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Soomin Lee, Heeyoung Lee, Sejeong Kim, Jeeyeon Lee, Jimyeong Ha, Yukyung Choi, Hyemin Oh, Kyoung-Hee Choi, Yohan Yoon
Nitrite plays a major role in inhibiting the growth of foodborne pathogens, including Clostridium botulinum that causes botulism, a life-threatening disease. Nitrite serves as a color-fixing agent in processed meat products. However, N-nitroso compounds can be produced from nitrite. They are considered as carcinogens. Thus, consumers desire processed meat products that contain lower concentrations (below conventional concentrations of products) of nitrite or no nitrite at all, although the portion of nitrite intake by processed meat consumption in total nitrite intake is very low...
March 13, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Désirée S Jansson, Caroline Bröjer, Aleksija Neimanis, Torsten Mörner, Charles L Murphy, Faruk Otman, Per Westermark
Since the late 1990s, high mortality and declining populations have been reported among sea birds including Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the Baltic Sea area in Northern Europe. Repeated BoNT type C/D botulism outbreaks have occurred, but it remains unclear whether this is the sole and primary cause of mortality. Thiamine deficiency has also been suggested as a causal or contributing factor. With this study, we aimed to investigate gross and microscopic pathology in Herring gulls from affected breeding sites in Sweden in search of contributing diseases...
2018: PloS One
Consuelo Garcia-Rodriguez, Ali Razai, Isin N Geren, Jianlong Lou, Fraser Conrad, Wei-Hua Wen, Shauna Farr-Jones, Theresa J Smith, Jennifer L Brown, Janet C Skerry, Leonard A Smith, James D Marks
Human botulism is most commonly caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A, B, and E. For this work, we sought to develop a human monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based antitoxin capable of binding and neutralizing multiple subtypes of BoNT/E. Libraries of yeast-displayed single chain Fv (scFv) antibodies were created from the heavy and light chain variable region genes of humans immunized with pentavalent-toxoid- and BoNT/E-binding scFv isolated by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS). A total of 10 scFv were isolated that bound one or more BoNT/E subtypes with nanomolar-level equilibrium dissociation constants (KD )...
March 1, 2018: Toxins
Jessica M Khouri, Ruth N Motter, Stephen S Arnon
OBJECTIVES: We undertook an open-label, uncontrolled study of investigational recombinant botulinum vaccine for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A and B (rBV A/B) to assess its safety and immunogenicity in healthy volunteers who had been previously immunized with investigational pentavalent botulinum toxoid. Study participants who wished to do so could donate their hyperimmune plasma for production of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV, BabyBIG®). STUDY DESIGN: A single 0...
February 20, 2018: Vaccine
Mitch J Hargis, Melissa Howdeshell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
Jianlong Lou, Weihua Wen, Fraser Conrad, Qi Meng, Jianbo Dong, Zhengda Sun, Consuelo Garcia-Rodriguez, Shauna Farr-Jones, Luisa W Cheng, Thomas D Henderson, Jennifer L Brown, Theresa J Smith, Leonard A Smith, Anthony Cormier, James D Marks
The standard of treatment for botulism, equine antitoxin, is a foreign protein with associated safety issues and a short serum half-life which excludes its use as a prophylactic antitoxin and makes it a less-than-optimal therapeutic. Due to these limitations, a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) product is preferable. It has been shown that combining three mAbs that bind non-overlapping epitopes leads to highly potent botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) neutralization. Recently, a triple human antibody combination for BoNT/A has demonstrated potent toxin neutralization in mouse models with no serious adverse events when tested in a Phase I clinical trial...
February 15, 2018: Toxins
Eddie Garcia, Abdul H Zaid, Diane P Calello, Lisa McHugh, Grant Arzumanov, Najaf Asrar, Ari Sapin, Kristin G Fless
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by the neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. The majority of cases are due to ingestion or injection drug use. Wound botulism from traumatic injury is exceedingly rare, with only one to two cases reported each year in the United States. CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with diplopia, dysphagia, and progressive weakness 10 days after sustaining a gunshot wound to his right lower leg...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Eran Diamant, Avi Pass, Osnat Rosen, Alon Ben David, Amram Torgeman, Ada Barnea, Arnon Tal, Amir Rosner, Ran Zichel
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the most poisonous substances known in nature, pose significant concern to health authorities. The only approved therapeutic for botulism is antitoxin. While administered to patients only after symptom onset, antitoxin efficacy is evaluated in animals mostly in relation to time post-intoxication regardless of symptoms. This is most likely due to the difficulty to measure early symptoms of botulism in animals. In the current study, a rabbit spirometry model was developed to quantify early respiratory symptoms of type E botulism that were further used as trigger for treatment...
February 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sarah S Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Kidong Son, Yong Kwan Kim, Chanjin Woo, Seung-Jun Wang, Youngsik Kim, Jae-Ku Oem, Weonhwa Jheong, Jipseol Jeong
An outbreak of botulism occurred over a two-month period beginning July 20, 2016. In all, 697 wild birds were found paralyzed or dead at the Namdong reservoir and 11 Gong-gu. Using a mouse bioassay, type C botulinum toxin was identified in the bird serum, liquid cultures of soil samples, and maggot extracts. To minimize further infection of wild birds, we opened the floodgates of the Namdong reservoir adjacent to the Yellow Sea; this decreased the water temperature and the nutrient load such as nitrogen and phosphorus...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Aaron B Bradford, James B Machamer, Trisha M Russo, Patrick M McNutt
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceedingly potent neurological poisons that prevent neurotransmitter release from peripheral nerve terminals by cleaving presynaptic proteins required for synaptic vesicle fusion. The ensuing neuromuscular paralysis causes death by asphyxiation. Although no antidotal treatments exist to block toxin activity within the nerve terminal, aminopyridine antagonists of voltage-gated potassium channels have been proposed as symptomatic treatments for botulism toxemia. However, clinical evaluation of aminopyridines as symptomatic treatments for botulism has been inconclusive, in part because mechanisms responsible for reversal of paralysis in BoNT-poisoned nerve terminals are not understood...
January 20, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Arti Sharma, Sarkaraisamy Ponmariappan, Rani Sarita, Syed Imtiaz Alam, Dev Vrat Kamboj, Sangeeta Shukla
Diseases triggered by microorganisms can be controlled by vaccines, which need neutralizing antigens. Hence, it is very crucial to identify extremely efficient immunogens for immune prevention. Botulism, a fatal neuroparalytic disease, is caused by botulinum neurotoxins produced by the anaerobic, Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria, Clostridium botulinum. Food-borne botulism and iatrogenic botulism are caused by botulinum toxin. Wound botulism, infant botulism, and adult intestinal botulism are caused by primarily C...
January 13, 2018: Current Microbiology
Imke Lueders, Carsten Ludwig, Johanna Kasberg, Christoph Georg Baums, Kerstin Klimke, Martin B Dorner, Dana Ströse, Volker Schmidt
Fatal clostridial infections and clostridial toxicoses are common in birds. Most fatalities are associated with toxin production and progress rapidly, often within 24 hours of infection. We describe an unusual and protracted course of disease in 6 captive brown pelicans ( Pelecanus occidentalis), which was believed to result from toxicosis by toxovar A produced by a mixed infection with Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens. Although the first death in the group occurred 3 days after signs of illness were documented, the remaining birds died over a 38-day period despite aggressive antibiotic and supportive therapy...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Amanda Przedpelski, William H Tepp, Madison Zuverink, Eric A Johnson, Sabine Pellet, Joseph T Barbieri
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the most toxic proteins for humans. BoNTs are single chain proteins with an N-terminal light chain (LC) and a C-terminal heavy chain (HC). HC comprises a translocation domain (HCN) and a receptor binding domain (HCC). Currently, there are no approved vaccines against botulism. This study tests a recombinant, full-length BoNT/A1 versus LCHCN/A1 and HCC/A1 as vaccine candidates against botulism. Recombinant, full-length BoNT/A1 was detoxified by engineering 3-amino acid mutations (E224A/R363A/Y366F) (M-BoNT/A1) into the LC to eliminate catalytic activity, which reduced toxicity in a mouse model of botulism by >106-fold relative to native BoNT/A1...
January 4, 2018: Vaccine
Dorothea Hellmich, Katja E Wartenberg, Stephan Zierz, Tobias J Mueller
BACKGROUND: Foodborne botulism is a life-threatening, rapidly progressive disease. It has an incidence of less than 10 cases per year in Germany and mostly affects several previously healthy people at the same time. The only specific treatment is the administration of botulism antitoxin. According to the German guidelines administration of antitoxin is recommended only in the first 24 hours after oral ingestion of the toxin. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old white woman and her 51-year-old white husband presented with paralysis of multiple cranial nerves and rapidly descending paralysis approximately 72 hours after ingestion of home-canned beans...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Jonathan Davies, Jay Rees, Sai Man Liu, K Ravi Acharya
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the life-threatening condition, botulism. However, while they have the potential to cause serious harm, they are increasingly being utilised for therapeutic applications. BoNTs comprise of seven distinct serotypes termed BoNT/A through BoNT/G, with the most widely characterised being sub-serotype BoNT/A1. Each BoNT consists of three structurally distinct domains, a binding domain (HC), a translocation domain (HN), and a proteolytic domain (LC). The HC domain is responsible for the highly specific targeting of the neurotoxin to neuronal cell membranes...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
Cédric Woudstra, Caroline Le Maréchal, Rozenn Souillard, Fabrizio Anniballi, Bruna Auricchio, Luca Bano, Marie-Hélène Bayon-Auboyer, Miriam Koene, Isabelle Mermoud, Roseane B Brito, Francisco C F Lobato, Rodrigo O S Silva, Martin B Dorner, Patrick Fach
Clostridium botulinum group III is mainly responsible for botulism in animals. It could lead to high animal mortality rates and, therefore, represents a major environmental and economic concern. Strains of this group harbor the botulinum toxin locus on an unstable bacteriophage. Since the release of the first complete C. botulinum group III genome sequence (strain BKT015925), strains have been found to contain others mobile elements encoding for toxin components. In this study, seven assays targeting toxin genes present on the genetic mobile elements of C...
December 26, 2017: Anaerobe
Karen Dunleavy, Alison Munro, Kirsty Roy, Sharon Hutchinson, Norah Palmateer, Tony Knox, David Goldberg, Vivian Hope, John Campbell, Emma Hamilton, David Liddell, Gillian Penrice, Avril Taylor
BACKGROUND: There is no research on public health interventions that alert people who inject drugs (PWID) to clusters/outbreaks of severe bacterial infections. In Scotland, during the botulism cluster/outbreak of Dec 2014-July 2015 harm reduction (HR) messages detailed on a postcard (Botulism Postcard) were distributed to PWID between Feb-April 2015. We examined the impact of the Botulism Postcard on cluster/outbreak awareness, healthcare seeking and HR behaviours among PWID; and their views on such clusters/outbreaks...
December 24, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
G Zariquiey-Esteva, D Galeote-Cózar, P Santa-Candela, A Castanera-Duro
INTRODUCTION AND CASE EVALUATION: Botulism is a rare disease in Europe, caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, notifiable, non-transmissible person-to-person and potentially fatal (between 5 and 10%) if not treated quickly. The favourable opinion of the Clinical Research Ethics Committee was obtained. We present the nursing care plan of a 49-year-old man with a diagnosis of bacterial intoxication caused by Clostridium botulinum, secondary to ingestion of beans in poor condition, who was admitted to the ICU for a total of 35 days...
December 22, 2017: Enfermería Intensiva
Stefan Carle, Marco Pirazzini, Ornella Rossetto, Holger Barth, Cesare Montecucco
The Genome Aggregation Database presently contains >120,000 human genomes. We searched in this database for the presence of mutations at the sites of tetanus (TeNT) and botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cleavages of the three SNARE proteins: VAMP, SNAP-25 and Syntaxin. These mutations could account for some of the BoNT/A resistant patients. At the same time, this approach was aimed at testing the possibility that TeNT and BoNT may have acted as selective agents in the development of resistance to tetanus or botulism...
December 19, 2017: Toxins
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