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hepatitis B antiviral therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149205/kir-content-genotypes-associate-with-carriage-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-e-antigen-and-hbv-viral-load-in-gambians
#1
Louis-Marie Yindom, Maimuna Mendy, Christopher Bodimeade, Caroline Chambion, Peter Aka, Hilton C Whittle, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Robert Walton
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) causes over 800,000 deaths worldwide annually, mainly in low income countries, and incidence is rising rapidly in the developed world with the spread of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses. Natural Killer (NK) cells protect against viral infections and tumours by killing abnormal cells recognised by Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR). Thus genes and haplotypes encoding these receptors may be important in determining both outcome of initial hepatitis infection and subsequent chronic liver disease and tumour formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145453/the-antiviral-drug-tenofovir-an-inhibitor-of-pannexin-1-mediated-atp-release-prevents-liver-and-skin-fibrosis-by-downregulating-adenosine-levels-in-the-liver-and-skin
#2
Jessica L Feig, Aranzazu Mediero, Carmen Corciulo, Hailing Liu, Jin Zhang, Miguel Perez-Aso, Laura Picard, Tuere Wilder, Bruce Cronstein
BACKGROUND: Fibrosing diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, therefore, there is a need for safe and effective antifibrotic therapies. Adenosine, generated extracellularly by the dephosphorylation of adenine nucleotides, ligates specific receptors which play a critical role in development of hepatic and dermal fibrosis. Results of recent clinical trials indicate that tenofovir, a widely used antiviral agent, reverses hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143611/one-or-two-serological-assay-testing-strategy-for-diagnosis-of-hbv-and-hcv-infection-the-use-of-predictive-modelling
#3
John V Parry, Philippa Easterbrook, Anita R Sands
BACKGROUND: Initial serological testing for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is conducted using either rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) or laboratory-based enzyme immunoassays (EIA)s for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), typically on serum or plasma specimens and, for certain RDTs, capillary whole blood. WHO recommends the use of standardized testing strategies - defined as a sequence of one or more assays to maximize testing accuracy while simplifying the testing process and ideally minimizing cost...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141265/-hbv-infections-in-germany-health-care-costs-in-a-real-life-setting
#4
Jona Theodor Stahmeyer, Hans Becker, Anna Lena Orlemann, Christian Krauth, Michael P Manns, Heiner Wedemeyer
Background An estimated 500 000 people are infected with hepatitis B in Germany, inducing an enormous burden on infected patients and the health care system. The aim of our study was to estimate the real-life costs of treating hepatitis B and to analyze sociodemographic factors. Methods We conducted a retrospective, non-interventional, single-center study from 07/2009 to 12/2012. Information on health care delivery was extracted from patient records. Besides that, a questionnaire survey regarding sociodemographic parameters and quality of life of HBV-infected patients was performed...
November 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136329/follow-up-of-sustained-virologic-responders-with-hepatitis-c-and-advanced-liver-disease-after-interferon-ribavirin-free-treatment
#5
Karin Kozbial, Stephan Moser, Ramona Al-Zoairy, Remy Schwarzer, Christian Datz, Rudolf Stauber, Hermann Laferl, Michael Strasser, Sandra Beinhardt, Albert Friedrich Stättermayer, Michael Gschwantler, Heinz Zoller, Andreas Maieron, Ivo Graziadei, Michael Trauner, Petra Steindl-Munda, Harald Hofer, Peter Ferenci
BACKGROUND: The introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has increased sustained virological response (SVR) rates in patients with advanced liver disease and chronic hepatitis C(CHC)infection. At present, data on clinical outcome and long-term durability of viral eradication after successful DAA therapy are scarce. AIM: To evaluate the long-term success of viral eradication in patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis treated with DAAs. METHODS: Five hundred and fifty one patients with advanced fibrosis (n=158) or liver cirrhosis (CPS-A:317,CPS-B/C:76) and SVR after interferon and ribavirin-free DAA therapy treated between October 2013 and April 2016 were studied with a median follow-up of 65...
November 14, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133758/negative-correlation-of-serum-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-and-hepatitis-b-e-antigen-levels-with-the-severity-of-liver-inflammation-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#6
Lu Zhang, Ming-Hui Li, Wei-Hua Cao, Tian-Lin Qi, Yao Lu, Shu-Ling Wu, Hong-Xiao Hao, Ge Shen, Ru-Yu Liu, Lei-Ping Hu, Min Chang, Wen-Hao Hua, Shu-Jing Song, Gang Wan, Yao Xie
BACKGROUND: Estimating the grades of liver inflammation is critical in the determination of antiviral therapy in patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) with the liver inflammation grades in treatment-naïve patients with chronic HBV infection. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 584 treatment-naïve HBeAg-positive patients who underwent liver biopsy in Ditan Hospital from January 2008 to January 2016...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132759/hepatitis-b-in-sub-saharan-africa-strategies-to-achieve-the-2030-elimination-targets
#7
REVIEW
C Wendy Spearman, Mary Afihene, Reidwaan Ally, Betty Apica, Yaw Awuku, Lina Cunha, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Neliswa Gogela, Chris Kassianides, Michael Kew, Philip Lam, Olufunmilayo Lesi, Marie-Jeanne Lohouès-Kouacou, Papa Saliou Mbaye, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Betty Musau, Olusegun Ojo, John Rwegasha, Barbara Scholz, Abate B Shewaye, Christian Tzeuton, Mark W Sonderup
The WHO global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis, created in May, 2016, aims to achieve a 90% reduction in new cases of chronic hepatitis B and C and a 65% reduction in mortality due to hepatitis B and C by 2030. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, and despite the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination and effective antiviral therapy, the estimated overall seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen remains high at 6·1% (95% uncertainty interval 4·6-8·5). In this Series paper, we have reviewed the literature to examine the epidemiology, burden of liver disease, and elimination strategies of hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa...
December 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129708/efficacy-of-hepatitis-b-virus-ribonuclease-h-inhibitors-a-new-class-of-replication-antagonists-in-frg-human-liver-chimeric-mice
#8
Kelly R Long, Elena Lomonosova, Qilan Li, Nathan L Ponzar, Juan A Villa, Erin Touchette, Stephen Rapp, R Matt Liley, Ryan P Murelli, Alexandre Grigoryan, R Mark Buller, Lisa Wilson, John Bial, John E Sagartz, John E Tavis
Chronic hepatitis B virus infection cannot be cured by current therapies, so new treatments are urgently needed. We recently identified novel inhibitors of the hepatitis B virus ribonuclease H that suppress viral replication in cell culture. Here, we employed immunodeficient FRG KO mice whose livers had been engrafted with primary human hepatocytes to ask whether ribonuclease H inhibitors can suppress hepatitis B virus replication in vivo. Humanized FRG KO mice infected with hepatitis B virus were treated for two weeks with the ribonuclease H inhibitors #110, an α-hydroxytropolone, and #208, an N-hydroxypyridinedione...
November 9, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118562/obstetricians-and-gynecologists-knowledge-education-and-practices-regarding-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-pregnancy
#9
Bolin Niu, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Jonathan M Fenkel, Steven K Herrine
Background: In pregnant women with high viral loads, third-trimester initiation of antiviral agents can reduce the risk of vertical transmission. We aimed to assess obstetricians' and gynecologists' (OB-GYN) knowledge and clinical practice when treating pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods: All program directors (PDs) from 250 US OB-GYN residency programs were invited to anonymously complete an 18-item questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116050/real-world-evidence-for-nucleoside-nucleotide-analogues-in-a-5-year-multicentre-study-of-antiviral-naive-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-in-china-52-week-results
#10
Jidong Jia, Hong Tang, Qin Ning, Jiaji Jiang, Xiaoguang Dou, Mingxiang Zhang, Shuqin Zhang, Jia Shang, Wei Lu, Yinong Ye, Xin Wang, Mingshu Li, Jie Liu, Qingyan Bo, Wenzhong Tan
BACKGROUND: In China, the clinical management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is complicated by the use of various nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) regimens in treatment-naïve patients, including NUCs with low genetic barriers to resistance, with/without add-on therapy and de novo NUC combinations. This longitudinal observational study therefore investigated the real-world clinical management and efficacy of NUC therapy in treatment-naïve CHB patients in China. METHODS: Treatment-naïve CHB patients initiated on NUC therapy were enrolled from 63 hospitals in tier-2 Chinese cities...
November 8, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111272/novel-hbv-recombinants-between-genotypes-b-and-c-in-3-terminal-reverse-transcriptase-rt-sequences-are-associated-with-enhanced-viral-dna-load-higher-rt-point-mutation-rates-and-place-of-birth-among-chinese-patients
#11
Baoming Liu, Jing-Xian Yang, Ling Yan, Hui Zhuang, Tong Li
As one of the major global public health concerns, hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be divided into at least eight genotypes, which may be related to disease severity and treatment response. We previously demonstrated that genotypes B and C HBV, with distinct geographical distribution in China, had divergent genotype-dependent amino acid polymorphisms and variations in reverse transcriptase (RT) gene region, a target of antiviral therapy using nucleos(t)ide analogues. Recently recombination between HBV genotypes B and C was reported to occur in the RT region...
October 27, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098140/mpgn-and-mixed-cryoglobulinemia-in-a-patient-with-hepatitis-c-new-treatment-implications-and-renal-outcomes
#12
Shannon B Palombo, Eric C Wendel, Laura R Kidd, Farshid Yazdi, Mihran V Naljayan
. INTRODUCTION: The association of hepatitis C virus (HCV), cryoglobulinemia, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is well known. Treatment of underlying HCV infection has greatly improved in recent years with the introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAA), which have demonstrated curative sustained viral response (SVR) rates for select viral genotypes with the added benefit of less drug side effects. However, a mainstay of newer DAAs is sofosbuvir, which is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment...
2017: Clin Nephrol Case Stud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095292/effective-viral-suppression-is-necessary-to-reduce-hepatocellular-carcinoma-development-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-results-of-a-10-year-follow-up
#13
Wei Zhang, Xiaoming Wang, Yu Wang, Xinyan Zhao, Weijia Duan, Qianyi Wang, Xiaoning Wu, Yuanyuan Kong, Hong Ma, Hong You, Xiaojuan Ou, Jidong Jia
High viral load is an independent risk factor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Antiviral therapy can reduce but not eliminate the risk of HCC. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for HCC development in CHB patients during antiviral therapy.CHB patients with HBV DNA level ≥10 copies/mL, with or without compensated cirrhosis receiving adefovir were followed up every 6 months for 10 years (2004-2014). The primary endpoint was the development of HCC...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093313/profile-of-mutations-in-the-reverse-transcriptase-and-overlapping-surface-genes-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-indonesian-hbv-carriers
#14
Laura Navika Yamani, Yoshihiko Yano, Takako Utsumi, Widya Wasityastuti, Hanggoro Tri Rinonce, Dewiyani Indah Widasari, Juniastuti, Maria Inge Lusida, Soetjipto, Yoshitake Hayashi
Mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) region of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome are an important factor in reduced therapeutic effectiveness. However, the prevalence of these mutations in HBV strains isolated previously from Indonesia has not been systematically examined. Therefore, this study investigated the profile of mutations in the RT region and the associations of these mutations with amino acid changes in the surface protein in treatment-naïve Indonesian HBV carriers. Overall, 96 sequences of the full-length Indonesian HBV genome (genotype B, n=54; genotype C, n=42) were retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information...
October 31, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093232/treatment-response-monitoring-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-using-transient-elastography-and-aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio-index-apri
#15
Ignatius R Tenggara, C Rinaldi Lesmana, Rino A Gani
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is endemic in Indonesia and treatment response need to be monitored during and after antiviral therapy. Liver stiffness measurement and alanine aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) are noninvasive method to detect liver fibrosis available in Indonesia. However, little is known about their ability to evaluate treatment response in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in Indonesia. This study aimed to investigate liver stiffness changes by transient elastography (TE) and APRI before and after one-year oral antiviral treatment in CHB patients and the correlation between TE and APRI...
July 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082891/management-of-special-patient-groups-with-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-the-easl-2017-clinical-practice-guidelines
#16
Ramazan Idilman
The morbidity and mortality of hepatitis B virus-related liver disease are linked to the persistence of the hepatitis B virus replication. Viral suppression with antiviral therapy has been shown to provide clinical benefits. Several special groups of patients with hepatitis B virus infection require special attention. In this brief report, based on European Association for the Study of the Liver 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection, the current optimal management of special patient groups with hepatitis B virus infection is summarized...
October 30, 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082653/telbivudine-therapy-for-gravidas-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-and-patients-at-risk-of-renal-impairment
#17
REVIEW
J Liu, T Chen, Y Zhao
Hepatitis B virus infection is currently the most important cause of chronic viral hepatitis worldwide and is one of the most frequent causes of end-stage liver disease. With the international implementation of the hepatitis B vaccine and combined prophylaxis for infants born to HBsAg(+) mothers, the prevalence of hepatitis B has decreased remarkably. However, intra-uterine transmission has become a critical bottleneck for eliminating hepatitis B infection. The efficacy of nucleos(t)ide analogs on inhibiting hepatitis B replication has been widely confirmed, and the quality of life and the survival of individuals with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) have improved to a great degree...
November 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082652/long-term-outcome-of-telbivudine-versus-entecavir-in-treating-higher-viral-load-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-without-cirrhosis
#18
H-Y Pan, H-Y Pan, W-Y Song, W Zheng, Y-X Tong, D-H Yang, Y-N Dai, M-J Chen, M-S Wang, Y-C Huang, J-J Zhang, H-J Huang
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with higher hepatitis B virus (HBV) load (higher viral load [HVL], HBV DNA ≥1 × 10(7) copies/mL) require antiviral therapy, but data for evaluating the long-term outcome of this therapy with antiviral agents remain limited. We comparatively evaluated the efficacy and the safety of nucleoside analogues in 179 noncirrhotic CHB patients with HVL over 5 years. The HBeAg-positive (n = 104) or HBeAg-negative (n = 75) patients were treated consecutively with telbivudine (LdT, n = 88) or entecavir (ETV, n = 91) and evaluated for viral response, drug resistance and safety...
November 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080299/interpretation-of-liver-stiffness-measurement-based-approach-for-the-monitoring-of-hepatitis-b-patients-with-antiviral-therapy-a-2-year-prospective-study
#19
Xieer Liang, Qing Xie, Deming Tan, Qin Ning, Junqi Niu, Xuefan Bai, Shijun Chen, Jun Cheng, Yanyan Yu, Hao Wang, Min Xu, Guangfeng Shi, Mobin Wan, Xinyue Chen, Hong Tang, Jifang Sheng, Xiaoguang Dou, Junping Shi, Hong Ren, Maorong Wang, Hongfei Zhang, Zhiliang Gao, Chengwei Chen, Hong Ma, Yongpeng Chen, Fan Rong, Jian Sun, Jidong Jia, Jinlin Hou
Liver biopsy is not routinely performed in treated chronic hepatitis B. Liver stiffness measurement has been validated for non-invasive liver fibrosis assessment in pre-treatment chronic hepatitis B but has not been assessed for fibrosis monitoring during antiviral therapy. Liver stiffness was systemically monitored by Fibroscan(®) every 6 months in a cohort of patients with hepatitis B receiving antiviral therapy and compared with liver biopsies at baseline and week 104. A total of 534 hepatitis B e antigen positive treatment-naive patients receiving telbivudine based therapy with qualified liver stiffness measurement at baseline and week 104 were analyzed, 164 of which had adequate paired liver biopsies...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079285/a-novel-orally-available-small-molecule-that-inhibits-hepatitis-b-virus-expression
#20
Henrik Mueller, Steffen Wildum, Souphalone Luangsay, Johanna Walther, Anais Lopez, Philipp Tropberger, Giorgio Ottaviani, Wenzhe Lu, Neil John Parrott, Jitao David Zhang, Roland Schmucki, Tomas Racek, Jean-Christophe Hoflack, Erich Kueng, Floriane Point, Xue Zhou, Guido Steiner, Marc Lütgehetmann, Gianna Rapp, Tassilo Volz, Maura Dandri, Song Yang, John A T Young, Hassan Javanbakht
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The hallmarks of chronic HBV infection are a high viral load (HBV DNA) and even higher levels (>100-fold in excess of virions) of non-infectious membranous particles containing the tolerogenic viral S antigen (HBsAg). Currently, standard treatment effectively reduces viremia but only rarely results in a functional cure (defined as sustained HBsAg loss). There is an urgent need to identify novel therapies that reduce HBsAg levels and restore virus-specific immune responsiveness in patients...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
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