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advanced colorectal cancer

Efrat L Amitay, Agne Krilaviciute, Hermann Brenner
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Dysbiosis in the gut microbiota may be associated with CRC. This systematic review focuses on differences in gut microbial community between people diagnosed with CRC or adenoma and healthy individuals using fecal samples, emphasizing non-invasive fecal microbiome models for CRC early diagnosis. Nineteen studies were identified in a systematic literature search of Pubmed, Web of Science and ScienceDirect. Several bacteria were reported to differ in abundance between CRC and adenoma cases and healthy controls, with Fusobacterium the most common...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
Benjamin L Solomon, Ignacio Garrido-Laguna
The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4) has resulted in unprecedented long-term remissions of unresectable cancers. The efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors was recently demonstrated in gastrointestinal malignancies with mismatch repair deficiencies (dMMR). Pembrolizumab became the first tissue-agnostic US FDA-approved drug based on the presence of the predictive biomarker dMMR. In addition, the FDA in 2017 approved pembrolizumab for PD-L1-positive advanced gastric cancer in third-line and second-line hepatocellular therapy...
March 15, 2018: Future Oncology
F Pietrantonio, F Di Nicolantonio, A B Schrock, J Lee, F Morano, G Fucà, P Nikolinakos, A Drilon, J F Hechtman, J Christiansen, K Gowen, G M Frampton, P Gasparini, D Rossini, C Gigliotti, S T Kim, M Prisciandaro, J Hodgson, A Zaniboni, V K Chiu, M Milione, R Patel, V Miller, A Bardelli, L Novara, L Wang, S Pupa, G Sozzi, J Ross, M Di Bartolomeo, A Bertotti, S Ali, L Trusolino, A Falcone, F de Braud, C Cremolini
Background: Recognition of rare molecular subgroups is a challenge for precision oncology and may lead to tissue-agnostic approval of targeted agents. Here we aimed to comprehensively characterize the clinical, pathological and molecular landscape of RET rearranged metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patients and methods: In this case series, we compared clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics of 24 RET rearranged mCRC patients with those of a control group of 291 patients with RET negative tumors...
March 10, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
N Mulet, I Matos, A Noguerido, G Martini, M E Élez, G Argilés, J Tabernero
Despite major progress in treating advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), prognosis in this population after progression on standard treatment remains dismal and the development of new drugs represents an unmet need. Historically, fluoropyrimidines have played a major role in the treatment of metastatic CRC. TAS-102, a novel combination of trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride, has demonstrated improvement in overall survival in the refractory CRC setting, with a safe toxicity profile. Areas covered: A literature review of published clinical studies was performed...
March 14, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Wen Ye, Shaoping Ling, Ran-Yi Liu, Zhi-Zhong Pan, Gaoyuan Wang, Shijuan Gao, Jiangxue Wu, Lihua Cao, Lili Dong, Yingchang Li, Yi Zhou, Wuying Du, Xiangqi Meng, Jinna Chen, Xinyuan Guan, Yulong He, Changchuan Pan, X F Steven Zheng, Xuemei Lu, Shuai Chen, Wenlin Huang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide, with more than 1.3 million new cases and 690,000 deaths each year. In China, the incidence of CRC has increased dramatically due to dietary and lifestyle changes, to become the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing in 50rectal cancer cases among the Chinese population as part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium research project. Frequently-mutated genes and enriched pathways were identified...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Jiekai Yu, Yanqin Huang, Chen Lin, Xiaofen Li, Xuefeng Fang, Chenhan Zhong, Ying Yuan, Shu Zheng
The serum protein markers of colorectal adenoma in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer have been rarely reported. Serum samples from colorectal adenoma patients with or without a family history of colorectal cancer and healthy controls were profiled using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The model to distinguish colorectal adenoma patients with a family history of colorectal cancer from atypical hereditary colorectal families (CRA-H) and sporadic colorectal adenoma patients without a family history of colorectal cancer (CRA-S) was established with 85...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Oscar Murcia, Rodrigo Jover, Cecilia M Egoavil, Miriam Juarez, Lucia Perez-Carbonell, Eva Hernández-Illán, Estefanía Rojas, Cristina Alenda, Francesc Balaguer, Montserrat Andreu, Xavier Llor, Antoni Castells, C Richard Boland, Ajay Goel
PURPOSE: A recent study reported that 5-fluorouracil (5FU)-based chemotherapy is less effective in treating advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients demonstrating hypermethylation of TFAP2E gene. The aim of our study was to confirm and validate these findings in large, uniformly treated, well-characterized patient cohorts. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Two cohorts of 783 CRC patients: 532 from a population-based, multicenter cohort (EPICOLON I) and 251 patients from a clinic-based trial were used to study the effectiveness of TFAP2E methylation and expression as a predictor of response of CRC patients to 5FU-based chemotherapy...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Luca Mazzarella, Alessandro Guida, Giuseppe Curigliano
Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-dependent signaling plays a crucial role in epithelial cancer biology, and dictated the development of several targeting agents. The mouse-human chimeric antibody Cetuximab was among the first to be developed. After about two decades of clinical research it has gained a significant place in the management of advanced colorectal and head and neck cancers, whereas its development in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not led to a place in routine clinical practice, because of marginal clinical benefit despite statistically significant Phase III trials...
March 14, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Roslyn Dillon, Lisa J Croner, John Bucci, Stefanie N Kairs, Jia You, Sharon Beasley, Mark Blimline, Rochele B Carino, Vicky C Chan, Danissa Cuevas, Jeff Diggs, Megan Jennings, Jacob Levy, Ginger Mina, Alvin Yee, Bruce Wilcox
Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is key to reducing associated mortality. Despite the importance of early detection, approximately 40% of individuals in the United States between the ages of 50-75 have never been screened for CRC. The low compliance with colonoscopy and fecal-based screening may be addressed with a non-invasive alternative such as a blood-based test. We describe here the analytical validation of a multiplexed blood-based assay that measures the plasma concentrations of 15 proteins to assess advanced adenoma (AA) and CRC risk in symptomatic patients...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Allen Cohn, Michael A Morse, Bert O'Neil, Samuel Whiting, Claire Coeshott, John Ferraro, Donald Bellgrau, David Apelian, Timothy C Rodell
We are developing whole, heat-killed, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, engineered to encode target proteins, which stimulate immune responses against malignant cells expressing those targets. This phase 1 trial, enrolling patients with advanced colorectal or pancreas cancer, was designed to evaluate safety, immunogenicity, response, and overall survival of ascending doses of the GI-4000 series of products, which express 3 different forms of mutated Ras proteins. The study enrolled 33 heavily pretreated subjects (14 with pancreas and 19 with colorectal cancer), whose tumors were genotyped before enrollment to identify the specific ras mutation and thereby to identify which GI-4000 product to administer...
April 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
Ruth Ec Evans, Stuart A Taylor, Sandra Beare, Steve Halligan, Alison Morton, Alf Oliver, Andrea Rockall, Anne Miles
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate perceived patient burden and acceptability of whole body MRI (WB-MRI) compared to standard staging investigations, and identify predictors of reduced tolerance.  Methods: Patients recruited to multi-centre trials comparing WB-MRI with standard staging scans for lung and colorectal cancer were invited to complete two questionnaires: a baseline questionnaire at recruitment, measuring demographics, comorbidities, and distress; and a follow-up questionnaire after staging, measuring recovery time, comparative acceptability/satisfaction between WB-MRI and CT (colorectal cancer) and PET-CT (lung cancer), and perceived scan burden (scored 1 low to 7 high)...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Sing-Hui Ong, Kai-Wey Goh, Cornelius Kwang-Lee Chieng, Yee-How Say
Background: Tumor-induced angiogenesis is an imperative event in pledging new vasculature for tumor metastasis. Since overexpression of neuronal proteins gamma-synuclein (γ-Syn) and cellular prion protein (PrPC ) is always detected in advanced stages of cancer diseases which involve metastasis, this study aimed to investigate whether γ-Syn or PrPC overexpression in colorectal adenocarcinoma, LS 174T cells affects angiogenesis of endothelial cells, EA.hy 926 (EA). Methods: EA cells were treated with conditioned media (CM) of LS 174T-γ-Syn or LS 174T-PrP, and their proliferation, invasion, migration, adhesion and ability to form angiogenic tubes were assessed using a range of biological assays...
2018: PeerJ
Zhiming Shan, Na An, Jielin Qin, Junmei Yang, Hongqi Sun, Wei Yang
Substantial evidence has demonstrated the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) via their regulation on cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis pathways. The current study aimed to understand the role of lncRNA Linc00675 in the progression and metastasis of CRC and to identify the potential lncRNA-miRNA interactions and signaling pathways underlying the mechanisms of action of Linc00675 in CRC. Our data firstly demonstrated the down-regulation of Linc00675 in both CRC cells and clinical CRC tissues...
March 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Cynthia M Mojica, Deborah Parra-Medina, Sally Vernon
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, is also among the most preventable cancers. However, Latino men are less likely than non-Latino men to engage in preventive screening. Compared with 60% of non-Latino white men and women, only 42% of Latino men are up to date with colorectal cancer screening guidelines, which may result in diagnosis at advanced disease stages and increased deaths. We evaluated the literature on colorectal cancer screening interventions among Latino men to characterize intervention components effective in increasing colorectal cancer screening...
March 8, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Isabel M Leal, Lillian S Kao, Burzeen Karanjawala, Richard J Escamilla, Tien C Ko, Stefanos G Millas
BACKGROUND: Greater understanding of barriers to screening of colorectal cancer among lower socioeconomic, particularly Hispanic, patients is needed to improve disparities in care. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore patients' perceptions and experiences of care seeking for colorectal cancer to identify barriers to early diagnosis and treatment. DESIGN: This explorative qualitative study was conducted as a focused ethnography of patients diagnosed with advanced-stage colorectal cancer...
April 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Emma Rosander, Caroline Nordenvall, Annika Sjövall, Fredrik Hjern, Torbjörn Holm
BACKGROUND: Locally advanced colon cancer invading surrounding organs or structures is challenging to surgeons and oncologists. Multivisceral resections with tumor removal en bloc with invaded tissues provide the best chance for cure. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the management and outcomes after multivisceral resections in patients with clinically infiltrative, locally advanced primary colon cancer. DESIGN: This is a descriptive retrospective cohort study...
April 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
George J Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Colette Pickard, Rachel Thomas, Isabell Robertson, Angus Macdonald
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to review our experience with palliative ostomy surgery in patients with bowel obstruction and advanced stage colorectal cancer. DESIGN: A descriptive, retrospective review of data from a prospectively collected clinical database. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The sample comprised 86 patients (55 male) who underwent palliative surgery between October 1998 and January 2009. METHODS: All patients undergoing palliative stoma formation without resection for colorectal carcinoma were identified from a prospectively compiled colorectal cancer database...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Bojan Tepes, Maja Seruga, Miroslav Vujasinovic, Dejan Urlep, Liljana Ljepovic, Jurecic Nataša Brglez, Alenka Forte, Ljubec Anita Kek, Miha Skvarc
Background: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy in the world with almost one million new cases annually. Helicobacter pylori infection causes 89% of all gastric cancers. Premalignant lesions (atrophy and intestinal metaplasia) develop after several decades of inflammation. Secondary prevention with gastroscopy is possible, but it is costly and has a low compliance rate. Alternative procedures like serology testing for pepsinogen I and II and pepsinogen I/II ratio are available to select patients for surveillance gastroscopies...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Yang Zhang, Linjuan Xu, Minggang Peng
Objective: To deeply verify the clinical significance of CXCR3 in prediction of cancer patients' prognosis. Data sources: We performed a meta-analysis including 12 studies searched from PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane databases. A total of 1,751 patients were used to analyze the association between CXCR3 and patients' prognosis, based on either overall survival or time to tumor progression. Study selection: Studies evaluating CXCR3 expression for predicting prognosis in human solid tumors were included...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
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