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Guidelines methodology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914898/conflict-of-evidence-resolving-discrepancies-when-findings-from-randomized-controlled-trials-and-meta-analyses-disagree
#1
REVIEW
Richard J Sylvester, Steven E Canfield, Thomas B L Lam, Lorenzo Marconi, Steven MacLennan, Yuhong Yuan, Graeme MacLennan, John Norrie, Muhammad Imran Omar, Harman M Bruins, Virginia Hernández, Karin Plass, Hendrik Van Poppel, James N'Dow
CONTEXT: Clinicians and treatment guideline developers are faced with a dilemma when the results of a new, large, well-conducted randomized controlled trial (RCT) are in direct conflict with the results of a previous systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis (MA). OBJECTIVE: To explore and discuss possible reasons for disagreement in results from SRs/MAs and RCTs and to provide guidance to clinicians and guideline developers for making well-informed treatment decisions and recommendations in the face of conflicting data...
November 30, 2016: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914601/effects-of-aquatic-exercise-on-muscle-strength-and-functional-performance-of-individuals-with-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review
#2
Fernanda de Mattos, Neiva Leite, Arthur Pitta, Paulo Cesar Barauce Bento
Water-based exercises are recommended for people with osteoarthritis (OA), due to the beneficial effects on physical function, quality of life and symptom reduction. However, the effects on muscle strength are still controversial. The aim of this review was to assess and compare the effects of aquatic exercise programs on muscle strength and physical function in people with OA. A systematic search was performed at Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Clinical trials with interventions involving aquatic exercises for individuals with OA were included...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913784/the-effectiveness-of-the-bone-bridge-transtibial-amputation-technique-a-systematic-review-of-high-quality-evidence
#3
Jason T Kahle, M Jason Highsmith, John Kenney, Tim Ruth, Paul A Lunseth, Janos Ertl
BACKGROUND: This literature review was undertaken to determine if commonly held views about the benefits of a bone bridge technique are supported by the literature. METHODS: Four databases were searched for articles pertaining to surgical strategies specific to a bone bridge technique of the transtibial amputee. A total of 35 articles were identified as potential articles. Authors included methodology that was applied to separate topics. Following identification, articles were excluded if they were determined to be low quality evidence or not pertinent...
December 1, 2016: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912964/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-herbal-formula-buzhong-yiqi-tang-for-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
REVIEW
Yuanbin Chen, Johannah Linda Shergis, Lei Wu, Xuhua Yu, Qigang Zeng, Yinji Xu, Xinfeng Guo, Anthony Lin Zhang, Charlie Changli Xue, Lin Lin
OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Buzhong Yiqi Tang (BZYQT) for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Three electronic English databases (PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL) and four Chinese databases (CBM, CNKI, CQVIP and WFMO) were searched from their inceptions until 30th June 2016. Participants were diagnosed with COPD according to the Chinese Medical Association's COPD diagnosis and treatment guidelines or Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), and were in stable stage...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912818/contemporary-root-canal-preparation-innovations-in-biomechanics
#5
REVIEW
Ove Andreas Peters, Maria Guiomar de Azevedo Bahia, Erika Sales Joviano Pereira
Root canal preparation must serve the goals of supporting debridement while exerting the least amount of structural damage. Toward those goals, several recent trends for innovation are noted: some changes in instrument design, several of them substantial, whereas others are rather discrete. In vitro testing is ongoing and, because of the lack of consistent methodology, gives only some guidelines for clinical use. Lastly, clinical outcome data are lacking for many current instruments; therefore, it is not clear if improvements in flexibility and resistance to fatigue will translate to better outcomes...
January 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910751/recent-advances-in-pharmacotherapeutic-paradigm-of-mild-to-recalcitrant-atopic-dermatitis
#6
Zahid Hussain, Shariza Sahudin, Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Endang Kumolosasi
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), T lymphocytes, and mast cells. The key factors responsible for the pathophysiology of this disease are immunological disorders and defects in epidermal barrier properties. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance, and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological disorder. Preventive interventions such as educational programs, avoidance of allergens, and exclusive care toward the skin could play a partial role in suppressing the symptoms...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909999/quality-assessment-of-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-integrative-medicine-in-china-a-systematic-review
#7
Sha Yao, Dang Wei, Yao-Long Chen, Qi Wang, Xiao-Qin Wang, Zhao Zeng, Hui Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of integrative medicine clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) published before 2014. METHODS: A systematic search of the scientific literature published before 2014 was conducted to select integrative medicine CPGs. Four major Chinese integrated databases and one guideline database were searched: the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), Wanfang Data, and the China Guideline Clearinghouse (CGC)...
December 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908833/pilot-evaluation-of-a-method-to-assess-prescribers-information-processing-of-medication-alerts
#8
Alissa L Russ, Brittany L Melton, Joanne K Daggy, Jason J Saleem
BACKGROUND: Prescribers commonly receive alerts during medication ordering. Prescribers work in a complex, time-pressured environment; to enhance the effectiveness of safety alerts, the effort needed to cognitively process these alerts should be minimized. Methods to evaluate the extent to which computerized alerts support prescribers' information processing are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To develop a methodological protocol to assess the extent to which alerts support prescribers' information processing at-a-glance; specifically, the incorporation of information into working memory...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908449/gender-differences-in-the-association-between-childhood-sexual-abuse-and-risky-sexual-behaviours-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Steve Kisely, Joemer Calderon Maravilla, Gail Williams, Jake Moses Najman
This meta-analytic review examines the association between childhood sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviours with sub-group analyses by gender. Systematic searches of electronic databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were performed using key terms. We used a priori criteria to include high quality studies and control for heterogeneities across eligible studies. The review was registered with PROSPERO and used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
November 28, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904996/-methodological-approaches-in-the-development-of-clinical-guidelines
#10
REVIEW
K Albrecht
Practical guidelines assist the clinical decision-making process in modern medicine. In rheumatology the number of practical guidelines dealing with diagnostics and therapy of rheumatic diseases is also constantly increasing. Methodological standards for guidelines ensure adequate development under consideration of precisely defined structures. Expert recommendations for action (S1) are distinguished from consensus (S2k) or evidence-based (S2e) as well as consensus and evidence-based (S3) guidelines. Levels of evidence categorize available studies by study design...
November 30, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903151/how-to-manage-the-obese-patient-with-cancer
#11
Andrew G Renehan, Michelle Harvie, Ramsey I Cutress, Michael Leitzmann, Tobias Pischon, Sacha Howell, Anthony Howell
Purpose Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) is common among patients with cancer. We reviewed management issues in the obese patient with cancer, focusing on how obesity influences treatment selection (including chemotherapy dosing), affects chemotherapy toxicity and surgical complications, and might be a treatment effect modifier. Methods The majority of evidence is drawn from observational studies and secondary analyses of trial data, typically analyzed in N × 3 BMI categories (normal weight, overweight, and obese) matrix structures...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900741/-from-evidence-to-health-policy-making-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention
#12
Nai-Ying Ko
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), in combination with traditional prevention strategies (such as condom use, voluntary HIV counseling and testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections), has been shown to effectively prevent HIV infection. As of September 2015, the World Health Organization recommends that people at substantial risk of HIV infection should be offered PrEP as an additional prevention choice, as part of comprehensive prevention. This article introduces how to apply a systematic review using the methodology of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to write clinical guidelines...
December 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899727/using-smartphones-to-collect-behavioral-data-in-psychological-science-opportunities-practical-considerations-and-challenges
#13
Gabriella M Harari, Nicholas D Lane, Rui Wang, Benjamin S Crosier, Andrew T Campbell, Samuel D Gosling
Smartphones now offer the promise of collecting behavioral data unobtrusively, in situ, as it unfolds in the course of daily life. Data can be collected from the onboard sensors and other phone logs embedded in today's off-the-shelf smartphone devices. These data permit fine-grained, continuous collection of people's social interactions (e.g., speaking rates in conversation, size of social groups, calls, and text messages), daily activities (e.g., physical activity and sleep), and mobility patterns (e.g., frequency and duration of time spent at various locations)...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898705/the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-facial-trustworthiness-processing-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#14
Sara Santos, Inês Almeida, Bárbara Oliveiros, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Faces play a key role in signaling social cues such as signals of trustworthiness. Although several studies identify the amygdala as a core brain region in social cognition, quantitative approaches evaluating its role are scarce. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to assess the role of the amygdala in the processing of facial trustworthiness, by analyzing its amplitude BOLD response polarity to untrustworthy versus trustworthy facial signals under fMRI tasks through a Meta-analysis of effect sizes (MA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897320/speech-and-language-interventions-for-infants-aged-0-to-2-years-at-high-risk-for-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Olena Chorna, Ellyn Hamm, Caitlin Cummings, Ashley Fetters, Nathalie L Maitre
AIM: We evaluated the level of evidence of speech, language, and communication interventions for infants at high-risk for, or with a diagnosis of, cerebral palsy (CP) from 0 to 2 years old. METHOD: We performed a systematic review of relevant terms. Articles were evaluated based on the level of methodological quality and evidence according to A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines...
November 29, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896728/inferring-trees
#16
Simon Whelan, David A Morrison
Molecular evolution can reveal the relationship between sets of homologous sequences and the patterns of change that occur during their evolution. An important aspect of these studies is the inference of a phylogenetic tree, which explicitly describes evolutionary relationships between homologous sequences. This chapter provides an introduction to evolutionary trees and how to infer them from sequence data using some commonly used inferential methodology. It focuses on statistical methods for inferring trees and how to assess the confidence one should have in any resulting tree, with a particular emphasis on the underlying assumptions of the methods and how they might affect the tree estimate...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895687/commissioning-and-quality-assurance-procedures-for-the-hdr-valencia-skin-applicators
#17
REVIEW
Domingo Granero, Cristian Candela-Juan, Facundo Ballester, Zoubir Ouhib, Javier Vijande, Jose Richart, Jose Perez-Calatayud
The Valencia applicators (Nucletron, an Elekta company, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) are cup-shaped tungsten applicators with a flattening filter used to collimate the radiation produced by a high-dose-rate (HDR) (192)Ir source, and provide a homogeneous absorbed dose at a given depth. This beam quality provides a good option for the treatment of skin lesions at shallow depth (3-4 mm). The user must perform commissioning and periodic testing of these applicators to guarantee the proper and safe delivery of the intended absorbed dose, as recommended in the standards in radiation oncology...
October 2016: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893648/quantity-and-quality-of-economic-evaluations-in-u-s-nursing-research-1997-2015-a-systematic-review
#18
Wendy A Cook, Megan L Morrison, Linda H Eaton, Brian R Theodore, Ardith Z Doorenbos
BACKGROUND: The United States has a complex healthcare system that is undergoing substantial reformations. There is a need for high-quality, economic evaluations of nursing practice. An updated review of completed economic evaluations relevant to the field of nursing within the U.S. healthcare system is timely and needed. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and describe the quantity and quality of economic evaluations in nursing-relevant research performed in the United States between 1997 and 2015...
November 23, 2016: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893154/withdrawn-occlusal-interventions-for-periodontitis-in-adults
#19
REVIEW
Paul Weston, Yuhaniz A Yaziz, David R Moles, Ian Needleman
BACKGROUND: Occlusal interventions may be used in adults with periodontitis. At present there is little consensus regarding the indications and effectiveness of occlusal interventions in periodontal patients. OBJECTIVES: To identify and analyse the evidence for the effect of occlusal interventions on adults who have periodontitis in relation to tooth loss, probing depths, clinical attachment level, adverse effects and patient-centred outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: The search was last conducted in April 2008...
November 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890023/progressive-muscle-relaxation-as-a-supportive-intervention-for-cancer-patients-undergoing-chemotherapy-a-systematic-review
#20
Panagiotis Pelekasis, Ifigeneia Matsouka, Anna Koumarianou
BACKGROUND: Many cancer patients use a wide variety of techniques to improve their physical and mental well-being, including relaxation therapy and, specifically, Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR). However, there is no strong evidence that supports the efficacy of this technique. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to review the evidence regarding the use of PMR as a supportive intervention for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapeutic treatment. METHOD: Six databases were electronically searched: AMED, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Scopus, and the Web of Science...
November 28, 2016: Palliative & Supportive Care
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