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Fabrizio Anniballi, Silvia Fillo, Francesco Giordani, Bruna Auricchio, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Enrica di Stefano, Giuseppina Mandarino, Dario De Medici, Florigio Lista
Clostridium botulinum is the bacterial agent of botulism, a rare but severe neuro-paralytic disease. Because of its high impact, in Italy botulism is monitored by an ad hoc surveillance system. The National Reference Centre for Botulism, as part of this system, collects and analyzes all demographic, epidemiologic, microbiological, and molecular data recovered during cases and/or outbreaks occurred in Italy. A panel of 312 C. botulinum strains belonging to group I were submitted to MLVA sub-typing. Strains, isolated from clinical specimens, food and environmental samples collected during the surveillance activities, were representative of all forms of botulism from all Italian regions...
October 19, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Paul T Bremer, Song Xue, Kim D Janda
In developing small-molecule inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain (BoNT/A LC), substituted picolinic acids were identified. Extensive investigation into the SAR of the picolinic acid scaffold revealed 5-(1-butyl-4-chloro-1H-indol-2-yl)picolinic acid (CBIP), which possessed low micromolar activity against BoNT/A. Kinetic and docking studies demonstrated binding of CBIP to the β-exosite: a largely unexplored site on the LC that holds therapeutic relevance for botulism treatment.
October 13, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Kit-Ling Fan, Yan-Li Wang, Gary Chu, Ling-Pong Leung
BACKGROUND: Injection of botulinum toxin type A for cosmetic purposes is common. It is believed to be safe, but adverse reactions have been reported, including dysphagia, generalized paralysis, respiratory depression, and death caused by focal injection of the toxin. Early administration of antitoxin in patients with adverse reactions is the mainstay of management, but the time window for its clinical efficacy is not well defined. CASE REPORTS: Two female adult patients with clinical botulism after botulinum toxin type A injection are described...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
R Souillard, C Le Maréchal, V Ballan, S Rouxel, D Léon, L Balaine, T Poëzevara, E Houard, B Robineau, C Robinault, M Chemaly, S Le Bouquin
In 2014, a botulism outbreak in a flock of laying hens was investigated in France. In the flock of 5020 hens, clinical signs of botulism occurred at 46 weeks of age. A type C/D botulism outbreak was confirmed using the mouse lethality assay for detection of botulinum toxin in serum and a real-time PCR test to detect Clostridium botulinum in intestinal contents. The disease lasted one week with a mortality rate of 2.6% without recurrence. Botulism in laying hens has rarely been reported. Five monthly visits were made to the farm between December 2014 and May 2015 for a longitudinal study of the persistence of C...
September 30, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Osnat Rosen, Eyal Ozeri, Ada Barnea, Alon Ben David, Ran Zichel
Botulinum neurotoxins are bacterial proteins that cause botulism, a life-threatening disease. Therapy relies mostly on post-intoxication antibody treatment. The only accepted method to measure the potency of, and to approve, antitoxin preparations is the mouse lethality neutralization bioassay. However, this assay is time-consuming, labor-intensive, costly, and raises ethical issues related to the large numbers of laboratory animals needed. Until now, all efforts to develop an alternative in vitro assay have not provided a valid replacement to the mouse potency assay...
2016: Toxins
Chan Lan Chun, Julie R Peller, Dawn Shively, Muruleedhara N Byappanahalli, Richard L Whitman, Christopher Staley, Qian Zhang, Satoshi Ishii, Michael J Sadowsky
Cladophora mats that accumulate and decompose along shorelines of the Great Lakes create potential threats to the health of humans and wildlife. The decaying algae create a low oxygen and redox potential environment favoring growth and persistence of anaerobic microbial populations, including Clostridium botulinum, the causal agent of botulism in humans, birds, and other wildlife. In addition to the diverse population of microbes, a dynamic chemical environment is generated, which involves production of numerous organic and inorganic substances, many of which are believed to be toxic to the sand and aquatic biotic communities...
September 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Yağmur Derman, Katja Selby, Sebastian Miethe, André Frenzel, Yvonne Liu, Christine Rasetti-Escargueil, Arnaud Avril, Thibaut Pelat, Remi Urbain, Alexandre Fontayne, Philippe Thullier, Dorothea Sesardic, Miia Lindström, Michael Hust, Hannu Korkeala
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause botulism and are the deadliest naturally-occurring substances known to humans. BoNTs have been classified as one of the category A agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, indicating their potential use as bioweapons. To counter bio-threat and naturally-occurring botulism cases, well-tolerated antibodies by humans that neutralize BoNTs are relevant. In our previous work, we showed the neutralizing potential of macaque (Macaca fascicularis)-derived scFv-Fc (scFv-Fc ELC18) by in vitro endopeptidase immunoassay and ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm assay by targeting the light chain of the botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E)...
2016: Toxins
Takeshi Kobayashi, Chihiro Taguchi, Kakeru Kida, Hiroko Matsuda, Takeshi Terahara, Chiaki Imada, Nant Kay Thwe Moe, Su Myo Thwe
The distribution and characterization of bacteria including lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the traditional and popular salted fish yegyo ngapi in Myanmar were studied to clarify the contribution of these bacteria to the curing and ripening of this product. Samples of yegyo ngapi purchased from a market in Yangon were used. Most of the isolates obtained using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium containing 10 % NaCl were identified as coccoid LAB on the basis of their basic phenotypic characteristics. From the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of this gene, most of the isolates were identified as the halophilic LAB Tetragenococcus muriaticus...
October 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Sebastian Miethe, Christelle Mazuet, Yvonne Liu, Robert Tierney, Christine Rasetti-Escargueil, Arnaud Avril, André Frenzel, Philippe Thullier, Thibaut Pelat, Remi Urbain, Alexandre Fontayne, Dorothea Sesardic, Michael Hust, Michel Robert Popoff
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are counted among the most toxic substances known and are responsible for human botulism, a life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that occurs naturally by food poisoning or colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by BoNT-producing clostridia. To date, 7 serologically distinct serotypes of BoNT (serotype A-G) are known. Due to the high toxicity of BoNTs the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have classified BoNTs as category A agent, including the six biological agents with the highest potential risk of use as bioweapons...
2016: PloS One
P Caballero, M Troncoso, S I Patterson, C López Gómez, R Fernandez, M A Sosa
The type A of neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the prevalent serotype in strains of Mendoza. The soil is the main reservoir for C.botulinum and is possibly one of the infection sources in infant botulism. In this study, we characterized and compared autochthonous C. botulinum strains and their neurotoxins. Bacterial samples were obtained from the soil and from fecal samples collected from children with infant botulism. We first observed differences in the appearance of the colonies between strains from each source and with the A Hall control strain...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Giulia Zanetti, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Marco Pirazzini, Thomas Binz, Clifford C Shone, Silvia Fillo, Florigio Lista, Ornella Rossetto, Cesare Montecucco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
(no author information available yet)
The APHA Wildlife Expert Group reports on disease identified by the APHA Diseases of Wildlife Scheme and Avian Influenza Wild Bird Surveillance project.
August 6, 2016: Veterinary Record
(no author information available yet)
▪ Current and emerging issues▪ Highlights from the scanning surveillance network▪ Update on international disease threats▪ Botulism outbreaks in wild waterbirdsThese are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) July disease surveillance report.
August 6, 2016: Veterinary Record
Chinni Yalamanchili, Vamshi K Manda, Amar G Chittiboyina, Rebecca L Guernieri, William A Harrell, Robert P Webb, Leonard A Smith, Ikhlas A Khan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ayurveda, an ancient holistic system of health care practiced on the Indian subcontinent, utilizes a number of multi-plant formulations and is considered by many as a potential source for novel treatments, as well as the identification of new drugs. Our aim is to identify novel phytochemicals for the inhibition of bacterial exotoxin, botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) based on Ayurvedic literature. BoNT/A is released by Clostridium species, which when ingested, inhibits the release of acetylcholine by concentrating at the neuromuscular junction and causes flaccid paralysis, resulting in a condition termed as botulism, and may also lead to death due to respiratory arrest...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Eva-Maria Hansbauer, Martin Skiba, Tanja Endermann, Jasmin Weisemann, Daniel Stern, Martin B Dorner, Friedrich Finkenwirth, Jessica Wolf, Werner Luginbühl, Ute Messelhäußer, Laurent Bellanger, Cédric Woudstra, Andreas Rummel, Patrick Fach, Brigitte G Dorner
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes C and D and their mosaic variants CD and DC cause severe cases of botulism in animal husbandry and wildlife. Epidemiological data on the exact serotype or toxin variant causing outbreaks are rarely available, mainly because of their high sequence identity and the lack of fast and specific screening tools to detect and differentiate the four similar toxins. To fill this gap, we developed four highly specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) able to detect and differentiate botulinum neurotoxins type BoNT/C, D, CD, and DC based on four distinct combinations of specific monoclonal antibodies targeting both conserved and divergent subdomains of the four toxins...
September 21, 2016: Analyst
D Jalda, A Junco, M Alvarez-Moreno, I Rodero, J Carneado-Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Botulism is a syndrome caused by the toxin of the bacillus Clostridium botulinum. The toxin acts by blocking the presynaptic cholinergic endings of the neuromuscular junction and of the parasympathetic nervous system, and gives rise to a flaccid paralysis and parasympathetic failure. The most common way to catch the disease is by ingestion of the preformed toxin present in badly sterilised home-made preserves, although other mechanisms are also possible. Its incidence in Spain today is very low...
July 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Kristin M Bompiani, Dejan Caglič, Michelle C Krutein, Galit Benoni, Morgan Hrones, Luke L Lairson, Haiyan Bian, Garry R Smith, Tobin J Dickerson
Botulism is caused by potent and specific bacterial neurotoxins that infect host neurons and block neurotransmitter release. Treatment for botulism is limited to administration of an antitoxin within a short time window, before the toxin enters neurons. Alternatively, current botulism drug development targets the toxin light chain, which is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease that is delivered into neurons and mediates long-term pathology. Several groups have identified inhibitory small molecules, peptides, or aptamers, although no molecule has advanced to the clinic due to a lack of efficacy in advanced models...
August 8, 2016: ACS Combinatorial Science
Sabine Pellett, William H Tepp, Marite Bradshaw, Suzanne R Kalb, Janet K Dykes, Guangyun Lin, Erin M Nawrocki, Christina L Pier, John R Barr, Susan E Maslanka, Eric A Johnson
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by neurotoxigenic clostridial species, are the cause of the severe disease botulism in humans and animals. Early research on BoNTs has led to their classification into seven serotypes (serotypes A to G) based upon the selective neutralization of their toxicity in mice by homologous antibodies. Recently, a report of a potential eighth serotype of BoNT, designated "type H," has been controversial. This novel BoNT was produced together with BoNT/B2 in a dual-toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum strain...
January 2016: MSphere
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Marta Buzzi, Anne Rossel, Matteo Coen, Laurent Kaiser, Mohamed Abbas
Clostridia are ubiquitous Gram-positive bacteria whose toxins are responsible for serious diseases. In this article we report a case of foodborne botulism we have recently managed. Moreover, we briefly describe the major clinical syndromes caused by different species of Clostridium (except for C. difficile infections, as this subject has been previously extensively reviewed in this journal). Botulism causes a flaccid paralysis starting with cranial nerves. Administration of botulism anti-toxin should be rapidly considered as soon as botulism is suspected, as prognosis is largely dependent on timely treatment; alerting the public health authorities is equally important...
April 13, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
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