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Quanwei Zhang, Qi Wang, Jishang Gong, Jiaxing Du, Yong Zhang, Xingxu Zhao
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) recapitulates many of the activities of insulin and promotes differentiation of myoblasts and osteoblasts, which likely contribute to genetic variations of growth potential. However, little is known about the functions and signaling properties of IGF2 variants in yaks. The over-expression vector and knockdown sequence of yak IGF2 were transfected into yak fibroblasts, and the effects were detected by a series of assays. IGF2 expression in yak muscle tissues was significantly lower than that of other tissues...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Klemen Čamernik, Ariana Barlič, Matej Drobnič, Janja Marc, Matjaž Jeras, Janja Zupan
The musculoskeletal system includes tissues that have remarkable regenerative capabilities. Bone and muscle sustain micro-damage throughout the lifetime, yet they continue to provide the body with the support that is needed for everyday activities. Our current understanding is that the regenerative capacity of the musculoskeletal system can be attributed to the mesenchymal stem/ stromal cells (MSCs) that reside within its different anatomical compartments. These MSCs can replenish various tissues with progenitor cells to form functional cells, such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, and others...
March 20, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Kavitha Ranganathan, Eric Simon, Jeremy Lynn, Alicia Snider, Yu Zhang, Noah Nelson, Alexis Donneys, Jose Rodriguez, Lauren Buchman, Dawn Reyna, Elke Lipka, Steven R Buchman
PURPOSE: Amifostine (AMF), a radioprotectant, is FDA-approved for intravenous administration in cancer patients receiving radiation therapy (XRT). Unfortunately, it remains clinically underutilized due to adverse side effects. The purpose of this study is to define the pharmacokinetic profile of an oral AMF formulation potentially capable of reducing side effects and increasing clinical feasibility. METHODS: Calvarial osteoblasts were radiated under three conditions: no drug, AMF, and WR-1065 (active metabolite)...
March 19, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Hyun-Ook Jeon, In-Seok Choi, Ji-Young Yoon, Eun-Jung Kim, Ji-Uk Yoon, Ah-Reum Cho, Hyung-Joon Kim, Cheul-Hong Kim
Background: The structure and function of bone tissue is maintained through a constant remodeling process, which is maintained by the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The failure of bone remodeling can lead to pathological conditions of bone structure and function. Remifentanil is currently used as a narcotic analgesic agent in general anesthesia and sedation. However, the effect of remifentanil on osteoclasts has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effect of remifentanil on pre-osteoclast (pre-OCs) differentiation and the mechanism of osteoclast differentiation in the absence of specific stimulus...
February 2018: Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Chun-Yuan Chen, Shan-Shan Rao, Lu Ren, Xiong-Ke Hu, Yi-Juan Tan, Yin Hu, Juan Luo, Yi-Wei Liu, Hao Yin, Jie Huang, Jia Cao, Zhen-Xing Wang, Zheng-Zhao Liu, Hao-Ming Liu, Si-Yuan Tang, Ran Xu, Hui Xie
Chronic non-healing wounds represent one of the most common complications of diabetes and need advanced treatment strategies. Exosomes are key mediators of cell paracrine action and can be directly utilized as therapeutic agents for tissue repair and regeneration. Here, we explored the effects of exosomes from human urine-derived stem cells (USC-Exos) on diabetic wound healing and the underlying mechanism. Methods: USCs were characterized by flow cytometry and multipotent differentiation potential analyses...
2018: Theranostics
Wei Huang, Yangguang Ren, Hui Liu
Vasohibin (VASH)1 functions as a negative feedback modulator of angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells. Mesenchymal VASH1 has been demonstrated to be negatively associated with tumor progression, however studies regarding VASH1 in tumor cells and its functions remain limited. The function of VASH1 in osteosarcoma remains unknown. In the present study, it was confirmed that osteosarcoma cells express decreased levels of VASH1 compared with that expressed by human osteoblast cells. 143B cells with decreased VASH1 expression revealed increased Adriamycin (ADR) resistance compared with U-2OS cells with increased VASH1 expression...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Danka Grčević, Marina Sironi, Sonia Valentino, Livija Deban, Hrvoje Cvija, Antonio Inforzato, Nataša Kovačić, Vedran Katavić, Tomislav Kelava, Ivo Kalajzić, Alberto Mantovani, Barbara Bottazzi
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory mediator acting as a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and playing an essential role in innate immunity and matrix remodeling. Inflammatory mediators also contribute to skeletal homeostasis, operating at multiple levels in physiological and pathological conditions. This study was designed to investigate the role of PTX3 in physiological skeletal remodeling and bone healing. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and bone histomorphometry of distal femur showed that PTX3 gene-targeted female and male mice ( ptx3-/- ) had lower trabecular bone volume than their wild-type ( ptx3+/+ ) littermates (BV/TV by μCT: 3...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Faisal E Al Jofi, Tao Ma, Dong Guo, Monica P Schneider, Yan Shu, Hockin H K Xu, Abraham Schneider
BACKGROUND: Compelling evidence indicates that metformin, a low-cost and safe orally administered biguanide prescribed to millions of type 2 diabetics worldwide, induces the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) through the 5' adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. As a highly hydrophilic cationic compound, metformin uptake is facilitated by cell membrane organic cation transporters (OCTs) of the solute carrier 22A gene family...
March 16, 2018: Cytotherapy
Engie Safwat, Mohammad L Hassan, Sayed Saniour, Dalia Yehia Zaki, Mervat Eldeftar, Dalia Saba, Mohamed Zazou
Nanofibrillated cellulose, obtained from rice straw agricultural wastes was used as a substrate for the preparation of a new injectable and mineralized hydrogel for bone regeneration. Tetramethyl pyridine oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose, was mineralized through the incorporation of a prepared and characterized biphasic calcium phosphate at a fixed ratio of 50 wt%. The TEMPO-oxidized rice straw nanofibrillated cellulose was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and carboxylic content determination...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Yonglin Yu, Xinkun Shen, Zhong Luo, Yan Hu, Menghuan Li, Pingping Ma, Qichun Ran, Liangliang Dai, Ye He, Kaiyong Cai
Oxidative stress is commonly existed in bone degenerative disease (osteoarthritis, osteoporosis etc.) and some antioxidants had great potential to enhance osteogenesis. In this study, we aim to investigate the anti-oxidative properties of various TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) so to screen the desirable size for improved osteogenesis and reveal the underlying molecular mechanism in vitro. Comparing cellular behaviors under normal and oxidative stress conditions, an interesting conclusion was obtained. In normal microenvironment, small TNTs were beneficial for adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts, but large TNTs greatly increased osteogenic differentiation...
March 13, 2018: Biomaterials
Zülküf Burak Erdur, Emine Deniz Gözen, Hakki Caner Inan, Haydar Murat Yener, Nil Çomunoğlu, Cansu Yol, Çiğdem Papila, Harun Cansiz
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a malignant bone tumor and it is very rare in head and neck region. If it arises in this area, most common localizations of this tumor are mandible and maxilla and ethmoid sinus is very rare site for this malignancy. A 43-year-old female admitted to our clinic with the complaint of pain in the right half of the face and headache persisting for 2 months. According to the clinical symptoms and imaging studies, sinonasal ossifying fibroma was suspected. For this reason, patient was operated endoscopically and histopathological examination revealed that osteoid matrix producing atypical osteoblastic cells so these findings identified osteoblastic variant OS...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Shu-Qi Wang, Bing Liu, Su Liu, Song-Zi Xie, Li-Hua Pan, Xue-Qiang Zha, Qiang-Ming Li, Jian-Ping Luo
The enhanced osteoblast differentiation is beneficial to the prevention of osteoporosis. In this study, a homogeneous polysaccharide (LRP-S2A) with the potential of promoting osteoblast differentiation was obtained from the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum, a traditional herb for treatment of postmenopausal metabolic disorders. Structural identification indicated that LRP-S2A, with a relative molecular weight of 2.65 × 106  Da and an uronic acid content of 41.8%, contained Rha, Ara, Gal, Glc and GlcA in a molar ratio of 1...
March 19, 2018: Natural Product Research
Hui Jiang, Yicun Wang, Zhantao Deng, Jiewen Jin, Jia Meng, Shuo Chen, Jun Wang, Yang Qiu, Ting Guo, Jianning Zhao
Wear particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in arthroplasty failure, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Due to long follow-ups necessary for detection and sporadic occurrence, it is challenging to assess the pathogenesis ofparticle-induced osteolysis in clinical cases. Hence, optimal animal models are required for further studies. The murine model of calvarial osteolysis established by exposure to CoCrMo particles is an effective and valid tool for assessing the interactions between particles and various cells in aseptic loosening...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chiara Assunta Pilato, Ilaria Stadiotti, Angela Serena Maione, Valentina Saverio, Valentina Catto, Fabrizio Tundo, Antonio Dello Russo, Claudio Tondo, Giulio Pompilio, Michela Casella, Elena Sommariva
A normal adult heart is composed of several different cell types, among which cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells represent an abundant population. The isolation of these cells offers the possibility of studying their involvement in cardiac diseases, and, in addition, provides a useful primary cell model to investigate biological mechanisms. Here, the method for the isolation of C-MSC from arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy patients' bioptic samples is described. The endomyocardial biopsy sampling is guided in the right ventricular areas adjacent to the scar visualized by electro-anatomical mapping...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tanya B Dorff, Neeraj Agarwal
Bone metastases are the main driver of morbidity and mortality in advanced prostate cancer. Targeting the bone microenvironment, a key player in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis, has become one of the mainstays of therapy in men with advanced prostate cancer. This review will evaluate the data supporting the use of bone-targeted therapy, including (1) bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid, which directly target osteoclasts, (2) denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) ligand inhibitor, which targets a key component of bone stromal interaction, and (3) radium-223, an alpha-emitting calcium mimetic, which hones to the metabolically active areas of osteoblastic metastasis and induces double-strand breaks in the DNA...
March 16, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Ya-Ping Xiao, Jie Zeng, Lin-Na Jiao, Xiao-Yu Xu
The treatment effect and signaling pathway regulation effects of kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine on osteoporosis have been widely studied, but there is no systematic summary currently. This review comprehensively collected and analyzed the traditional Chinese medicines on the treatment and signaling pathway regulation of osteoporosis in recent ten years, such as Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus and Dipsaci Radix. Based on the existing findings, the following conclusions were obtained: ①kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine treated osteoporosis mainly through BMP-Smads, Wnt/ β -catenin, MAPK, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote osteoblast bone formation and through OPG/RANKL/ RANK, estrogen, CTSK signaling pathway to inhibit osteoclasts of bone resorption...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Qian Xu, Yuying Zhao, Xiaoyan Zhou, Jing Luan, Yazhou Cui, Jinxiang Han
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a muscle-bone degenerative disease, which lacks a specific index for diagnosis. In our previous studies, we found that exosomes mediated the interaction mechanism between muscle and bone at the cellular level, and myoblast exosomes can transfer miR-27a-3p to promote osteoblast mineralization. Therefore, we suppose that the expression of miR-27a-3p in the serum exosomes of ALS patients also changes. In this study, we used healthy human serum as a sample to find out the conditions and methods for extraction and detection...
February 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Hema Kalyanaraman, Nadine Schall, Renate B Pilz
Nitric oxide plays a central role in the regulation of skeletal homeostasis. In cells of the osteoblastic lineage, NO is generated in response to mechanical stimulation and estrogen exposure. Via activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs), NO enhances proliferation, differentiation, and survival of bone-forming cells in the osteoblastic lineage. NO also regulates the differentiation and activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts; here the effects are largely inhibitory and partly cGMP-independent...
March 14, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Yanmao Wang, Yu Zhu, Shengdi Lu, Chengfang Hu, Wanrun Zhong, Yimin Chai
Osteoporosis is linked to reduced bone mineral density (BMD) as a major risk factor for fragility fractures. Recent studies indicated an association between BMD and abnormally elevated lipid levels in blood as common indicators for hyperlipidemia. In this study, we assessed the protective effect of paeoniflorin, a phytochemical compound with multiple pharmacological activities, against hyperlipidemia-induced osteoporosis in rats fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (HCHF). The special diet-fed rats were subjected to an 8-week treatment with either paeoniflorin (20 mg/kg, daily) or vehicle...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
C P Hawkes, S Mostoufi-Moab
The relationship between fat, bone and systemic metabolism is a growing area of scientific interest. Marrow adipose tissue is a well-recognized component of the bone marrow milieu and is metabolically distinct from current established subtypes of adipose tissue. Despite recent advances, the functional significance of marrow adipose tissue is still not clearly delineated. Bone and fat cells share a common mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) within the bone marrow, and hormones and transcription factors such as growth hormone, leptin, and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor γ influence MSC differentiation into osteoblasts or adipocytes...
March 14, 2018: Bone
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