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hepatitis B antiviral therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211090/development-of-proteinuria-and-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis-during-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-hep-16-2474-r1
#1
Jonathan J Hogan, Mary Ann Lim, Matthew B Palmer, Roy D Bloom, Raymond T Chung, Meghan E Sise
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) presents as proteinuric kidney disease and is associated with poor long-term renal outcomes. Here we describe three patients with solid organ transplants and normal baseline kidney function who developed FSGS during direct acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
February 17, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209492/reproductive-considerations-in-the-setting-of-chronic-viral-illness
#2
REVIEW
Brent M Hanson, Jessie A Dorais
Special considerations must be taken when patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, or Hepatitis C desire to achieve pregnancy. Patients with chronic viral illnesses desire children at rates similar to the general population, and options are available to decrease both vertical transmission and viral transmission between partners. Preconception counseling or consultation with fertility specialists is imperative in patients with HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C so that reproductive goals can be addressed and optimized...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197805/economic-analysis-and-budget-impact-of-tenofovir-and-entecavir-in-the-first-line-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-italy
#3
M Ruggeri, M Basile, S Coretti, C Drago, A Cicchetti
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B is a common, progressive disease, particularly when viral replication is detected. Oral antivirals can suppress viral replication and prevent or delay the development of cirrhosis and liver-related complications. The treatments of chronic hepatitis B cannot totally cure the disease but can prevent its progression to hepatocellular carcinoma, decreasing the levels of both morbidity and mortality. To date, there are several therapies indicated by the international guidelines as first-line treatments for the management of hepatitis B; two of the most effective are those based on either tenofovir or entecavir...
February 14, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195337/hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-hepatitis-b-and-c-coinfected-patients-treated-with-antiviral-agents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Guofeng Chen, Cheng Wang, Jing Chen, Dong Ji, Yudong Wang, Vanessa Wu, J Karlberg, George Lau
: There is an increased awareness of hepatitis B (HBV) reactivation in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients coinfected with HBV treated with pan-oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the rate of HBV reactivation in CHC patients coinfected with overt HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] positive) and occult HBV (HBsAg negative with positive HBV DNA) infection separately, treated with interferon (IFN)-based therapy to those with pan-oral DAAs...
February 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183162/management-of-antiviral-resistance-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#5
REVIEW
Young-Suk Lim
The primary goal of therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is to prevent liver disease progression. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance or seroconversion is regarded as an optimal endpoint to discontinue treatment. However, HBsAg seroclearance occurs very rarely with nucleos(t)ide analog (NUC) treatment, and long-term, almost indefinite, NUC treatment is required for the majority of patients. In patients with drug-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV), a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV), which is currently regarded as the strongest combination therapy against HBV, would be potentially safe to prevent the emergence of additional HBV resistance mutations...
February 13, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183144/rapid-deterioration-of-latent-hbv-hepatitis-during-cushing-disease-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-after-earthquake
#6
Ryosuke Tashiro, Yoshikazu Ogawa, Teiji Tominaga
Reactivation of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a risk in the 350 million HBV carriers worldwide. HBV reactivation may cause hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis, and fulminant hepatitis, and HBV reactivation accompanied with malignant tumor and/or chemotherapy is a critical problem for patients with chronic HBV infection. Multiple risk factors causing an immunosuppressive state can also induce HBV reactivation.We present a case of HBV reactivation during an immunosuppressive state caused by Cushing disease and physical and psychological stress after a disaster...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176616/different-courses-of-hepatitis-b-reinfection-after-renal-transplant-a-case-report
#7
Ozan Yegit, Erol Demir, Yasar Caliskan, Halil Yazici, Mehmet Sukru Sever
Hepatitis B surface antigen-positive allografts may be a source of transmission in patients who undergo renal transplantation. Treatment of hepatitis B virus infection with nucleoside/nucleotide analogs in kidney recipients who have hepatitis B virus infection or who have received transplants from hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donors improves long-term patient survival. Antiviral agents are administered as a preemptive or prophylactic therapy at the time of kidney transplantation, rather than as salvage treatment...
February 7, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165481/targeting-mitochondrial-dysfunction-can-restore-antiviral-activity-of-exhausted-hbv-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#8
Paola Fisicaro, Valeria Barili, Barbara Montanini, Greta Acerbi, Manuela Ferracin, Francesca Guerrieri, Debora Salerno, Carolina Boni, Marco Massari, M Cristina Cavallo, Glenda Grossi, Tiziana Giuberti, Pietro Lampertico, Gabriele Missale, Massimo Levrero, Simone Ottonello, Carlo Ferrari
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific CD8 T cells are functionally exhausted in chronic hepatitis B infection, and this condition can be corrected only partially through the modulation of inhibitory pathways, which suggests that a more complex molecular interplay underlies T cell exhaustion. To gain broader insight into this process and identify additional targets for the restoration of T cell function, we compared the transcriptome profiles of HBV-specific CD8 T cells from patients with acute and chronic disease with those of HBV-specific CD8 T cells from patients able to resolve HBV infection spontaneously and influenza (FLU)-specific CD8 T cells from healthy participants...
February 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161470/hepatocellular-carcinoma-decreases-the-chance-of-successful-hepatitis-c-virus-therapy-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#9
Stacey Prenner, Lisa B VanWagner, Steven L Flamm, Riad Salem, Robert J Lewandowski, Laura Kulik
BACKGROUND: The approval of all-oral direct acting antiviral (DAA) regimens for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has led to the expansion of therapy to include patients with cirrhosis who have hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Data on the use of DAA's in HCV+ patients with HCC is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of all oral-DAA regimens in HCV+ cirrhotic patients who have or had HCC compared to those without HCC. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all cirrhotic patients who were treated for HCV with DAA's at our institution between January 2014 and November 2015...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160426/short-course-tocilizumab-increases-risk-of-hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-prospective-clinical-observation
#10
Le-Feng Chen, Ying-Qian Mo, Jun Jing, Jian-Da Ma, Dong-Hui Zheng, Lie Dai
AIM: To investigate the impact of short-course tocilizumab (TCZ) on hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: RA patients with moderate to high disease activity, with at least one feature of poor prognosis and inadequate response to conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs) were recruited. Three consecutive doses of intravenous TCZ were given combined with csDMARDs. Liver function and HBV infection status were evaluated at baseline, weeks 4, 8 and 12...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152954/hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-patients-with-solid-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Jordan J Feld, Ronak Saluja, Judy Truong, Adam E Haynes, Kelvin K Chan
: 138 Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects over 250 million people worldwide. Most people with chronic HBV (HBsAg positive) have no signs or symptoms of infection. However, when exposed to immunosuppression they are at risk of HBV reactivation which can cause hepatitis, liver failure and death. The risk of HBV reactivation in patients receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors, the efficacy of antiviral prophylaxis, and the clinical impact of HBV reactivation in this setting are uncertain...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152568/apolipoprotein-a-inhibits-hepatitis-c-virus-entry-through-interaction-with-infectious-particles
#12
Catarina Oliveira, Carole Fournier, Véronique Descamps, Virginie Morel, Corey A Scipione, Rocco Romagnuolo, Marlys L Koschinsky, Agnès Boullier, Paulo Marcelo, Jean-Marc Domon, Etienne Brochot, Gilles Duverlie, Catherine Francois, Sandrine Castelain, Francois Helle
: The development of different cell culture models has greatly contributed to improve the knowledge of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle. However, it is still challenging to grow HCV clinical isolates in cell culture. This would open new perspectives to study HCV biology, including drug resistant variants emerging with new antiviral therapies. In this study we hypothesized that this hurdle could be due to the presence of inhibitory factors in patient serum. Combining polyethylene glycol precipitation, iodixanol gradient and size-exclusion chromatography, we obtained a purified fraction enriched in inhibitory factors from HCV seronegative sera...
February 2, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140702/antiviral-therapies-for-managing-viral-hepatitis-in-lymphoma-patients
#13
Michele Merli, Sara Rattotti, Manuel Gotti, Luca Arcaini
In patients with lymphoma the detection of positive hepatitis B or C viruses (HBV and HCV) serology involves crucial therapeutic consequences. In HBV-infected patients the serological profile of active (HBsAg-positive) or resolved (HBsAg-negative/anti-HBcAb-positive) infection is associated to differential risk of viral reactivation during rituximab-based therapy and require appropriate strategies of monitoring and of antiviral prophylaxis. In HCV-associated NHL patients consolidated data demonstrated that interferon (IFN)-based antiviral therapy (AT) is able to induce lymphoma regression strictly related to viral eradication, while preliminary data of the new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are very promising...
January 31, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139541/comparative-evaluation-of-long-term-monotherapies-combination-therapies-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-pilot-study
#14
Manjita Srivastava, Neha Singh, Vinod Kumar Dixit, Gopal Nath, Ashok Kumar Jain
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Reduction of viraemia in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection using nucleoside/nucleotide analogues reduces fatal liver disease-related events, but development of resistance in virus presents serious clinical challenge. Therefore, comparative evaluation of prolonged antiviral monotherapy and combination therapies was prospectively studied to assess their influence on viral suppression, rapidity of response, development of drug resistance and surfacing mutants in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131494/immunomodulation-by-hyperimmunoglobulins-after-solid-organ-transplantation-beyond-prevention-of-viral-infection
#15
REVIEW
Rogier van Gent, Herold J Metselaar, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Hyperimmunoglobulins are pharmaceutical formulations of human IgG which contain high titers of antibodies against specific viruses. They have been successfully used in solid organ transplantation (SOT) to prevent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. The introduction of effective and cheaper antiviral drugs has resulted in decreasing usage of hyperimmunoglobulins in SOT. However, it may still be attractive to combine antiviral drug therapy with hyperimmunoglobulins after SOT, as there is some evidence that hyperimmunoglobulins, similar to high doses of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIgs), might exert anti-inflammatory activity and thereby prevent immunological graft damage and improve graft and patient survival...
January 19, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130810/shift-in-disparities-in-hepatitis-c-treatment-from-interferon-to-daa-era-a-population-based-cohort-study
#16
Naveed Z Janjua, Nazrul Islam, Jason Wong, Eric M Yoshida, Alnoor Ramji, Hasina Samji, Zahid A Butt, Mei Chong, Darrel Cook, Maria Alvarez, Maryam Darvishian, Mark Tyndall, Mel Krajden
We evaluated the shift in the characteristics of people who received interferon-based Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments and those who received recently introduced direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort includes 1.5 million individuals tested for HCV, HIV, reported cases of hepatitis B, and active tuberculosis in BC from 1990-2013 linked to medical visits, hospitalization, cancer, prescription drugs and mortality data. This analysis included all patients who filled at least one prescription for HCV treatment until July 31, 2015...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128852/glecaprevir-and-pibrentasvir-for-12-weeks-for-hcv-genotype-1-infection-and-prior-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment
#17
Fred Poordad, Franco Felizarta, Armen Asatryan, Mark S Sulkowski, Robert W Reindollar, Charles S Landis, Stuart C Gordon, Steven L Flamm, Michael W Fried, David E Bernstein, Chih-Wei Lin, Ran Liu, Sandra S Lovell, Teresa I Ng, Jens Kort, Federico J Mensa
: Although direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have demonstrated high rates of sustained virologic response, virologic failure may still occur, potentially leading to the emergence of viral resistance, which can decrease the effectiveness of subsequent treatment. Treatment options for patients who failed previous DAA-containing regimens, particularly those with NS5A inhibitors, are limited, and remain an area of unmet medical need. This phase 2, open-label study (MAGELLAN-1) evaluated the efficacy and safety of glecaprevir (GLE) + pibrentasvir (PIB) ± ribavirin (RBV) in HCV genotype 1-infected patients with prior virologic failure to HCV DAA-containing therapy...
January 27, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127204/phase-iib-trial-of-in-vivo-electroporation-mediated-dual-plasmid-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-vaccine-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-under-lamivudine-therapy
#18
Fu-Qiang Yang, Gui-Rong Rao, Gui-Qiang Wang, Yue-Qi Li, Yao Xie, Zhan-Qing Zhang, Cun-Liang Deng, Qing Mao, Jun Li, Wei Zhao, Mao-Rong Wang, Tao Han, Shi-Jun Chen, Chen Pan, De-Ming Tan, Jia Shang, Ming-Xiang Zhang, Yue-Xin Zhang, Ji-Ming Yang, Guang-Ming Chen
AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of in vivo electroporation (EP)-mediated dual-plasmid hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccine vs placebo for sequential combination therapy with lamivudine (LAM) in patients with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-five patients were randomized to receive either LAM + vaccine (vaccine group, n = 109) or LAM + placebo (control group, n = 116). LAM treatment lasted 72 wk. Patients received the DNA vaccine or placebo by intramuscular injection mediated by EP at weeks 12 (start of treatment with vaccine or placebo, SOT), 16, 24, and 36 (end of treatment with vaccine or placebo, EOT)...
January 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122361/effects-of-antiviral-therapy-on-post-hepatectomy-hbv-reactivation-and-liver-function-in-hbv-dna-negative-patients-with-hbv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Wen-Feng Gong, Jian-Hong Zhong, Shi-Dong Lu, Xiao-Bo Wang, Qiu-Ming Zhang, Liang Ma, Zhi-Ming Zhang, Bang-De Xiang, Le-Qun Li
The ability of antiviral therapy to reduce risk of post-hepatectomy hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients negative for viral DNA is unclear. This prospective study involved 174 consecutive patients with hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma who were negative for hepatitis B virus DNA in serum and who underwent hepatic resection. Hepatitis B virus reactivation occurred in 30 patients in the non-antiviral group (27.8%) but in only 2 patients in the antiviral group (3.0%, P < 0.001)...
January 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122151/serum-viral-load-at-the-virological-relapse-predicts-subsequent-clinical-flares-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-off-entecavir-therapy
#20
Yao-Chun Hsu, Lein-Ray Mo, Chi-Yang Chang, Ming-Shiang Wu, Tzeng-Huey Yang, Jia-Horng Kao, Chieh-Chang Chen, Cheng-Hao Tseng, Chi-Ming Tai, Chih-Wen Lin, Chun-Ying Wu, Jaw-Town Lin
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic duration of nucleos(t)ide analogues for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is not indefinite in many parts of the world. Viral reactivation is common off therapy but the risk of subsequent clinical outcome remains unclear and unpredictable. AIM: We aimed to quantify the incidence of and explore the predictors for clinical flare following virological relapse in CHB patients who discontinue entecavir therapy. METHODS: This multicenter cohort study prospectively monitored 133 CHB patients who were HBeAg-negative and viral DNA-undetectable when discontinuing entecavir after at least 3 years on therapy...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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