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Guidelines methodology

Bent Egberg Mikkelsen, Rachel Novotny, Joel Gittelsohn
There is increasing interest in integrated and coordinated programs that intervene in multiple community settings/institutions at the same time and involve policy and system changes. The purpose of the paper is to analyse three comparable cases of Multi Level, Multi Component intervention programs (ML-MC) from across the world in order to give recommendations for research, policy and practice in this field. Through the comparison of three cases: Health and Local Community (SoL-program), Children's Healthy Living (CHL) and B'More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK), this paper examines the potential of ML-MC community-based public health nutrition interventions to create sustainable change...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
John F Strang, Haley Meagher, Lauren Kenworthy, Annelou L C de Vries, Edgardo Menvielle, Scott Leibowitz, Aron Janssen, Peggy Cohen-Kettenis, Daniel E Shumer, Laura Edwards-Leeper, Richard R Pleak, Norman Spack, Dan H Karasic, Herbert Schreier, Anouk Balleur, Amy Tishelman, Diane Ehrensaft, Leslie Rodnan, Emily S Kuschner, Francie Mandel, Antonia Caretto, Hal C Lewis, Laura G Anthony
Evidence indicates an overrepresentation of youth with co-occurring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and gender dysphoria (GD). The clinical assessment and treatment of adolescents with this co-occurrence is often complex, related to the developmental aspects of ASD. There are no guidelines for clinical care when ASD and GD co-occur; however, there are clinicians and researchers experienced in this co-occurrence. This study develops initial clinical consensus guidelines for the assessment and care of adolescents with co-occurring ASD and GD, from the best clinical practices of current experts in the field...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Radu Hristu, Stefan G Stanciu, Denis E Tranca, George A Stanciu
Imaging tissue samples by polarization-resolved second harmonic generation microscopy provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into collagen organization in a label-free manner. Polarization-resolved second harmonic generation microscopy goes beyond simple intensity-based imaging by adding the laser beam polarization component and applying different quantitative metrics such as the anisotropy factor. It thus provides valuable information on collagen arrangement not available with intensity measurements alone...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Alex Y C Tai, Marion Easton, Jess Encena, Jessica Rotty, Mary Valcanis, Benjamin P Howden, Simon Slota-Kan, Joy Gregory
OBJECTIVE: To review the national case definition for shigellosis following the introduction of culture independent diagnostic testing by clinical laboratories and provide evidence to reform jurisdictional public health practices for the management shigellosis., . METHODS: A review of all Australian jurisdictional public health guidelines for shigellosis was conducted. Victorian 2014 shigellosis data were analysed: demographics and risk factors for cases identified by conventional culture or culture-independent diagnostic methods were described...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Lijing Xin, Ivan Tkáč
Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) is a noninvasive tool for measuring in vivo neurochemical information in animal and human brains. With the increase of magnetic field strength, whereas localized (1)H-MRS benefits from higher sensitivity and spectral dispersion, it is challenged by increased spatial inhomogeneity of the B0 and B1 fields, larger chemical shift displacement error, and shortened T2 relaxation times of metabolites. Advanced localized (1)H-MRS methodologies developed for high magnetic fields have shown promising results and allow the measurement of neurochemical profiles with up to 19 brain metabolites, including less-abundant metabolites, such as glutathione, glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid and ascorbate...
October 20, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
Riaz A Agha, Alexander J Fowler, Shivanchan Rajmohan, Ishani Barai, Dennis P Orgill
INTRODUCTION: Case series have been a long held tradition within the surgical literature and are still frequently published. Reporting guidelines can improve transparency and reporting quality. No guideline exists for reporting case series and our recent systematic review highlights key data being missed from such reports. Our objective was to develop reporting guidelines for surgical case series. METHODS: A Delphi consensus exercise was conducted to determine items to include in the reporting guideline...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
Zainab Khan, Jordan Milko, Munir Iqbal, Moness Masri, David R P Almeida
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the power of unpaired t tests in prospective, randomized controlled trials when these tests failed to detect a statistically significant difference and to determine the frequency of type II errors. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We examined all prospective, randomized controlled trials published between 2010 and 2012 in 4 major ophthalmology journals (Archives of Ophthalmology, British Journal of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmology, and American Journal of Ophthalmology)...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Emma Nicholson, Tara Murphy, Philip Larkin, Charles Normand, Suzanne Guerin
BACKGROUND: Research networks that facilitate collaborative research are increasing both regionally and globally and such collaborations contribute greatly to knowledge transfer particularly in health research. The Palliative Care Research Network is an Irish-based network that seeks to create opportunities and engender a collaborative environment to encourage innovative research that is relevant for policy and practice. The current review outlines a methodology to identify cross-cutting messages to identify how dissemination outputs can be optimized to ensure that key messages from this research reaches all knowledge users...
October 21, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Britta Kristina Ischebeck, Jurryt de Vries, Jos N Van der Geest, Malou Janssen, Jan Paul Van Wingerden, Gert Jan Kleinrensink, Maarten A Frens
BACKGROUND: Many people with Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) report problems with vision, some of which may be due to impaired eye movements. Better understanding of such impaired eye movements could improve diagnostics and treatment strategies. This systematic review surveys the current evidence on changes in eye movements of patients with WAD and explains how the oculomotor system is tested. METHODS: Nine electronic data bases were searched for relevant articles from inception until September 2015...
October 21, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Lucy Handscomb, Deborah A Hall, Gillian W Shorter, Derek J Hoare
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe data collection considerations, methods, and response rates for a survey available both online and on paper. Methodological issues in the design of online data collection, and advantages and disadvantages of different data collection methods are discussed. Method: A survey was compiled that included 9 full or partial clinical questionnaires designed to measure different components relevant to tinnitus distress...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Derek Richards
Data sourcesPubMed Central, CINAHL, Embase and reference lists of identified articles.Study selectionObservational and experimental studies published in English where breastfeeding was the exposure and development of caries was the outcome of interest were considered. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusionData extraction and synthesisStudy quality was assessed independently by two researchers using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS). Key data items, exposure and outcome definitions and effect estimates (odds ratios (OR), relative risks, prevalence ratios) with 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) were abstracted where available for inclusion in a meta-analysis...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Sven Reuter, Andreas B Imhoff, Frank Martetschläger
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature for the impact of rotator cuff tear (RCT) surgery on postoperative sporting activity in professional and recreational athletes. METHODS: To identify any published clinical study on return to sports data for athletes following rotator cuff surgery a systematic search in literature was conducted. Inclusion criteria were partial- and full-thickness rotator cuff tears and any open or arthroscopic RCT surgery in sports participating people...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Simon Sawyer, Jan Coles, Angela Williams, Brett Williams
CONTEXT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. Numerous health organisations have called for increased education for health care practitioners who encounter IPV patients and the first clinical guidelines for health services responding to IPV were recently published. This renewed focus has created a need to examine the current evidence for IPV education so that it may inform the next generation of educational interventions...
November 2016: Medical Education
Fahad M Al-Hameed, Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Mohamed A Abdelaal, Ali Alaklabi, Ebtisam Bakhsh, Yousef A Alomi, Mohammad Al Baik, Salah Aldahan, Holger Schünemann, Jan Brozek, Wojtek Wiercioch, Andrea J Darzi, Reem Waziry, Elie A Akl
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) acquired during hospitalization is common, yet preventable by the proper implementation of thromboprophylaxis which remains to be underutilized worldwide. As a result of an initiative by the Saudi Ministry of Health to improve medical practices in the country, an expert panel led by the Saudi Association for Venous Thrombo Embolism (SAVTE; a subsidiary of the Saudi Thoracic Society) with the methodological guidance of the McMaster University Guideline working group, produced this clinical practice guideline to assist healthcare providers in VTE prevention...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Jiang Li, Kai Su, Fang Li, Wei Tang, Yao Huang, Le Wang, Huiyao Huang, Jufang Shi, Min Dai
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the most common malignancy and screening can decrease the mortality. High quality screening guideline is necessary and important for effective work. Our study is to review and evaluate the basic characteristics and methodology quality of the current global lung cancer screening guidelines so as to provide useful information for domestic study in the future. METHODS: Electronic searches were done in English and Chinese databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, and some cancer official websites...
October 20, 2016: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
S P Pfeifer
Sequencing has revolutionized biology by permitting the analysis of genomic variation at an unprecedented resolution. High-throughput sequencing is fast and inexpensive, making it accessible for a wide range of research topics. However, the produced data contain subtle but complex types of errors, biases and uncertainties that impose several statistical and computational challenges to the reliable detection of variants. To tap the full potential of high-throughput sequencing, a thorough understanding of the data produced as well as the available methodologies is required...
October 19, 2016: Heredity
Eun Sook Kim, Robert F Dedrick, Chunhua Cao, John M Ferron
We provide reporting guidelines for multilevel factor analysis (MFA) and use these guidelines to systematically review 72 MFA applications in journals across a range of disciplines (e.g., education, health/nursing, management, and psychology) published between 1994 and 2014. Results are organized in terms of the (a) characteristics of the MFA application (e.g., construct measured), (b) purpose (e.g., measurement validation), (c) data source (e.g., number of cases at Level 1 and Level 2), (d) statistical approach (e...
October 18, 2016: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Paula Schaiquevich, Paula Taich, Natalia Riva, Francisco Leone, Nora Paternoster, Gabriel Mato, Paulo Cáceres Guido
Objective Determine the status of analytical laboratories that quantify immunosuppressants in transplant patients who are under therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for these drugs in Argentina in order to identify potential perfectible areas for action. Methods A survey of the clinical and analytical TDM centers in Argentina was conducted between September 2013 and November 2014 under the direction of the Garrahan Hospital Clinical Pharmacokinetics Unit and the National Unified Central Institute for Ablation and Implant Coordination...
March 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Ernesto Schiffrin
Hypertension has been defined by the levels of BP above which lowering BP will reduce the cardiovascular risk associated with elevated BP. This level has been classically 140/90 mmHg on the basis of actuarial data from the insurance industry. However, we now know that cardiovascular risk rises progressively from levels as low as 115/75 mmHg upward with a doubling of the incidence of both coronary heart disease and stroke for every 20/10-mmHg increment of BP. In uncomplicated hypertension without cardiovascular risk factors or target organ damage, there is little randomized clinical trial evidence that lowering SBP of <160 mmHg reduces cardiovascular risk...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Francesco Cappuccio
The evidence. Salt (i.e. sodium chloride) is causally related to blood pressure (BP). The higher the salt intake, the higher the BP, an effect seen since birth. A small and sustained reduction in salt intake causes a fall in BP. The evidence from controlled studies, small and large, short and long, all agree on the following: (1) salt intake is one of the major determinants of BP in populations and individuals; (2) a reduction in salt intake causes a dose-dependent reduction in BP - the lower the salt the lower the BP; (3) the effect is seen in both sexes, in people of all ages and ethnic groups, and with all starting BPs...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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