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hepatitis B antiviral therapy

Alessandra Maria Mont Alverne Pierre, Ana Cristina de Castro Amaral Feldner, Roberto José de Carvalho Filho, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida Lopes, Michele Soares Gomes Gouvea, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Claudia Teresa Carvente, Christini Takemi Emori, Genimari Arruda da Silva, Maria Lúcia Cardoso Gomes Ferraz
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus infection is an important cause of liver disease in hemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients. Hepatitis Delta virus is a defective virus transmitted by the same route of hepatitis B virus, which requires the helper function of hepatitis B virus. Data about hepatitis B virus/hepatitis delta virus coinfection are scarce and there are no studies regarding the coinfection among hemodialysis patients and renal transplant in our country. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis delta virus infection among hemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Alexandre Karras
Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that undergo reversible precipitation at low temperatures. They can induce systemic vasculitis, characterized by purpuric cutaneous lesions, arthritis, peripheral neuropathy, hypocomplementemia and glomerular disease. Renal pathology reveals membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, with particularly intense mesangial cell proliferation and infiltration by macrophages, associated with intracapillary thrombi. This renal disease presents as a nephritic syndrome, with heavy proteinuria, haematuria severe hypertension and rapidly progressive kidney failure that can lead to end-stage renal disease...
March 12, 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Amey Dilip Sonavane, Sanjiv Saigal, Abhishek Kathuria, Narendra S Choudhary, Neeraj Saraf
Extrahepatic syndromes are uncommon manifestations of acute and chronic hepatitis B. The pathogenesis likely involves an aberrant immunologic response to extrahepatic viral proteins. Antiviral therapy reduces the availability of these viral protein antigens and thus halts immune activation. Approximately 1% of all cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are associated with hepatitis B. Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a remarkably clinically diverse disorder with distinctive variants characterised by an immune-mediated attack to components of the peripheral nervous system...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Bangari Haldipur, Prudhvi Lal Bhukya, Vidya Arankalle, Kavita Lole
Molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease in HEV infection remain unclear. MicroRNAs are known to modulate viral pathogenesis either by directly altering viral gene expression or by enhancing cellular antiviral responses. Given the importance of microRNA-122 (miR-122) in liver pathobiology, we investigated possible role of miR-122 in HEV infection. In silico predictions using genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 HEV sequences showed that majority of genomes (203/222) harbor at least one miR-122/miR-122* target site...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Sofia R Bartlett, Penny Fox, Harris Cabatingan, Anissa Jaros, Carla Gorton, Rhondda Lewis, Eugene Priscott, Gregory J Dore, Darren B Russell
Micro-elimination of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection through rapid uptake of government-funded direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy within an Australian prison setting is demonstrated. During a 22 month period, 119 patients initiated treatment for chronic HCV infection, with HCV in-prison viremic prevalence declining from 12% to 1%.
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
O El-Sherif, Z G Jiang, E B Tapper, K C Huang, A Zhong, A Osinusi, M Charlton, M Manns, N H Afdhal, K Mukamal, J McHutchison, D M Brainard, N Terrault, M P Curry
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Treatment with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents can reduce model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Pugh-Turcotte (CPT) scores in patients with decompensated cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, many of these patients still die or require liver transplantation. We collected data on baseline features of patients and aimed to develop a scoring system to predict response to DAA therapy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 4 trials of the effects of sofosbuvir-based therapy in patients with HCV-associated decompensated cirrhosis (502 of CPT class B and 120 of CPT class C)...
March 10, 2018: Gastroenterology
James Fung, Ka-Shing Cheung, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, Lung-Yi Mak, Wai-Pan To, Wai-Kay Seto, Ching-Lung Lai, Man-Fung Yuen
The significance of hepatitis B e-antigen seroclearance (ESC) in the long term is not well defined. The current study aimed to determine the clinical outcomes, the factors and predictive scores for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance of a large cohort of patients undergoing ESC. Patients with documented ESC were followed up 3-6 monthly. Baseline characteristics and longitudinal laboratory results were recorded. Predictive scores for HCC (HCC-ESC) and HBsAg seroclearance (HBsAg-ESC) were derived from multivariate Cox regression models...
March 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Omid Aghajanzadeh, Mojtaba Sharifi, Shabnam Tashakori, Hassan Zohoor
A new robust adaptive controller is developed for the control of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection inside the body. The non-linear HBV model has three state variables: uninfected cells, infected cells and free viruses. A control law is designed for the antiviral therapy such that the volume of infected cells and the volume of free viruses are decreased to their desired values which are zero. One control input represents the efficiency of drug therapy in inhibiting viral production and the other control input represents the efficiency of drug therapy in blocking new infection...
April 2018: IET Systems Biology
Cynthuja Thilakanathan, Gabrielle Wark, Michael Maley, Scott Davison, Joseph Lawler, Aimei Lee, Nicholas Shackel, Vi Nguyen, Kathy Jackson, Anne Glass, Stephen A Locarnini, Miriam T Levy
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Anti-partum antiviral therapy in the setting of high viral load is recommended to prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B although recommended viral load cut-offs vary. Quantitative HBsAg has been proposed as an alternative screening strategy to identify high viral load in this setting. Guidelines suggest testing all infants for vaccine response and infection. We set out to re-examine viral load cut-offs; the predictive value of quantitative HBsAg and the need for follow-up infant testing in our cohort...
March 12, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, Natalie E Netzler, Jennifer H Lun, Jason M Mackenzie, Peter A White
Norovirus infections are a significant health and economic burden globally, accounting for hundreds of millions of cases of acute gastroenteritis every year. In the absence of an approved norovirus vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop antivirals to treat chronic infections, and provide prophylactic therapy to limit viral spread during epidemics and pandemics. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been explored widely for their antiviral potential and several are progressing through clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and as adjuvants for norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Claudia M Espinosa, Ravi Jhaveri
Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus have received a significant amount of attention in recent years, and both viruses share a significant amount of similarities with one another beyond just that they both primarily target the liver. In recent years, cases of both infections have been fueled by a nationwide epidemic of injection drug use. Most relevant to this audience, they are both transmitted from mother to child. The increased cases in young adults combined with mother to child transmission translate into more exposed infants that will need to be managed and followed...
March 8, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Gang Huang, Peng-Peng Li, Wan Yee Lau, Ze-Ya Pan, Ling-Hao Zhao, Zhen-Guang Wang, Meng-Chao Wang, Wei-Ping Zhou
BACKGROUND: Despite antiviral treatment has been shown to reduce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after curative treatment for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC in patients with high preoperative HBV-DNA levels, it is still unclear whether antiviral therapy is useful in reducing recurrence in patients with low preoperative HBV-DNA levels. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 200 patients who underwent curative resection for HCC with low baseline HBV-DNA levels were randomly assigned to receive preemptive antiviral therapy or not...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Stanislas Pol, Olivier Marion, Anaïs Vallet-Pichard, Jean-François Meritet, Karine Sauné, Laurent Alric, Nassim Kamar
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting agents (DAAs) are highly efficient at treating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections after kidney transplantation. Although drug agencies have recently warned of the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation after patients have received DAAs, reports have discrepant results in HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative patients. PATIENTS: We report on three cases of HBV reactivation that were detected after achieving a DAA-associated sustained virological response in three kidney-transplant recipients initially HBsAg-negative...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Wei-Na Guo, Bin Zhu, Ling Ai, Dong-Liang Yang, Bao-Ju Wang
Even with an effective vaccine, an estimated 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. Current antiviral therapies, including interferon and nucleot(s)ide analogues, rarely cure chronic hepatitis B. Animal models are very crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B and developing new therapeutic drugs or strategies. HBV can only infect humans and chimpanzees, with the use of chimpanzees in HBV research strongly restricted. Thus, most advances in HBV research have been gained using mouse models with HBV replication or infection or models with HBV-related hepadnaviral infection...
January 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Tayibe Bal, Yusuf Onlen
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is known to be mostly prevalent in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients and OBI reactivation might be life-threatening in patients undergoing interferon (IFN)-free direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. As previous studies have revealed a relationship between OBI and non-response to IFN-based antiviral therapy, the aim of the current study was to determine if there was a higher prevalence of OBI in IFN non-responders than responders...
March 1, 2018: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
Walid S Ayoub, Paul Martin, Kalyan Ram Bhamidimarri
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains an important cause of liver disease and continues to present several unique challenges in organ transplantation despite the availability of an effective vaccine to prevent HBV infection and the introduction of oral therapy to treat HBV infection over 20 years ago. HBV recurrence following liver transplantation can now be prevented with antiviral therapy, although controversy persists as to whether immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin is also necessary. HBV reactivation following organ transplantation can occur even in recipients with absent hepatitis B surface antigen at the time of transplantation and remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality...
January 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Chau-Ting Yeh, Christopher Sung-Huan Yeh, Yu-De Chu, Yang-Jen Chiang
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus infection usually causes an acute and self-resolving hepatitis. In areas where chronic hepatitis B virus infection is prevalent, acute hepatitis E virus superinfection on chronic hepatitis B virus infection occurs sporadically. In recent years, however, chronic hepatitis E virus infection has been recognized in patients under immunosuppressant therapy. To the best of our knowledge, cases involving patients with chronic hepatitis E virus and hepatitis B virus dual infection have never been reported...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Jihane N Benhammou, Tien S Dong, Folasade P May, Jenna Kawamoto, Ram Dixit, Samuel Jackson, Vivek Dixit, Debika Bhattacharya, Steven B Han, Joseph R Pisegna
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease. HCV cure has been linked to improved patient outcomes. In the era of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), HCV cure has become the goal, as defined by sustained virological response 12 weeks (SVR12) after completion of therapy. Historically, African-Americans have had lower SVR12 rates compared to White people in the interferon era, which had been attributed to the high prevalence of non-CC interleukin 28B (IL28B) type. Less is known about the association between race/ethnicity and SVR12 in DAA-treated era...
April 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
B Wang, K Agarwal, D Joshi
Chronic hepatitis B infection is a global public health problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Persistent infection may evolve to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and hepatitis B-related liver disease is a common indication for liver transplantation. Patients with advanced liver disease should be treated with antiviral therapy which may result in clinical improvement. The management of patients after liver transplant then focuses on preventing hepatitis B recurrence in the graft...
January 2018: Frontline Gastroenterology
Nicole Allard, Jon Emery, Benjamin Cowie, John Furler
African-Australians have a high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and an increased risk of liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC) at a younger age than other affected groups living with CHB. The prevention of HCC-related mortality is possible with timely diagnosis of CHB, regular monitoring including liver cancer surveillance and appropriate treatment with antiviral therapy. Currently, little is known about how African-Australians living with CHB understand their condition, their risk of liver cancer and the need for regular monitoring...
February 27, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
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