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Kirsten M A Trayner, Amanda Weir, Andrew McAuley, Gauri Godbole, Corinne Amar, Kathie Grant, Gillian Penrice, Kirsty Roy
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at an increased risk of wound botulism, a potentially fatal acute paralytic illness. During the first 6 months of 2015, a large outbreak of wound botulism was confirmed among PWID in Scotland, which resulted in the largest outbreak in Europe to date. METHODS: A multidisciplinary Incident Management Team (IMT) was convened to conduct an outbreak investigation, which consisted of enhanced surveillance of cases in order to characterise risk factors and identify potential sources of infection...
July 11, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Ihtesham A Qureshi, Mohtashim A Qureshi, Anantha-Ramana Vellipuram, Darine Kassar
Wound botulism is a potentially lethal condition that can cause paralysis. Its association with black tar heroin is a well-established fact. It is essential to alert clinicians in recognizing the patients with history of injection drug abuse presenting with clinical features of botulism early on admission for prompt diagnosis and treatment.
July 2018: Clinical Case Reports
Nagarajan Thirunavukkarasu, Eric Johnson, Segaran Pillai, David Hodge, Larry Stanker, Travis Wentz, BalRam Singh, Kodumudi Venkateswaran, Patrick McNutt, Michael Adler, Eric Brown, Thomas Hammack, Donald Burr, Shashi Sharma
Botulism outbreak due to consumption of food contaminated with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) is a public health emergency. The threat of bioterrorism through deliberate distribution in food sources and/or aerosolization of BoNTs raises global public health and security concerns due to the potential for high mortality and morbidity. Rapid and reliable detection methods are necessary to support clinical diagnosis and surveillance for identifying the source of contamination, performing epidemiological analysis of the outbreak, preventing and responding to botulism outbreaks...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Caroline Le Maréchal, Sarah Fourour, Valentine Ballan, Sandra Rouxel, Rozenn Souillard, Marianne Chemaly
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have tested DNA extraction methods to optimize the detection of Clostridium botulinum in environmental samples that can be collected during animal botulism outbreaks. In this study, we evaluated four commercial DNA extraction kits for the detection of C. botulinum group III in 82 various environmental samples (9 manure, 53 swabs, 3 insects, 8 water, 1 silage and 8 soil samples) collected in a context of animal botulism outbreaks. RESULTS: The PowerSoil® kit was the most efficient for almost all matrices (83...
July 4, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Kieran Walsh
Case reports are commonly used to describe new infectious diseases. In the past 20 years, there have been an increasing number of emerging infectious diseases that could constitute a major threat to global health security (through naturally occurring pandemics or deliberate release of infectious agents). It is vitally important that case reports related to infectious diseases are written up according to the highest possible standards and that guidelines regarding patient consent to publish are followed. So, do case reports that relate to dangerous infectious diseases follow guidance related to patient consent? To help find the answer to this question, I looked at a sample of case reports published on PubMed between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016...
June 29, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Carla Cristina Squaiella-Baptistão, Fábio Carlos Magnoli, José Roberto Marcelino, Osvaldo Augusto Sant'Anna, Denise V Tambourgi
Background: Among other applications, immunotherapy is used for the post-exposure treatment and/or prophylaxis of important infectious diseases, such as botulism, diphtheria, tetanus and rabies. The effectiveness of serum therapy is widely proven, but improvements on the immunoglobulin purification process and on the quality control are necessary to reduce the amount of protein aggregates. These may trigger adverse reactions in patients by activating the complement system and inducing the generation of anaphylatoxins...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
S Hinton, O Schroeder, H Aceto, S Berkowitz, D Levine
BACKGROUND: Castration is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the horse. Complication rate and types of complications associated with use of the Henderson equine castrating instrument have not been determined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the complication rate and type of complications encountered when using the Henderson equine castrating instrument in equine ambulatory practice. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Medical records of horses undergoing routine castration using the Henderson drill were identified and evaluated for the occurrence of complications...
June 21, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Luca Bano, Elena Tonon, Ilenia Drigo, Marco Pirazzini, Angela Guolo, Giovanni Farina, Fabrizio Agnoletti, Cesare Montecucco
The presence of botulinum neurotoxin-producing Clostridia (BPC) in food sources is a public health concern. In favorable environmental conditions, BPC can produce botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) outside or inside the vertebrate host, leading to intoxications or toxico-infectious forms of botulism, respectively. BPC in food are almost invariably detected either by PCR protocols targeted at the known neurotoxin-encoding genes, or by the mouse test to assay for the presence of BoNTs in the supernatants of enrichment broths inoculated with the tested food sample...
June 19, 2018: Toxins
Siobhan M Mor, Jacqueline M Norris, Katrina L Bosward, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio, Michael P Ward, Jaime Gongora, Meg Vost, Peter C Higgins, Paul D McGreevy, Peter J White, Sanaa Zaki
Background: New educational approaches are needed to improve student understanding of the wider sociological and ecological determinants of health as well as professional responsibilities in related areas. Field trips allow students to observe interaction between plant, animal and human communities, making them an ideal tool for teaching One Health concepts. Methods: Veterinary medical students participated in a field trip to a local parklands area, frequented by humans, dogs, horses, and wildlife...
June 2018: One Health
Thomas M Feltrup, Kruti Patel, Raj Kumar, Shuowei Cai, Bal Ram Singh
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is responsible for botulism, a clinical condition resulting in flaccid muscle paralysis and potentially death. The light chain is responsible for its intracellular toxicity through its endopeptidase activity. Available crystal structures of BoNT/A light chains (LCA) are based on various truncated versions (tLCA) of the full-length LCA (fLCA) and do not necessarily reflect the true structure of LCA in solution. The understanding of the mechanism of action, longevity of intoxication, and an improved development of endopeptidase inhibitors are dependent on first having a better insight into the structure of LCA in solution...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
J Bernardor, J Neveu, H Haas, G Pitelet, M-R Popoff, C Mazuet, E Bérard, C Boulay, B Chabrol
Botulism is an uncommon severe neuromuscular disorder. We report two recent cases of confirmed infant botulism diagnosed in an 11-week and a 5-month-old infant along with electroneuromyogram (ENMG) findings. Then, we discuss the EMG features of infant botulism. In severe forms of infant botulism, presence of these features might help decide to use botulinum immune globulin. To our knowledge, case 1 is the first case reported in France based on confirmed dust contamination.
June 7, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Daniel Z Adams, Andrew King, Colin Kaide
We describe a case of wound botulism initially thought to represent Miller-Fisher variant Guillain-Barré syndrome (MFS). Botulism classically presents with the so-called "four D's" (diplopia, dysarthria, dysphagia, dry mouth) with symmetric, descending weakness. MFS presents with a triad of limb-ataxia, areflexia, and ophthalmoplegia, with variable cranial nerve and extremity involvement. The distinction can be difficult but is important as early initiation of botulinum antitoxin is associated with improved patient outcomes in cases of botulism...
August 2017: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
Eman Abdel Monaem Abdel Rashid, Nashwa Mohamed El-Mahdy, Huda Shehata Kharoub, Ahmed Salah Gouda, Naglaa Ahmed ElNabarawy, Bruno Mégarbane
Iatrogenic botulism resulting from the substantial increase in use of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) treatment is rarely reported. We aimed to describe a large iatrogenic botulism outbreak in Egypt in June-July 2017. Nine patients developed botulism after receiving intramuscular injections of BoNT-A (dose: 200-300 IU) to treat cerebral palsy (N = 7), spastic dystonia (N = 1) and hyperhidrosis (N = 1). Detailed findings were available in five of nine cases. Patients were admitted to the hospital 5-10 days after the BoNT-A injection...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Marco Pirazzini
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the etiological agents of botulism, are the deadliest toxins known to humans. Yet, thanks to their biological and toxicological features, BoNTs have become sophisticated tools to study neuronal physiology and valuable therapeutics for an increasing number of human disorders. BoNTs are produced by multiple bacteria of the genus Clostridium and, on the basis of their different immunological properties, were classified as seven distinct types of toxin. BoNT classification remained stagnant for the last 50 years until, via bioinformatics and high-throughput sequencing techniques, dozens of BoNT variants, novel serotypes as well as BoNT-like toxins within non-clostridial species have been discovered...
May 10, 2018: Toxins
Mingxiang Li, Dennis Lee, Chidi R Obi, Joel K Freeberg, Shauna Farr-Jones, Milan T Tomic
Safe and effective antitoxins to treat and prevent botulism are needed for biodefense. We have developed recombinant antibody-based therapeutics for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A, B, and E. The mechanism of action of this antitoxin requires that three mAbs bind one toxin molecule to achieve clearance. Here we present a co-formulation of an antitoxin to the three most important serotypes. Combining these antibodies obviates the need to identify the serotype causing intoxication prior to drug administration, which would facilitate administration...
2018: PloS One
Ali Tavassoli, Mahmood Sadeghi, Parviz Amri
Background: Botulism is an acute and rapidly progressive descending paralytic disease caused by a neurotoxin of clostridium botulinum. Case presentation: A 28-year-old woman presented with severe generalized ascending symmetrical muscle paralysis. The patient was intubated and transferred to the medical intensive care unit with several symptoms including: severe headache, dysphagia, dyspnea, ptosis, diplopia, and dry mouth. Despite being alert, pupils were bilaterally midriatic and had absent corneal reflux...
2018: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Jason Brunt, Andrew T Carter, Hannah V Pye, Michael W Peck
Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic spore forming bacterium that produces the potent botulinum neurotoxin that causes a severe and fatal neuro-paralytic disease of humans and animals (botulism). C. botulinum Group II is a psychrotrophic saccharolytic bacterium that forms spores of moderate heat resistance and is a particular hazard in minimally heated chilled foods. Spore germination is a fundamental process that allows the spore to transition to a vegetative cell and typically involves a germinant receptor (GR) that responds to environmental signals...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
F Driehuis, J M Wilkinson, Y Jiang, I Ogunade, A T Adesogan
Silage may contain several agents that are potentially hazardous to animal health, the safety of milk or other animal food products, or both. This paper reviews published literature about microbial hazards, plant toxins, and chemical hazards. Microbial hazards include Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium bovis, and various mold species. High concentrations of C. botulinum in silage have been associated with cattle botulism. A high initial concentration of C...
May 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Powel Kazanjian
In 1919, three deadly outbreaks of botulism caused by consumption of canned olives packed in California captured national headlines. In all of the outbreaks, which occurred in separate locales, unsuspecting people died after consuming tainted food during a banquet or family meal. The press's sensational portrayal of canned food as hazardous aroused alarm among consumers at a time when commercial canning was becoming more common. Intent on restoring the image of their product as safe and wholesome, canning industry leaders funded a "botulism commission" of scientific experts in 1919 to investigate how to systematically eliminate the threat of botulism that had imperiled their business...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
M Kuratle, R Baldinger, B Lienhardt Nobbe, P Dreessen, B Yuen
In this article, a case of severe foodborne botulism in a 78-year-old man due to homemade pesto is presented. His initial symptoms were gastrointestinal problems. Later he suffered of cranial nerve palsies, muscle weakness of the upper extremities and respiratory failure, so he had to be admitted to the intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation. The botulism was confirmed by serology and culture. Because of spontaneously improving neurological deficits, we decided not to treat with the botulism antitoxin and the patient had complete clinical remission...
April 11, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
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