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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792730/nivolumab-for-the-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer
#1
Kortnye Maureen Smith, Jayesh Desai
Despite a variety of therapies for advanced metastatic colorectal cancer being available, the outcomes in this malignancy remain sub-optimal. Immunotherapy has been slow to impact the management of this patient group. Checkpoint inhibitors, such as nivolumab, have had disappointing results when used broadly. However, for the subset of patients with microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer the use of checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab appears to be transformative, and will provide a new therapeutic option for patient with advanced disease...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788743/novel-insights-into-transcriptional-dysregulation-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
Y Feodorova, D Tashkova, I Koev, A Todorov, G Kostov, K Simitchiev, V Belovejdov, R Dimov, V Sarafian
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Although CRC has been comprehensively characterized at the molecular level, the tumor heterogeneity hinders the identification of reliable diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Molecular stratification of CRC is based on prevalent gene mutations and transcription profiles but its significance for clinical practice remains obscure. Indeed, activating mutations in the genes KRAS, NRAS and BRAF are the only predictive biomarkers for anti-EGFR antibody therapy routinely tested the clinic for advanced stages of CRC...
March 14, 2018: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784738/optimizing-adjuvant-therapy-for-localized-colon-cancer-and-treatment-selection-in-advanced-colorectal-cancer
#3
Axel Grothey, Alan P Venook
Results from the pivotal IDEA trial, which evaluated 3 versus 6 months of adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy, are incorporated into the NCCN Guidelines for Colon Cancer. The guidelines recommend that for patients with low-risk stage III disease, the preferred regimen is CAPEOX for 3 months or FOLFOX for 3 to 6 months. For patients with high-risk stage III disease, the preferred regimen is CAPEOX for 3 to 6 months or FOLFOX for 6 months. In metastatic disease, tumor sidedness should be a consideration when choosing a biologic...
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782466/mucin-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-crc-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Yaron Niv, Theodore Rokkas
BACKGROUND: A body of evidence has suggested that mucins play an important role in adhesion, invasion, and cancer metastasis. However, this evidence is scarce and sometimes confusing. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available studies to better define the role of mucins in the behavior of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Medical literature was searched through November 30, 2017, using suitable keywords. Pooled estimates, that is, odd ratios (ORs), were obtained using fixed or random-effects models, as appropriate...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782360/a-phase-ii-study-of-celecoxib-with-irinotecan-5-fluorouracil-and-leucovorin-in-patients-with-previously-untreated-advanced-or-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#5
Emerson Y Chen, Charles D Blanke, Daniel G Haller, Al B Benson, Tomislav Dragovich, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Carlos Robles, Hong Li, Motomi Mori, Nora Mattek, Rachel E Sanborn, Charles D Lopez
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression is associated with increased tumor invasiveness and proliferation in CRC, and COX-2 inhibition has demonstrated chemopreventive activity. This study investigated the addition of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, to the irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL) regimen for patients with previously untreated metastatic CRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients enrolled in this single-arm phase II study received celecoxib at 400 mg orally twice daily in combination with weekly irinotecan (125 mg/m), 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m), and leucovorin (20 mg/m) for 4 weeks every 6 weeks...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780595/early-detection-of-ulcerative-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Yu Zhen, Chengxin Luo, Hu Zhang
Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CACC) is one of the most serious complications of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly in ulcerative colitis (UC); it accounts for approximately 15% of all-causes mortality among IBD patients. Because CACC shows a worse prognosis and higher mortality than sporadic colorectal cancer, early detection is critical. Colonoscopy is primarily recommended for surveillance and several advanced endoscopic imaging techniques are emerging. In addition, recent studies have reported on attempts to develop clinically relevant biomarkers for surveillance using various biosamples, which may become high-performance screening tools in the future, so the best approach and technique for cancer surveillance in long-standing UC patients remain under debate...
May 2018: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778550/the-factors-associated-with-negative-colonoscopy-in-screening-subjects-with-positive-immunochemical-stool-occult-blood-test-outcomes
#7
Po-Hsiang Ting, Xi-Hsuan Lin, Jeng-Kai Jiang, Jiing-Chyuan Luo, Ping-Hsien Chen, Yen-Po Wang, I-Fang Hsin, Chin Lin Perng, Ming-Chih Hou, Fa-Yauh Lee
BACKGROUND: The immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) is an alternative method to colonoscopy that can be used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. If the iFOBT result is positive, a colonoscopy is recommended. In this retrospective study, we identify factors associated with negative colonoscopy and positive iFOBT results obtained during CRC screening. METHODS: We collected data for subjects who received a colonoscopy at Taipei Veterans General Hospital after receiving a positive iFOBT result during CRC screening from January 2015 to December 2015...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776953/the-landscape-of-actionable-genomic-alterations-in-cell-free-circulating-tumor-dna-from-21-807-advanced-cancer-patients
#8
Oliver A Zill, Kimberly C Banks, Stephen R Fairclough, Stefanie Mortimer, James V Vowles, Reza Mokhtari, David R Gandara, Philip C Mack, Justin I Odegaard, Rebecca J Nagy, Arthur M Baca, Helmy Eltoukhy, Darya I Chudova, Richard B Lanman, AmirAli Talasaz
PURPOSE: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing provides a non-invasive method for obtaining actionable genomic information to guide personalized cancer treatment, but the presence of multiple alterations in circulation related to treatment and tumor heterogeneity complicate the interpretation of the observed variants. Experimental Design: We describe the somatic mutation landscape of 70 cancer genes from cfDNA deep-sequencing analysis of 21,807 patients with treated, late-stage cancers across >50 cancer types...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776633/molecular-diagnostics-in-colorectal-carcinoma-advances-and-applications-for-2018
#9
REVIEW
Amarpreet Bhalla, Muhammad Zulfiqar, Martin H Bluth
The molecular pathogenesis and classification of colorectal carcinoma are based on the traditional adenomaecarcinoma sequence, serrated polyp pathway, and microsatellite instability (MSI). The genetic basis for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is the detection of mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM genes. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome includes MSI testing, methylator phenotype testing, BRAF mutation testing, and molecular testing for germline mutations in MMR genes. Molecular makers with predictive and prognostic implications include quantitative multigene reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay and KRAS and BRAF mutation analysis...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776402/mitotic-and-apoptotic-activity-in-colorectal-neoplasia
#10
Darina Kohoutova, Jaroslav Pejchal, Jan Bures
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. The aim of the prospective study was to evaluate mitosis and apoptosis of epithelial cells at each stage of colorectal neoplasia. METHODS: A total of 61 persons were enrolled into the study: 18 patients with non-advanced colorectal adenoma (non-a-A), 13 patients with advanced colorectal adenoma (a-A), 13 patients with CRC and 17 controls: individuals with normal findings on colonoscopy...
May 18, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774483/analysis-of-unexplained-carcinoembryonic-antigen-elevation-after-curative-treatment-of-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#11
Sung Uk Lee, Eunjin Jwa, Dae Yong Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Ji Yeon Baek, Yongjun Cha, Hee Jin Chang, Jae Hwan Oh
BACKGROUND: To analyze the causes and patterns of unexplained carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) elevation after curative treatment in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. METHODS: Among the 1309 locally advanced rectal cancer patients treated with curative resection and radiotherapy between January 2001 and June 2011, 325 patients who postoperatively developed abnormal CEA elevation were reviewed. The unexplained CEA elevation was defined as a CEA level higher than 5 ng/mL with no evidence of cancer recurrence at the time of elevation...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774162/a-large-proportion-of-fecal-immunochemical-test-positive-participants-in-colorectal-cancer-screening-is-symptomatic
#12
Clasine M de Klerk, Manon van der Vlugt, Patrick M Bossuyt, Evelien Dekker
Background: Symptomatic invitees are advised not to participate in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening but to directly consult their general practitioner (GP), because fecal immunochemical test (FIT) sensitivity for cancer is not optimal. This recommendation may not always be followed in daily practice. We evaluated how many FIT-positive participants had CRC-related symptoms and whether the presence of symptoms was associated with the presence and location of CRC/advanced neoplasia. Methods: We prospectively collected data on CRC-related symptoms in all FIT-positive participants in the Dutch CRC screening program, referred to our endoscopy centers between 2014 and 2016, and evaluated whether symptoms were associated with detected CRC/advanced neoplasia at colonoscopy...
April 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774115/an-improved-method-for-culturing-patient-derived-colorectal-cancer-spheroids
#13
Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Hisatsugu Maekawa, Fumihiko Kakizaki, Tadayoshi Yamaura, Kenji Kawada, Yoshiharu Sakai, M Mark Taketo
Recent advances allowed culturing and examination of patient-derived colorectal cancer (PD-CRC) cells as organoids or spheroids. To be applied to practical personalized medicine, however, current methods still need to be strengthened for higher efficiency. Here we report an improved method to propagate PD-CRC tumor initiating cells (TICs) in spheroid culture. We established > 100 cancer spheroid lines derived from independent colorectal cancer patients employing a serum-containing medium with additional inhibitors, Y27632 and SB431542...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770618/peritoneal-cancer-index-as-a-predictor-of-survival-in-advanced-stage-serous-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-a-prospective-study
#14
Alaa A Elzarkaa, Waleed Shaalan, Doaa Elemam, Hassan Mansour, Mahmoud Melis, Eduard Malik, Amr A Soliman
OBJECTIVE: A numerical score, the peritoneal cancer index (PCI), was developed to reflect the extent of tumor growth in gastric and colorectal cancers and to tailor treatment. This study aimed to examine the value of the PCI score in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) regarding completeness of surgical cytoreduction and survival. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study. Patients with primary serous EOC at International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages IIIB or higher were included...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769385/phase-ii-study-of-irinotecan-plus-panitumumab-as-second-line-therapy-for-patients-with-advanced-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#15
Harry Yoon, Anita Choudhary, Ramla Kosozi, Gurvinder Singh Bali, Ali Zaidi, Ajlan Atasoy, Arlene A Forastiere, Michael K Gibson
LESSON LEARNED: Panitumumab plus irinotecan is not active for the treatment of esophageal adenocarcinoma. BACKGROUND: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is a lethal cancer with increasing incidence. Panitumumab (Pa) is a fully humanized IgG2 monoclonal antibody against human EGFR. Cetuximab (Cx) combined with irinotecan (Ir) is active for second-line treatment of colorectal cancer. This phase II study was designed to evaluate Pa plus Ir as second-line therapy for advanced EAC...
May 16, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767751/clinicopathological-and-molecular-differences-between-right-sided-and-left-sided-colorectal-cancer-in-japanese-patients
#16
Soichiro Natsume, Tatsuro Yamaguchi, Misato Takao, Takeru Iijima, Rika Wakaume, Keiichi Takahashi, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Daisuke Nakano, Shin-Ichiro Horiguchi, Koichi Koizumi, Michiko Miyaki
Background: The aim of this study was to clarify clinicopathological features, frequencies of molecular biomarkers, and prognoses in Japanese colorectal cancer patients and compare them with right-sided colon cancer (RCC) and left-sided colorectal cancer (LCRC). Methods: We consecutively selected 575 colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgical resection from 2008 to 2011. RCC was located from the cecum to the transverse colon, and LCRC was located from the splenic flexure to the rectum...
May 15, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764162/the-evolving-role-of-immune-oncology-in-colorectal-cancer
#17
Shaheenah Dawood
Metastatic colorectal cancer still remains an essentially non curable disease. However, with advances in chemotherapeutic and personalizing therapeutic approaches with the incorporation of targeted therapy such as anti-EGFR and anti-VEGF agents survival associated with metastatic colorectal cancer has certainly improved over the last two decades. Patients who are not amenable to surgery median survival remain approximately 2 to 3 years. In an attempt to improve prognostic outcome over the last decade research has focused on therapeutic options geared towards harnessing the immune system with success observed with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the realm of a number of solid tumors including lung and renal cancer...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761898/clinical-impact-of-muscle-quantity-and-quality-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-a-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#18
Yoshinaga Okugawa, Yuji Toiyama, Akira Yamamoto, Tsunehiko Shigemori, Chengzeng Yin, Aya Narumi, Yusuke Omura, Shozo Ide, Takahito Kitajima, Hiroyuki Fujikawa, Hiromi Yasuda, Junichiro Hiro, Shigeyuki Yoshiyama, Minako Kobayashi, Toshimitsu Araki, Donald C McMillan, Chikao Miki, Masato Kusunoki
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of skeletal muscle mass, accompanied by decreased muscle strength, and consists of myopenia and myosteatosis. Recent evidence has suggested the predictive value of sarcopenia for the risk of perioperative and oncological outcomes in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical impact of myopenia and myosteatosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. METHODS: We analyzed the preoperative psoas muscle mass index and intramuscular adipose tissue content using preoperative computed tomography images from 308 CRC patients using statistical methods...
May 15, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756355/development-and-validation-of-a-high-quality-composite-real-world-mortality-endpoint
#19
Melissa D Curtis, Sandra D Griffith, Melisa Tucker, Michael D Taylor, William B Capra, Gillis Carrigan, Ben Holzman, Aracelis Z Torres, Paul You, Brandon Arnieri, Amy P Abernethy
OBJECTIVE: To create a high-quality electronic health record (EHR)-derived mortality dataset for retrospective and prospective real-world evidence generation. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Oncology EHR data, supplemented with external commercial and US Social Security Death Index data, benchmarked to the National Death Index (NDI). STUDY DESIGN: We developed a recent, linkable, high-quality mortality variable amalgamated from multiple data sources to supplement EHR data, benchmarked against the highest completeness U...
May 14, 2018: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755777/management-of-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-in-the-elderly-a-critical-review-and-algorithm
#20
REVIEW
Lara Hathout, Nell Maloney-Patel, Usha Malhotra, Shang-Jui Wang, Sita Chokhavatia, Ishita Dalal, Elizabeth Poplin, Salma K Jabbour
Colorectal cancer incidence and death rates have been declining over the past 10 years. However, it remains the second leading cause of death in men ages 60-79 and the third leading cause of death in men over 80 and in women over 60 years old. However, there is little data specific to the treatment of the elder patient, since few of these patients are included in trials. With the advent of improved therapies, there are many alternative options available. Still, no definitive consensus or guidelines have been defined for this particular patient population...
April 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
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