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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343267/tumor-associated-macrophages-and-regulatory-t-cells-infiltration-and-the-clinical-outcome-in-colorectal-cancer
#1
Dariusz Waniczek, Zbigniew Lorenc, Mirosław Śnietura, Mariusz Wesecki, Agnieszka Kopec, Małgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń
The aim of the study is the assessment of the intensity of the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) CD68(+)/iNOS(-) and Tregs CD8(+)/FoxP3(+) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients as prognostic factors with respect to disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In this retrospective study, tissue samples were obtained from 89 patients undergoing resection for CRC (stage IIA, pT3N0M0 and stages IIIB and IIIC, pT3N1-2M0). Recurrence was observed in 45 patients at the time of the follow-up (10 local recurrences, 35 distant metastases)...
March 25, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337673/progression-free-survival-as-a-surrogate-for-overall-survival-in-clinical-trials-of-targeted-therapy-in-advanced-solid-tumors
#2
Stefan Michiels, Everardo D Saad, Marc Buyse
Over the past 15 years, targeted therapy has revolutionized the systemic treatment of cancer. In parallel, there has been a growing debate on the choice of end points in clinical trials in oncology. This debate basically hinges on the choice between overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). PFS is advantageous because it is measured earlier than OS, requires a smaller sample size than OS to achieve the desired power, and is not influenced by cross-over. On the other hand, PFS is prone to measurement error and bias, and may not capture the entire treatment effect on the outcomes of most interest to patients with an incurable disease: a prolonged survival and improved quality of life...
March 23, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334731/characterisation-of-cct271850-a-selective-oral-and-potent-mps1-inhibitor-used-to-directly-measure-in-vivo-mps1-inhibition-vs-therapeutic-efficacy
#3
Amir Faisal, Grace W Y Mak, Mark D Gurden, Cristina P R Xavier, Simon J Anderhub, Paolo Innocenti, Isaac M Westwood, Sébastien Naud, Angela Hayes, Gary Box, Melanie R Valenti, Alexis K De Haven Brandon, Lisa O'Fee, Jessica Schmitt, Hannah L Woodward, Rosemary Burke, Rob L M vanMontfort, Julian Blagg, Florence I Raynaud, Suzanne A Eccles, Swen Hoelder, Spiros Linardopoulos
BACKGROUND: The main role of the cell cycle is to enable error-free DNA replication, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. One of the best characterised checkpoint pathways is the spindle assembly checkpoint, which prevents anaphase onset until the appropriate attachment and tension across kinetochores is achieved. MPS1 kinase activity is essential for the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint and has been shown to be deregulated in human tumours with chromosomal instability and aneuploidy...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334728/does-emergency-presentation-of-cancer-represent-poor-performance-in-primary-care-insights-from-a-novel-analysis-of-linked-primary-and-secondary-care-data
#4
Peter Murchie, Sarah M Smith, Michael S Yule, Rosalind Adam, Melanie E Turner, Amanda J Lee, Shona Fielding
BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with cancer following emergency presentation have poorer short-term survival. To what extent this signifies a missed opportunity for earlier diagnosis in primary care remains unclear as little detailed data exist on the patient/general practitioner interaction beforehand. METHODS: Analysis of primary care and regional data for 1802 cancer patients from Northeast Scotland. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for patient and GP practice predictors of emergency presentation...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330549/-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-at-the-primary-gastrointestinal-cancer-operation
#5
Thea Helene Degett, Hans-Christian Pommergaard, Ismail Gögenur
Up to 20% of the patients who undergo radical surgery for colorectal cancer experience recurrence. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) and cytoreductive surgery have shown to be effective treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. HIPEC administered at the primary operation in high-risk patients may also be effective in preventing peritoneal carcinomatosis and improve survival in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer.
March 20, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330462/prospective-phase-ii-trial-of-everolimus-in-pik3ca-amplification-mutation-and-or-pten-loss-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors-refractory-to-standard-therapy
#6
Seung Tae Kim, Jeeyun Lee, Se Hoon Park, Joon Oh Park, Young Suk Park, Won Ki Kang, Ho Yeong Lim
BACKGROUND: We designed a single-arm, open-label phase II trial of everolimus in PIK3CA amplification/mutation and/or PTEN loss patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapy (#NCT02449538). METHODS: Everolimus was administered orally at a daily dose of 10 mg continuously (28-day cycles). Treatment was continued until progression of the disease or intolerable toxicity was observed. Based on Simon's two-stage optimal design, 10 patients were treated with everolimus during the first stage...
March 23, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325489/breast-cancer-screening-in-patients-with-newly%C3%A2-diagnosed-lung-and-colorectal-cancer-%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-population-based-study-of-utilization
#7
Gelareh Sadigh, Ruth C Carlos, Kevin C Ward, Jeffrey M Switchenko, Renjian Jiang, Kimberly E Applegate, Richard Duszak
PURPOSE: To assess breast cancer screening utilization in Medicare beneficiaries with colorectal and lung cancer versus cancer-free controls. METHODS: Female fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries who were ≥67 years old and diagnosed with lung or colorectal cancer between 2000 and 2011 and who reported to a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry (case group) were followed for 2 years after their diagnoses, unless death, a diagnosis of breast cancer, or the end of 2013 came first...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325090/using-stents-in-the-management-of-malignant-bowel-obstruction-the-current-situation-and-future-progress
#8
Alessandro Fugazza, Piera Alessia Galtieri, Alessandro Repici
The use of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) has been considered an effective and safe alternative to emergency surgery as bridge to surgery or for palliation in advanced colorectal cancer even though more recent data have raised concerns on both early and long-term outcomes when patients are treated with bridge to surgery indications. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature review of articles on endoscopic management of malignant bowel obstruction was performed. Indication, technique, outcomes, benefits and risks of these treatments in acute malignant colonic obstruction were reviewed...
March 24, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324283/prognostic-value-of-computed-tomography-measured-parameters-of-body-composition-in-primary-operable-gastrointestinal-cancers
#9
Douglas Black, Craig Mackay, George Ramsay, Zaid Hamoodi, Shayanthan Nanthakumaran, Kenneth G M Park, Malcolm A Loudon, Colin H Richards
BACKGROUND: Previous reports suggest that body composition parameters can be used to predict outcomes for patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. However, evidence for an association with long-term survival is conflicting, with much of the data derived from patients with advanced disease. This study examined the effect of body composition on survival in primary operable GI cancer. METHODS: Patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the GI tract (esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum) between 2006 and 2014 were identified from a prospective database...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323275/risk-for-incomplete-resection-after-macroscopic-radical-endoscopic-resection-of-t1-colorectal-cancer-a-multicenter-cohort-study
#10
Y Backes, W H de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, J van Bergeijk, F Ter Borg, M P Schwartz, B W M Spanier, J M J Geesing, K Kessels, M Kerkhof, J N Groen, F H J Wolfhagen, T C J Seerden, N van Lelyveld, G J A Offerhaus, P D Siersema, M M Lacle, L M G Moons
OBJECTIVES: The decision to perform secondary surgery after endoscopic resection of T1 colorectal cancer (CRC) depends on the risk of lymph node metastasis and the risk of incomplete resection. We aimed to examine the incidence and risk factors for incomplete endoscopic resection of T1 CRC after a macroscopic radical endoscopic resection. METHODS: Data from patients treated between 2000 and 2014 with macroscopic complete endoscopic resection of T1 CRC were collected from 13 hospitals...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319059/camk2%C3%AE-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-modulates-colitis-associated-colorectal-carcinogenesis-via-enhancing-stat3-activation
#11
X Ma, Z Meng, L Jin, Z Xiao, X Wang, W M Tsark, L Ding, Y Gu, J Zhang, B Kim, M He, X Gan, J E Shively, H Yu, R Xu, W Huang
Inflammation is one of the major risk factors for cancer. Here, we show that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma (CAMK2γ) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) modulates inflammatory signals and promotes colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in mice. We have identified CAMK2γ as a downstream target of colitis-induced WNT5A signaling. Furthermore, we have shown that CAMK2γ protects against intestine tissue injury by increasing IEC survival and proliferation. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma knockout mice displayed reduced CAC...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316326/overexpression-of-rab1b-and-mmp9-predicts-poor-survival-and-good-response-to-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#12
Xian-Zi Yang, Shu-Zhong Cui, Li-Si Zeng, Tian-Tian Cheng, Xiao-Xing Li, Jun Chi, Ren Wang, X F Steven Zheng, Hui-Yun Wang
Rab1B has recently been reported to be involved in human cancer, but the role of Rab1B in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Rab1B and MMP9 in CRC by qRT-PCR, immunoblot and immunohistochemistry and analyzed the clinical significance. The results show that Rab1B and MMP9 are increased at both mRNA and protein levels in CRC cell lines and tissues, as measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. The high protein expression of Rab1B and MMP9 in 179 CRC tissues is associated with deep tumor invasion, lymph-node metastasis and advanced TNM stage...
March 18, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314318/systemic-inflammatory-response-after-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-can-affect-oncologic-outcomes-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#13
In Hee Lee, Soyoon Hwang, Soo Jung Lee, Byung Woog Kang, Dongwon Baek, Hye Jin Kim, Su Yeon Park, Jun Seok Park, Gyu Seog Choi, Jae Chul Kim, Seung Hyun Cho, Jong Gwang Kim
AIM: Systemic inflammatory response (SIR) has been reported to be an important determinant of disease progression and survival in patients with colorectal cancer. This study investigated the prognostic relevance of changes in the platelet count on survival and the predictive value of changes in platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) on the pathological tumor response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC)...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300833/pi3k-akt-mediated-upregulation-of-wdr5-promotes-colorectal-cancer-metastasis-by-directly-targeting-znf407
#14
Xin Tan, Shuai Chen, Jiangxue Wu, Jiaxin Lin, Changchuan Pan, Xiaofang Ying, Zhizhong Pan, Lin Qiu, Ranyi Liu, Rong Geng, Wenlin Huang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer deaths, and has a high rate of liver and lung metastasis. Unfortunately, distant metastasis is the main barrier for advanced CRC therapy and leads to a very low survival rate. In this study, we identified WDR5, a vital factor that regulates vertebrate development and cell self-renewal and reprogramming, as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for CRC patients. We demonstrate that WDR5 is upregulated in CRC tissues and promotes CRC metastasis both in vitro and in vivo...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299879/how-accurate-are-medical-oncologists-impressions-of-management-of-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-in-australia
#15
Lewis Au, Natalie Turner, Hui-Li Wong, Kathryn Field, Belinda Lee, David Boadle, Prasad Cooray, Deme Karikios, Suzanne Kosmider, Lara Lipton, Louise Nott, Phillip Parente, Jeanne Tie, Ben Tran, Rachel Wong, Desmond Yip, Jeremy Shapiro, Peter Gibbs
AIM: Current efforts to understand patient management in clinical practice are largely based on clinician surveys with uncertain reliability. The TRACC (Treatment of Recurrent and Advanced Colorectal Cancer) database is a multisite registry collecting comprehensive treatment and outcome data on consecutive metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients at multiple sites across Australia. This study aims to determine the accuracy of oncologists' impressions of real-word practice by comparing clinicians' estimates to data captured by TRACC...
March 16, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295697/diagnostic-capability-of-colon-capsule-endoscopy-for-advanced-colorectal-cancer-a-pilot-study
#16
Yumiko Ota, Atsuo Yamada, Yuka Kobayashi, Ryota Niikura, Takayuki Shimpoh, Akiko Narita, Shuntaro Yoshida, Nobumi Suzuki, Hirotsugu Watabe, Yoshihiro Hirata, Soichiro Ishihara, Eiji Sunami, Toshiaki Watanabe, Kazuhiko Koike
OBJECTIVES: Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is a safe and effective method for detecting lesions in the colon. However, the sensitivity of CCE in detecting advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been sufficiently evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of CCE in detecting advanced CRC. METHODS: Patients previously diagnosed with advanced CRC by conventional colonoscopy underwent CCE. The primary outcome measure was the sensitivity of CCE in detecting advanced CRC per patient and per lesion...
March 10, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293023/advances-in-image-enhancement-in-colonoscopy-for-detection-of-adenomas
#17
REVIEW
Takahisa Matsuda, Akiko Ono, Masau Sekiguchi, Takahiro Fujii, Yutaka Saito
High-quality colonoscopy is mandatory to prevent adenoma recurrence and colorectal cancer. In the past few years, technical advances have been developed with the purpose of improving adenoma detection rate (ADR), one of the most important validated colonoscopy quality benchmarks. Several techniques or devices are used to optimize visualization: observation techniques; add-on devices; auxiliary imaging devices; colonoscopes with increased field of view; and colonoscopes with an integrated inflatable reusable balloon...
March 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293015/profile-of-expression-of-genes-encoding-matrix-metallopeptidase-9-mmp9-matrix-metallopeptidase-28-mmp28-and-timp-metallopeptidase-inhibitor-1-timp1-in-colorectal-cancer-assessment-of-the-role-in-diagnosis-and-prognostication
#18
Zbigniew Lorenc, Dariusz Waniczek, Katarzyna Lorenc-Podgórska, Wiktor Krawczyk, Maciej Domagała, Mateusz Majewski, Urszula Mazurek
BACKGROUND Studies on the pathomechanism of colorectal cancer (CRC) expansion indicate a significant role of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in the extracellular matrix. The results of the analysis of a profile of transcriptional activity of genes encoding metalloproteinases were the basis of the hypothesis indicating changes in the expression of genes encoding MMP9, MMP28, and TIMP1 as an additional diagnostic and prognostic marker of CRC. MATERIAL AND METHODS The material consisted of samples obtained from resected tumors and healthy tissue samples from 15 CRC patients (aged 46-72 years) at clinical stages (CSs) I and II-IV...
March 15, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291773/comprehensive-molecular-exploration-identified-promoter-dna-methylation-of-the-crbp1-gene-as-a-determinant-of-radiation-sensitivity-in-rectal-cancer
#19
K Yokoi, K Yamashita, S Ishii, T Tanaka, N Nishizawa, A Tsutsui, H Miura, H Katoh, T Yamanashi, M Naito, T Sato, T Nakamura, M Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) for advanced rectal cancer (RC) is a well-evidenced therapy; however, some RC patients have no therapeutic response. Patient selection for NCRT so that non-responsive patients are excluded has been subjective. To date, no molecular markers indicating radiation sensitivity have been reported. METHODS: We irradiated six colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and identified HCT116 cells as radiation-sensitive and HCT15 and DLD-1 cells as radiation resistant...
March 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289141/oncogenic-kras-drives-invasion-and-maintains-metastases-in-colorectal-cancer
#20
Adam T Boutin, Wen-Ting Liao, Melody Wang, Soyoon Sarah Hwang, Tatiana V Karpinets, Hannah Cheung, Gerald C Chu, Shan Jiang, Jian Hu, Kyle Chang, Eduardo Vilar, Xingzhi Song, Jianhua Zhang, Scott Kopetz, Andrew Futreal, Y Alan Wang, Lawrence N Kwong, Ronald A DePinho
Human colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer mortality and frequently harbors activating mutations in the KRAS gene. To understand the role of oncogenic KRAS in CRC, we engineered a mouse model of metastatic CRC that harbors an inducible oncogenic Kras allele (Kras(mut) ) and conditional null alleles of Apc and Trp53 (iKAP). The iKAP model recapitulates tumor progression from adenoma through metastases. Whole-exome sequencing revealed that the Kras(mut) allele was heterogenous in primary tumors yet homogenous in metastases, a pattern consistent with activated Kras(mut) signaling being a driver of progression to metastasis...
February 15, 2017: Genes & Development
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