critically ill. Data show that enteral nutrition is better than parenteral nutrition with regard to the morbidity of critcally ill patients, especially for infectious complications. These findings suggest that feeding patients enterally has other beneficial effects besides delivering nutrients. In the absence of enteral nutrition, the mucosal architecture changes distinctly, leading to an impairment in function of the gastrointestinal barrier...
April 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Yafei Duan, Yun Wang, Jiasong Zhang, Qingsong Liu, Xian Ding
The shrimp intestine barrier serves as the first line of the host defense against pathogen infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, which known as endotoxin and induce the intestine inflammation. In this study, the acute toxicity effects of LPS injection on the morphology, digestive enzymes and immunological responses of intestine from Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. HE stain showed that LPS injection damaged the intestine connective and epithelium tissue...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Bani Ahluwalia, Luiza Moraes, Maria K Magnusson, Lena Öhman
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with a multifactorial pathophysiology. Full comprehension of IBD pathology is still out of reach and, therefore, treatment is far from ideal. Nevertheless, components involved in IBD pathogenesis including environmental, genetic, microbial, and immunological factors are continuously being investigated and the improved knowledge contributes to the development of new therapies. In this article we review the aspects of the immunopathogenesis of IBD, with focus on mucosal immunity, and discuss mechanisms of action for current and emerging biological therapies...
March 9, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Peter Hart, Alastair Copland, Gil Reynolds Diogo, Shane Harris, Ralf Spallek, Wulf Oehlmann, Mahavir Singh, Juan Basile, Martin Rottenberg, Matthew John Paul, Rajko Reljic
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease, and the current vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is inadequate. Nanoparticles (NPs) are an emerging vaccine technology, with recent successes in oncology and infectious diseases. NPs have been exploited as antigen delivery systems and also for their adjuvantic properties. However, the mechanisms underlying their immunological activity remain obscure. Here, we developed a novel mucosal TB vaccine (Nano-FP1) based upon yellow carnauba wax NPs (YC-NPs), coated with a fusion protein consisting of three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens: Acr, Ag85B, and HBHA...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Giulia Malaguarnera, Roberto Madeddu, Vito Emanuele Catania, Gaetano Bertino, Luca Morelli, Rosario Emanuele Perrotta, Filippo Drago, Michele Malaguarnera, Saverio Latteri
Anorectal melanoma is an uncommon and aggressive mucosal melanocytic malignancy. Due to its rarity, the pre-operative diagnosis remains difficult. The first symptoms are non-specific such as anal bleeding, anal mass or pain. Although anorectal melanoma carries a poor prognosis; optimal therapeutics strategies are unclear. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment. The optimal surgical procedure for primary tumours is controversial and can vary from wide local excision or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) to an abdomino-perineal resection...
February 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Chun-Pin Chiang, Julia Yu-Fong Chang, Yi-Ping Wang, Yu-Hsueh Wu, Shin-Yu Lu, Andy Sun
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal disease that occurs more frequently in middle-aged and elderly female patients. Previous studies indicate that OLP is a T-cell dysfunction-induced localized autoimmune disease. Clinically, six types of OLP, namely reticular, papular, plaque-like, atrophic/erosive, ulcerative, and bullous types, can be identified. OLP more commonly affects buccal mucosa, tongue, and gingiva. It always has a bilateral and symmetric distribution of the oral lesions...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Fabian J Bolte, Barbara Rehermann
The broadening field of microbiome research has led to a substantial reappraisal of the gut-liver axis and its role in chronic liver disease. The liver is a central immunologic organ that is continuously exposed to food and microbial-derived antigens from the gastrointestinal tract. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are enriched in the human liver and can be activated by inflammatory cytokines and microbial antigens. In chronic inflammatory liver disease, MAIT cells are depleted suggesting an impaired MAIT cell-dependent protection against bacterial infections...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Mohammad Khalil, Korina Alliger, Carl Weidinger, Cansu Yerinde, Stefan Wirtz, Christoph Becker, Matthias Agop Engel
Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are widely expressed in several tissues throughout the mammalian organism. Originally, TRP channel physiology was focusing on its fundamental meaning in sensory neuronal function. Today, it is known that activation of several TRP ion channels in peptidergic neurons does not only result in neuropeptide release and consecutive neurogenic inflammation. Growing evidence demonstrates functional extra-neuronal TRP channel expression in immune and epithelial cells with important implications for mucosal immunology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sonoko Tasaki, Tamaki Cho, Jun-Ichi Nagao, Shojiro Ikezaki, Yuka Narita, Ken-Ichi Arita-Morioka, Kanae Yasumatsu, Keita Toyoda, Hiroshi Kojima, Yoshihiko Tanaka
Candida albicans is a human commensal and causes opportunistic infections. Th17 cells provide resistance against mucosal infection with C. albicans; however, the determination of T cell antigens remains little known. Our final goal is to find out the effective T cell antigens of C. albicans responsible for immunotherapy against candidiasis. Here, we prepared some fractions including cytosol, membrane, and cell wall from each yeast and mycelial form-cell. Proteins derived from a membrane fraction of mycelial cells effectively induced differentiation of CD4+ T cells to IL-17A producing Th17 cells...
February 15, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Martin Trapecar, Shahzada Khan, Benjamin L Cohn, Frank Wu, Shomyseh Sanjabi
Determining the magnitude of local immune response during mucosal exposure to viral pathogens is critical to understanding the mechanism of viral pathogenesis. We previously showed that vaginal inoculation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) fails to induce a robust innate immune response in the lower female reproductive tract (FRT), allowing high titer viral replication and a delay in T-cell-mediated viral control. Despite this immunological delay, LCMV replication remained confined mainly to the FRT and the draining iliac lymph node...
February 19, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Remi Labetoulle, Stephane Paul, Xavier Roblin
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, such as Crohn's disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC), are widespread diseases (with an estimated 2.2 million Europeans affected), and even populations previously considered 'low risk' (such as Japan and India) are witnessing an increasing incidence. CD is a chronic, progressive immunologically driven disease, with an evolution characterized by succession of periods of progression and remission. New physiopathological pathways are continuously being discovered, the more we understand about how the disease appears and progresses, the more targets become available for the development of novel therapies...
February 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Jordan Z Zhou, Sing Sing Way, Kang Chen
Along with the maintenance of symbiotic mutualism with commensal microbes and protection against invasive infections common to all mucosal barrier tissues, female reproductive tissues have additional, unique tasks that include dynamic cyclic cellular turnover in menstruation and immunological tolerance to genetically foreign fetal antigens in pregnancy. Here we review current knowledge on distinct features of the immune cells in female reproductive tissue with regard to antimicrobial host defense and adaptations to accommodate the fetus during pregnancy...
February 9, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Adrian M Piliponsky, Luigina Romani
Mast cells are hematopoietic progenitor-derived, granule-containing immune cells that are widely distributed in tissues that interact with the external environment, such as the skin and mucosal tissues. It is well-known that mast cells are significantly involved in IgE-mediated allergic reactions, but because of their location, it has also been long hypothesized that mast cells can act as sentinel cells that sense pathogens and initiate protective immune responses. Using mast cell or mast cell protease-deficient murine models, recent studies by our groups and others indicate that mast cells have pleiotropic regulatory roles in immunological responses against pathogens...
March 2018: Immunological Reviews
Y Shi, C He, C Ma, T Yu, Y Cong, W Cai, Z Liu
Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanisms involved are still largely unknown. Our results demonstrated that SNIP1 was markedly decreased in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) from IBD patients compared with healthy controls. Impaired expression of SNIP1 caused a significant decrease of transepithelial electrical resistance but an increase of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran flux in Caco-2 monolayers, whereas overexpression of SNIP1 reversed such effects...
November 8, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
Carla Yoko Tanikawa de Andrade, Isabel Yamanaka, Laís S Schlichta, Sabrina Karim Silva, Guilherme F Picheth, Luiz Felipe Caron, Juliana de Moura, Rilton Alves de Freitas, Larissa Magalhães Alvarenga
To propose a novel modeling of aflatoxin immunization and surrogate toxin conjugate from AFB1 vaccines, an immunogen based on the mimotope, (i.e. a peptide-displayed phage that mimics aflatoxins epitope without toxin hazards) was designed. The recombinant phage 3P30 was identified by phage display technology and exhibited the ability to bind, dose dependent, specifically to its cognate target - anti-AFB1 antibody. In immunization assay, the phage-displayed mimotope and its peptide chemically synthesized were able to induce specific anti-AFB1 antibodies, indicating the proof of concept for aflatoxin mimicry...
April 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Qiucheng Lei, Jingcheng Bi, Huanwei Chen, Feng Tian, Xuejin Gao, Ning Li, Xinying Wang
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with increased infectious risks due to impaired intestinal immunity. Although glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) enhances the gut barrier function, it is uncertain whether it improves mucosal immunologic barrier function. We hypothesized that injecting the PN mouse model with GLP-2 improved innate and acquired immunity, and prevented bacterial translocation. Forty-eight hours after venous cannulation, male Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into 3 groups based on their diet: chow with saline (n = 10), PN (n = 9), or PN + GLP-2 (30 μg bid per mouse, n = 10) provided for 5 days...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
Qinchen Li, Xinxin Hu, Yanhan Xuan, Jianghua Ying, Yujia Fei, Jielu Rong, Yong Zhang, Jian Zhang, Chunyan Liu, Zheng Liu
Gastric ulcers (GUs) are common pathologies that affect many people around the world. Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of GUs; however, there are still lack of effective drugs for the prevention or therapy of GUs. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects and possible mechanisms of kaempferol (KAE) against acute ethanol-induced lesions to the gastric mucosa in mice. Fasted mice were orally given vehicle (0.9% saline), omeprazole (20 mg/kg), or KAE (40, 80, or 160 mg/kg) for 1 h in different experimental sets prior to the establishment of the GU model by challenge with absolute ethanol (10 ml/kg)...
February 3, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
Naoko Shibata, Jun Kunisawa, Koji Hosomi, Yukari Fujimoto, Keisuke Mizote, Naohiro Kitayama, Atsushi Shimoyama, Hitomi Mimuro, Shintaro Sato, Natsuko Kishishita, Ken J Ishii, Koichi Fukase, Hiroshi Kiyono
Alcaligenes are opportunistic commensal bacteria that reside in gut-associated lymphoid tissues such as Peyer's patches (PPs); however, how they create and maintain their homeostatic environment, without inducing an excessive inflammatory response remained unclear. We show here that Alcaligenes-derived lipopolysaccharide (Alcaligenes LPS) acts as a weak agonist of toll-like receptor 4 and promotes IL-6 production from dendritic cells, which consequently enhances IgA production. The inflammatory activity of Alcaligenes LPS was weaker than that of Escherichia coli-derived LPS and therefore no excessive inflammation was induced by Alcaligenes LPS in vitro or in vivo...
February 7, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
A Kalinowski, B T Galen, I F Ueki, Y Sun, A Mulenos, A Osafo-Addo, B Clark, J Joerns, W Liu, J A Nadel, C S Dela Cruz, J L Koff
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) persists as a significant human pathogen that continues to contribute to morbidity and mortality. In children, RSV is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections, and in adults RSV causes pneumonia and contributes to exacerbations of chronic lung diseases. RSV induces airway epithelial inflammation by activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a tyrosine kinase receptor. Recently, EGFR inhibition was shown to decrease RSV infection, but the mechanism(s) for this effect are not known...
February 7, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
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