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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351359/cyr61-ccn1-regulates-sclerostin-levels-and-bone-maintenance
#1
Gexin Zhao, Bau-Lin Huang, Diana Rigueur, Weiguang Wang, Chimay Bhoot, Kemberly R Charles, Jongseung Baek, Subburaman Mohan, Jie Jiang, Karen M Lyons
CYR61/CCN1 is a matricellular protein that resides in the extracellular matrix, but serves regulatory rather than structural roles. CYR61/CCN1 is found in mineralized tissues and has been shown to influence bone healing in vivo and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In this study we generated Cyr61 bone specific knockout mice to examine the physiological role of CYR61/CCN1 in bone development and maintenance in vivo. Extensive analysis of Cyr61 conditional knockout mice showed a significant decrease in both trabecular and cortical bone mass as compared to WT littermate...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350343/syringic-acid-a-phenolic-acid-promotes-osteoblast-differentiation-by-stimulation-of-runx2-expression-and-targeting-of-smad7-by-mir-21-in-mouse-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
B Arumugam, K Balagangadharan, N Selvamurugan
Syringic acid (SA), a phenolic acid, has been used in Chinese and Indian medicine for treating diabetes but its role in osteogenesis has not yet been investigated. In the present study, at the molecular and cellular levels, we evaluated the effects of SA on osteoblast differentiation. At the cellular level, there was increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition by SA treatment in mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs). At the molecular level, SA treatment of these cells stimulated expression of Runx2, a bone transcription factor, and of osteoblast differentiation marker genes such as ALP, type I collagen, and osteocalcin...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349676/environment-friendly-synthesis-of-trace-element-zn-sr-and-f-codoping-hydroxyapatite-with-non-cytotoxicity-and-improved-osteoblast-proliferation-and-differentiation
#3
Shengjie Xiao, Ming Wang, Liping Wang, Yingchun Zhu
Hydroxyapatite (HAp, Ca10[PO4]6[OH]2) doped with numerous trace elements possesses sensational biochemical effects in natural bones. To study the biochemical function of Zn, Sr, and F elements, a series of neoteric HAp biomaterials with Zn, Sr, and F concentrations close to natural bones are firstly synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal method. These materials are characterized through powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). All the synthesized materials are HAp phase...
January 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349060/sost-deficiency-does-not-alter-bone-s-lacunar-or-vascular-porosity-in-mice
#4
Henry Mosey, Juan A Núñez, Alice Goring, Claire E Clarkin, Katherine A Staines, Peter D Lee, Andrew A Pitsillides, Behzad Javaheri
SCLEROSTIN (Sost) is expressed predominantly in osteocytes acting as a negative regulator of bone formation. In humans, mutations in the SOST gene lead to skeletal overgrowth and increased bone mineral density, suggesting that SCLEROSTIN is a key regulator of bone mass. The function of SCLEROSTIN as an inhibitor of bone formation is further supported by Sost knockout (KO) mice which display a high bone mass with elevated bone formation. Previous studies have indicated that Sost exerts its effect on bone formation through Wnt-mediated regulation of osteoblast differentiation, proliferation, and activity...
September 13, 2017: Frontiers in Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348610/the-histone-methyltransferase-dot1l-inhibits-osteoclastogenesis-and-protects-against-osteoporosis
#5
Yanpan Gao, Wei Ge
Osteoclasts are absorptive cells that play a critical role in homeostatic bone remodeling and pathological bone resorption. Emerging evidence suggests an important role of epigenetic regulation in osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we investigated the role of DOT1L, which regulates gene expression epigenetically by histone H3K79 methylation (H3K79me), during osteoclast formation. Using RANKL-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells as an osteoclast differentiation model, we found that DOT1L and H3K79me2 levels were upregulated during osteoclast differentiation...
January 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347851/the-era-of-biofunctional-biomaterials-in-orthopedics-what-does-the-future-hold
#6
Mubashar Rehman, Asadullah Madni, Thomas J Webster
Titanium-based materials do not fulfill all the requirements of orthopedic implants due to a mismatch in mechanical properties with bone which are prone to change during the course of bone growth. Biofunctional biomaterials are a new class of materials that show bioactivity and adaptability at any stage of bone growth. Areas covered: Different biofunctional biomaterials have evolved over time that can enhance calcium phosphate (CaP) precipitation, stimulate osteogenic differentiation, and can control osteoblast gene expression...
January 18, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346788/vitamin-d-classic-and-novel-actions
#7
Ángel Gil, Julio Plaza-Diaz, María Dolores Mesa
BACKGROUND: Classically, vitamin D has been implicated in bone health by promoting calcium absorption in the gut and maintenance of serum calcium and phosphate concentrations, as well as by its action on bone growth and reorganization through the action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts cells. However, in the last 2 decades, novel actions of vitamin D have been discovered. The present report summarizes both classic and novel actions of vitamin D. SUMMARY: 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, the active metabolite of vitamin D, also known as calcitriol, regulates not only calcium and phosphate homeostasis but also cell proliferation and differentiation, and has a key a role to play in the responses of the immune and nervous systems...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345353/hipop-mesenchymal-population-has-high-potential-for-repairing-injured-peripheral-nerves
#8
Yukako Yamauchi, Shousaku Itoh, Haruna Naruse, Yuki Itoh, Makoto Abe, Takumi Kagioka, Mikako Hayashi
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are reportedly a heterogeneous population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recently, we developed a simple strategy for the enrichment of MSCs with the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. On transplantation, the progenitor-enriched fractions can regenerate the bone with multiple lineages of donor origin and are thus called "highly purified osteoprogenitors" (HipOPs). Although our previous studies have demonstrated that HipOPs are enriched with MSCs and exhibit a higher potential to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes than BMSCs, their potential to differentiate into neural cells has not been clarified...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345189/microrna-19-contributes-to-the-malignant-phenotypes-of-osteosarcoma-in-vitro-by-targeting-pax6
#9
Qingbing Meng, Ming Dai, Xuejun Nie, Wensheng Zhang, Xingli Xu, Jian Li, Hongxin Mu, Xiaolan Liu, Ling Qin, Xiaoqi Zhu, Jun Yan, Minqian Zheng
This study was conducted to detect the expression of miR-19 and Pax6 (Paired box protein 6) in human osteosarcoma cells and the effects on biological characteristics of osteosarcoma cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of Pax6 and miR-19 in normal human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) and osteosarcoma cell lines (U2OS, Saos-2, and MG-63). Results showed that miR-19 was significantly upregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines compared with that in hFOB 1.19 cells, while the expression of Pax6 messenger RNA was significantly downregulated...
January 2018: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344861/laser-capture-microdissection-and-transcriptional-analysis-of-sub-populations-of-the-osteoblast-lineage-from-undecalcified-bone
#10
Efrain Pacheco, Rong Hu, Scott Taylor
Transcriptional analysis of tissue samples is a useful and widely applied approach to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms engaged in response to phenotypic changes or external stimuli. We describe a method that overcomes the technical challenges associated with the application of Laser Capture Microdissection to undecalcified bone enabling us to collect high-quality bone tissue with maintained cellular morphology that is suitable for cryosectioning, fixation, and cutting. Using this method, we obtain samples enriched for specific cell types from the mature osteoblast lineage (osteoblasts, lining cells, i...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344665/overexpression-of-septin-7-inhibits-melatonin-induced-cell-apoptosis-in-human-fetal-osteoblastic-cells-via-suppression-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#11
Xiaotong Meng, Yue Zhu, Lin Tao, Sichao Zhao, Shui Qiu
Our previous study demonstrated that melatonin could induce apoptosis in the human fetal osteoblastic (hFOB) 1.19 cell line via induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), and recent studies have demonstrated that the expression of septin‑7 (SEPT7) exhibits a positive correlation with the concentration of melatonin. Western blotting demonstrated the expression level of SEPT7 was significantly upregulated in a dose‑dependent manner following treatment with differing concentrations of melatonin compared with the control groups, which did not receive any treatment...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343794/bone-regeneration-using-a-porcine-bone-substitute-collagen-composite-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Eisner Salamanca, Chia-Chen Hsu, Haw-Ming Huang, Nai-Chia Teng, Che-Tong Lin, Yu-Hwa Pan, Wei-Jen Chang
The biocharacteristics of xenogeneic grafts make them a possible substitute for autogenous bone grafts in dental bone graft procedures. This study aimed to develop a novel porcine graft with collagen capable of generating new bone in bone defects via osteoconduction over 8 weeks of healing and to compare it with a porcine graft. The porcine collagen graft was made to undergo a cell viability test (MTT) and alkaline phosphatase assay (ALP). The surgical procedure was performed in 20 male adult New Zealand white rabbits...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343646/role-of-boundary-conditions-in-determining-cell-alignment-in-response-to-stretch
#13
Kellen Chen, Andrea Vigliotti, Mattia Bacca, Robert M McMeeking, Vikram S Deshpande, Jeffrey W Holmes
The ability of cells to orient in response to mechanical stimuli is essential to embryonic development, cell migration, mechanotransduction, and other critical physiologic functions in a range of organs. Endothelial cells, fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells, and osteoblasts all orient perpendicular to an applied cyclic stretch when plated on stretchable elastic substrates, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. However, many of these same cells orient parallel to stretch in vivo and in 3D culture, and a compelling explanation for the different orientation responses in 2D and 3D has remained elusive...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343193/perinatal-sclerostin-concentrations-in-abnormal-fetal-growth-the-impact-of-gestational-diabetes
#14
Despina D Briana, Maria Boutsikou, Antonios Marmarinos, Dimitrios Gourgiotis, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate maternal and cord blood concentrations of sclerostin -an osteocyte-secreted factor, inhibiting osteoblast differentiation and bone formation and associated with adverse metabolism- in pregnancies with normal and abnormal fetal growth. METHODS: Plasma sclerostin concentrations were determined by ELISA in 80 maternal and 80 cord blood samples from asymmetric intrauterine-growth-restricted (IUGR, n = 30), large-for-gestational-age (LGA, n = 30) and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA, n = 20) singleton full-term pregnancies...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342317/osteoblast-like-mc3t3-e1-cells-prefer-glycolysis-for-atp-production-but-adipocyte-like-3t3-l1-cells-prefer-oxidative-phosphorylation
#15
Anyonya R Guntur, Akos A Gerencser, Phuong T Le, Victoria E DeMambro, Sheila A Bornstein, Shona A Mookerjee, David E Maridas, David E Clemmons, Martin D Brand, Clifford J Rosen
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are early progenitors that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. We hypothesized that osteoblasts and adipocytes utilize distinct bioenergetic pathways during MSC differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we compared the bioenergetic profiles of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and calvarial osteoblasts with pre-adipocyte 3T3L1 cells, before and after differentiation. Differentiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts met ATP demand mainly by glycolysis with minimal reserve glycolytic capacity, whereas non-differentiated cells generated ATP through oxidative phosphorylation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342188/comparative-analysis-of-gene-expression-identifies-distinct-molecular-signatures-of-bone-marrow-and-periosteal-skeletal-stem-progenitor-cells
#16
Lorenzo Deveza, Laura Ortinau, Kevin Lei, Dongsu Park
Periosteum and bone marrow (BM) both contain skeletal stem/progenitor cells (SSCs) that participate in fracture repair. However, the functional difference and selective regulatory mechanisms of SSCs in different locations are unknown due to the lack of specific markers. Here, we report a comprehensive gene expression analysis of bone marrow SSCs (BM-SSCs), periosteal SSCs (P-SSCs), and more differentiated osteoprogenitors by using reporter mice expressing Interferon-inducible Mx1 and NestinGFP, previously known SSC markers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342179/the-polymethoxy-flavonoid-sudachitin-suppresses-inflammatory-bone-destruction-by-directly-inhibiting-osteoclastogenesis-due-to-reduced-ros-production-and-mapk-activation-in-osteoclast-precursors
#17
Yoko Ohyama, Junta Ito, Victor J Kitano, Jun Shimada, Yoshiyuki Hakeda
Inflammatory bone diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis and peri-implantitis, are associated not only with the production of inflammatory cytokines but also with local oxidative status, which is defined by intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Osteoclast differentiation has been reported to be related to increased intracellular ROS levels in osteoclast lineage cells. Sudachitin, which is a polymethoxyflavone derived from Citrus sudachi, possesses antioxidant properties and regulates various functions in mammalian cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339787/cilia-related-protein-spef2-regulates-osteoblast-differentiation
#18
Mari S Lehti, Henna Henriksson, Petri Rummukainen, Fan Wang, Liina Uusitalo-Kylmälä, Riku Kiviranta, Terhi J Heino, Noora Kotaja, Anu Sironen
Sperm flagellar protein 2 (SPEF2) is essential for motile cilia, and lack of SPEF2 function causes male infertility and primary ciliary dyskinesia. Cilia are pointing out from the cell surface and are involved in signal transduction from extracellular matrix, fluid flow and motility. It has been shown that cilia and cilia-related genes play essential role in commitment and differentiation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts during bone formation. Here we show that SPEF2 is expressed in bone and cartilage. The analysis of a Spef2 knockout (KO) mouse model revealed hydrocephalus, growth retardation and death prior to five weeks of age...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339479/hif-signaling-in-osteoblast-lineage-cells-promotes-systemic-breast-cancer-growth-and-metastasis-in-mice
#19
Claire-Sophie Devignes, Yetki Aslan, Audrey Brenot, Audrey Devillers, Koen Schepers, Stéphanie Fabre, Jonathan Chou, Amy-Jo Casbon, Zena Werb, Sylvain Provot
Bone metastasis involves dynamic interplay between tumor cells and the local stromal environment. In bones, local hypoxia and activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in osteoblasts are essential to maintain skeletal homeostasis. However, the role of osteoblast-specific HIF signaling in cancer metastasis is unknown. Here, we show that osteoprogenitor cells (OPCs) are located in hypoxic niches in the bone marrow and that activation of HIF signaling in these cells increases bone mass and favors breast cancer metastasis to bone locally...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339399/ovariectomy-induced-bone-loss-in-tnf%C3%AE-and-il6-knockout-mice-is-regulated-by-different-mechanisms
#20
Siyi Zhu, Hongchen He, Chengfei Gao, Guojing Luo, Ying Xie, Haiming Wang, Li Tian, Chen Xiang, Yu Xijie, Chengqi He
Female wild-type (WT), TNFα knockout (TNFα-/-) or IL6 knockout (IL6-/-) mice aged 12 weeks were sham-operated (SHAM) or subjected to OVX and euthanized after 4 weeks. Bone mass and skeletal microarchitecture were determined using micro-CT. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from all three groups were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts or osteoclasts. Bone metabolism was assessed by histological analysis and qRT-PCR. OVX significantly increased the body weight only in WT mice and decreased the uterine weight in all three genotypes...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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