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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174033/acute-hypotonia-in-an-infant
#1
Jimme Sierakowski, Jason Arthur, Todd Wylie
BACKGROUND: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is increasing in incidence in the United States and presenting to emergency departments (EDs) across the country. This clinical entity presents as acute paralysis, with magnetic resonance imaging changes in the gray matter only in children younger than 21 years of age. The etiology is unknown, although preceding viral illnesses are common. There are no consensus guidelines regarding treatment. CASE REPORT: A 4-month-old girl presented with decreased bilateral arm movement...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166935/toxicoses-of-the-ruminant-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
Gene A Niles
This article discusses the etiology, mechanism of action, clinical signs, and diagnostic tests used to identify toxic agents that affect the nervous system of ruminants. The article is not intended to be an exhaustive review of each agent, but a reference for establishing a differential diagnosis when toxic agents are suspected as the cause of central nervous system disease in ruminants. The initial focus of the article is on agents that cause brain lesions consistent with polioencephalomalacia. Other neurotoxic disease agents include bovine bonkers, urea, organophosphate, organochlorine, cyanobacteria, zinc, aluminum, phosphide, metaldehyde, strychnine, botulism, tetanus, clostridium perfringens, and poisonous plants...
March 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076405/development-and-validation-of-a-new-reliable-method-for-the-diagnosis-of-avian-botulism
#3
Caroline Le Maréchal, Sandra Rouxel, Valentine Ballan, Emmanuelle Houard, Typhaine Poezevara, Marie-Hélène Bayon-Auboyer, Rozenn Souillard, Hervé Morvan, Marie-Agnès Baudouard, Cédric Woudstra, Christelle Mazuet, Sophie Le Bouquin, Patrick Fach, Michel Popoff, Marianne Chemaly
Liver is a reliable matrix for laboratory confirmation of avian botulism using real-time PCR. Here, we developed, optimized, and validated the analytical steps preceding PCR to maximize the detection of Clostridium botulinum group III in avian liver. These pre-PCR steps included enrichment incubation of the whole liver (maximum 25 g) at 37°C for at least 24 h in an anaerobic chamber and DNA extraction using an enzymatic digestion step followed by a DNA purification step. Conditions of sample storage before analysis appear to have a strong effect on the detection of group III C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065740/bacterial-signaling-to-the-nervous-system-through-toxins-and-metabolites
#4
REVIEW
Nicole J Yang, Isaac M Chiu
Mammalian hosts interface intimately with commensal and pathogenic bacteria. It is increasingly clear that molecular interactions between the nervous system and microbes contribute to health and disease. Both commensal and pathogenic bacteria are capable of producing molecules that act on neurons and affect essential aspects of host physiology. Here we highlight several classes of physiologically important molecular interactions that occur between bacteria and the nervous system. First, clostridial neurotoxins block neurotransmission to or from neurons by targeting the SNARE complex, causing the characteristic paralyses of botulism and tetanus during bacterial infection...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062435/flaccid-paralysis-in-an-infant-associated-with-a-dirty-wound-and-application-of-honey
#5
Charlotte Jane Joseph, Teik Beng Khoo, Keng Yee Lee
An infant, who was born preterm at 36 weeks, presented with fever and ulcer at umbilical region which progressed to necrotising fasciitis of anterior abdominal wall. He was treated with intravenous penicillin, intravenous cloxacillin and local application of medicated honey. Subsequently, he required wound debridement. Postoperatively, he required prolonged invasive ventilation due to poor respiratory effort which was associated with hypotonia and areflexia. Nerve conduction study revealed absent responses...
January 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058209/impact-of-clostridium-botulinum-genomic-diversity-on-food-safety
#6
REVIEW
Michael W Peck, Arnoud Hm van Vliet
The deadly botulinum neurotoxin formed by Clostridium botulinum is the causative agent of foodborne botulism. The increasing availability of C. botulinum genome sequences is starting to allow the genomic diversity of C. botulinum Groups I and II and their neurotoxins to be characterised. This information will impact on microbiological food safety through improved surveillance and tracing/tracking during outbreaks, and a better characterisation of C. botulinum Groups I and II, including the risk presented, and new insights into their biology, food chain transmission, and evolution...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056003/notes-from-the-field-botulism-outbreak-from-drinking-prison-made-illicit-alcohol-in-a-federal-correctional-facility-mississippi-june-2016
#7
Lindsey McCrickard, Mariel Marlow, Julie L Self, Louise Francois Watkins, Kevin Chatham-Stephens, Jannifer Anderson, Sheryl Hand, Kathryn Taylor, Jennifer Hanson, Keiundria Patrick, Carolina Luquez, Janet Dykes, Suzanne R Kalb, Kaitlin Hoyt, John R Barr, Todd Crawford, Anthony Chambers, Brian Douthit, Robert Cox, Matt Craig, John Spurzem, Joseph Doherty, Michael Allswede, Paul Byers, Thomas Dobbs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041655/trends-in-outcomes-and-hospitalization-charges-of-infant-botulism-in-the-united-states-a-comparative-analysis-between-kids-inpatient-database-and-national-inpatient-sample
#8
Tamara Opila, Asha George, Mohammad El-Ghanem, Nizar Souayah
BACKGROUND: New therapeutic strategies, including immune globulin intravenous, have emerged in the past two decades for the management of botulism. However, impact on outcomes and hospitalization charges among infants (aged ≤1 year) with botulism in the United States is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) and National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for in-hospital outcomes and charges for infant botulism cases from 1997 to 2009. Demographics, discharge status, mortality, length of stay, and hospitalization charges were reported from the two databases and compared...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989928/anti-botulism-single-shot-vaccine-using-chitosan-for-protein-encapsulation-by-simple-coacervation
#9
Roger S Sari, Anna Christina de Almeida, Alex S R Cangussu, Edson V Jorge, Otto D Mozzer, Hércules Otacílio Santos, Wagner Quintilio, Igor Viana Brandi, Viviane Aguiar Andrade, Angelo Samir M Miguel, Eliane M Sobrinho Santos
The aim of the present study was to compare the potency and safety of vaccines against Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum) type C and D formulated with chitosan as controlled release matrix and vaccines formulated in conventional manner using aluminum hydroxide. Parameters were established for the development of chitosan microspheres, using simple coacervation to standardize the use of this polymer in protein encapsulation for vaccine formulation. To formulate a single shot vaccine inactivated antigens of C...
October 27, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966961/newly-designed-quinolinol-inhibitors-mitigate-the-effects-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-in-enzymatic-cell-based-and-ex-vivo-assays
#10
Paul T Bremer, Michael Adler, Cecilia H Phung, Ajay K Singh, Kim D Janda
Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is one of the most deadly toxins and is the etiological agent of the potentially fatal condition, botulism. Herein, we investigated 8-hydroxyquinoline (quinolin-8-ol) as a potential inhibitor scaffold for preventing the deadly neurochemical effects of the toxin. Quinolinols are known chelators that can disrupt the BoNT/A metalloprotease zinc-containing active site, thus impeding its proteolysis of the endogenous protein substrate, synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921065/rapidly-progressive-muscle-paralysis-and-acute-respiratory-failure-following-endoscopic-botulinum-toxin-injection
#11
Geoffrey You, Ahmed Khan, Julia Shor, Gary P Forester
Botulism toxin injection (BTI) is a well-known and relatively safe endoscopic treatment for achalasia. We report a case of a 90-year-old female diagnosed with achalasia who subsequently underwent BTI with symptomatic relief. The therapy was complicated by systemic botulism, however, leading to progressive muscle paralysis with diaphragmatic involvement requiring mechanical ventilation support. This is the first reported case of BTI for achalasia causing systemic botulism.
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905935/development-of-a-filter-to-prevent-infections-with-spore-forming-bacteria-in-injecting-drug-users
#12
Nour Alhusein, Jenny Scott, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Albert Bolhuis
BACKGROUND: In heroin injectors, there have been a number of outbreaks caused by spore-forming bacteria, causing serious infections such as anthrax or botulism. These are, most likely, caused by injecting contaminated heroin, and our aim was to develop a filter that efficiently removes these bacteria and is also likely to be acceptable for use by people who inject drugs (i.e. quick, simple and not spoil the hit). METHODS: A prototype filter was designed and different filter membranes were tested to assess the volume of liquid retained, filtration time and efficiency of the filter at removing bacterial spores...
December 1, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855161/an-integrative-approach-to-computational-modelling-of-the-gene-regulatory-network-controlling-clostridium-botulinum-type-a1-toxin-production
#13
Adaoha E C Ihekwaba, Ivan Mura, John Walshaw, Michael W Peck, Gary C Barker
Clostridium botulinum produces botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), highly potent substances responsible for botulism. Currently, mathematical models of C. botulinum growth and toxigenesis are largely aimed at risk assessment and do not include explicit genetic information beyond group level but integrate many component processes, such as signalling, membrane permeability and metabolic activity. In this paper we present a scheme for modelling neurotoxin production in C. botulinum Group I type A1, based on the integration of diverse information coming from experimental results available in the literature...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851431/1796-analysis-of-diaphragmatic-electrical-activity-may-aid-in-diagnosis-of-infantile-botulism
#14
Kristen Bray, Michael Spaeder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795365/entry-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-subtypes-a1-and-a2-into-neurons
#15
Abby R Kroken, Faith C Blum, Madison Zuverink, Joseph T Barbieri
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic proteins for humans but also are common therapies for neurological diseases. BoNTs are dichain toxins, comprising an N-terminal catalytic domain (LC) disulfide bond linked to a C-terminal heavy chain (HC) which includes a translocation domain (HN) and a receptor binding domain (HC). Recently, the BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) subtypes A1 and A2 were reported to possess similar potencies but different rates of cellular intoxication and pathology in a mouse model of botulism...
January 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779837/foodborne-botulism-in-poland-in-2014
#16
Michał Czerwiński, Mirosław P Czarkowski, Barbara Kondej
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to assess the epidemiology of foodborne botulism in Poland in 2014 compared to previous years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed (1) surveillance data published in the annual bulletin “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2014” and in previous publications, and (2) unpublished data retrieved from botulism case reports for 2014 sent to the Department of Epidemiology NIPH-NIH by Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771520/multiple-locus-variable-number-of-tandem-repeat-analysis-as-a-tool-for-molecular-epidemiology-of-botulism-the-italian-experience
#17
Fabrizio Anniballi, Silvia Fillo, Francesco Giordani, Bruna Auricchio, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Enrica di Stefano, Giuseppina Mandarino, Dario De Medici, Florigio Lista
Clostridium botulinum is the bacterial agent of botulism, a rare but severe neuro-paralytic disease. Because of its high impact, in Italy botulism is monitored by an ad hoc surveillance system. The National Reference Centre for Botulism, as part of this system, collects and analyzes all demographic, epidemiologic, microbiological, and molecular data recovered during cases and/or outbreaks occurred in Italy. A panel of 312 C. botulinum strains belonging to group I were submitted to MLVA sub-typing. Strains, isolated from clinical specimens, food and environmental samples collected during the surveillance activities, were representative of all forms of botulism from all Italian regions...
December 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722252/picolinic-acids-as-%C3%AE-exosite-inhibitors-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-light-chain
#18
Paul T Bremer, Song Xue, Kim D Janda
In developing small-molecule inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain (BoNT/A LC), substituted picolinic acids were identified. Extensive investigation into the SAR of the picolinic acid scaffold revealed 5-(1-butyl-4-chloro-1H-indol-2-yl)picolinic acid (CBIP), which possessed low micromolar activity against BoNT/A. Kinetic and docking studies demonstrated binding of CBIP to the β-exosite: a largely unexplored site on the LC that holds therapeutic relevance for botulism treatment.
October 13, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687174/delayed-antitoxin-treatment-of-two-adult-patients-with-botulism-after-cosmetic-injection-of-botulinum-type-a-toxin
#19
Kit-Ling Fan, Yan-Li Wang, Gary Chu, Ling-Pong Leung
BACKGROUND: Injection of botulinum toxin type A for cosmetic purposes is common. It is believed to be safe, but adverse reactions have been reported, including dysphagia, generalized paralysis, respiratory depression, and death caused by focal injection of the toxin. Early administration of antitoxin in patients with adverse reactions is the mainstay of management, but the time window for its clinical efficacy is not well defined. CASE REPORTS: Two female adult patients with clinical botulism after botulinum toxin type A injection are described...
December 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686664/investigation-of-a-type-c-d-botulism-outbreak-in-free-range-laying-hens-in-france
#20
R Souillard, C Le Maréchal, V Ballan, S Rouxel, D Léon, L Balaine, T Poëzevara, E Houard, B Robineau, C Robinault, M Chemaly, S Le Bouquin
In 2014, a botulism outbreak in a flock of laying hens was investigated in France. In the flock of 5020 hens, clinical signs of botulism occurred at 46 weeks of age. A type C/D botulism outbreak was confirmed using the mouse lethality assay for detection of botulinum toxin in serum and a real-time PCR test to detect Clostridium botulinum in intestinal contents. The disease lasted one week with a mortality rate of 2.6% without recurrence. Botulism in laying hens has rarely been reported. Five monthly visits were made to the farm between December 2014 and May 2015 for a longitudinal study of the persistence of C...
December 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
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