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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133849/canonical-germinant-receptor-is-dispensable-for-spore-germination-in-clostridium-botulinum-group-ii-strain-nctc-11219
#1
Charlien Clauwers, Cédric Lood, Vera van Noort, Chris W Michiels
Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic sporeforming bacterium that is notorious for producing a potent neurotoxin. Spores of C. botulinum can survive mild food processing treatments and subsequently germinate, multiply, produce toxin and cause botulism. Control of spore germination and outgrowth is therefore essential for the safety of mildly processed foods. However, little is known about the process of spore germination in group II C. botulinum (gIICb), which are a major concern in chilled foods because they are psychrotrophic...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128986/longitudinal-neurophysiological-assessment-of-intramuscular-type-a-botulin-toxin-in-healthy-humans
#2
L Lispi, L Leonardi, A Petrucci
The aim of this study is to assess the neurophysiological abnormalities of type A botulin toxin-infiltrated human muscle, and their evolution over time. Seried cMAP measurements, 3 and 20 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation, EMG, SFEMG over 3 months from toxin injection. Our findings consist in lack of decrement with 3 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation and facilitation with 20 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation; progressive increasing of jitter; early appearance of fibrillations; small and short motor unit action potential in the first 3 weeks, followed by increasing of MUAP amplitude and duration, with polyphasic morphology...
November 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127172/botulism-outbreak-causes-high-mortality-in-scottish-cattle
#3
(no author information available yet)
SAc C VS disease Surveillance report for july 2017 Botulism in finishing cattleSeasonal dermatitis in Cheviot ewesStreptococcus suis type 2 meningitis and septicaemia in pigletsRodenticide toxicity in chickens.
November 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111118/hsp90-and-thioredoxin-thioredoxin-reductase-enable-the-catalytic-activity-of-clostridial-neurotoxins-inside-nerve-terminals
#4
Marco Pirazzini, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Giulia Zanetti, Ornella Rossetto, Cesare Montecucco
Botulinum (BoNTs) and tetanus (TeNT) neurotoxins are the most toxic substances known and form the growing family of Clostridial neurotoxins (CNT), the etiologic agents of botulism and tetanus. CNT are composed of a metalloprotease light chain (L), linked via a disulfide bond to a heavy chain (H). H mediates the binding to nerve terminals and the membrane translocation of L into the cytosol, where its substrates, the three SNARE proteins, are localized. L translocation is accompanied by unfolding and, once delivered on the cytosolic side of the endosome membrane, it has to be reduced and reacquire the native fold to be active...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094676/a-large-outbreak-of-bovine-botulism-possibly-linked-to-a-massive-contamination-of-grass-silage-by-type-d-c-clostridium-botulinum-spores-on-a-farm-with-dairy-and-poultry-operations
#5
A Relun, L Dorso, A Douart, C Chartier, R Guatteo, C Mazuet, M R Popoff, S Assié
Type D bovine botulism outbreaks associated with poultry litter are increasingly reported in European countries, but the circumstances of exposure to Clostridium botulinum toxins remain unclear. In spring 2015, a large type D/C bovine botulism outbreak affected a farm with dairy and poultry operations. Epidemiological and laboratory investigations strongly suggest that the outbreak was caused by feeding cattle with insufficiently acidified grass silage that was contaminated by type D/C C. botulinum spores. The source of the spores remains unclear, but could have been a stack of poultry litter stored in the grass silage pasture before harvesting...
November 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093524/development-of-a-multiplex-endopep-ms-assay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-botulinum-toxins-a-b-and-e
#6
Osnat Rosen, Liron Feldberg, Tamar Shamai Yamin, Eyal Dor, Ada Barnea, Avi Weissberg, Ran Zichel
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are bacterial proteins that cause botulism, a life-threatening disease. The Endopep-MS assay permits rapid detection and serotypic differential diagnosis of BoNTs. The serotype-specific nature of this assay requires that each serum sample be aliquoted and individually tested, which in addition to the limited volume of clinical samples, especially in infants, points to the need for a multiplex assay. However, previous attempts to develop such an assay have been challenging, mainly due to inhibition of BoNT/A activity by the BoNT/E peptide substrate...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073888/effective-and-rapid-treatment-of-wound-botulism-a-case-report
#7
M Schulte, U Hamsen, T A Schildhauer, T Ramczykowski
BACKGROUND: The latest news shows several cases of contaminated heroin that is found in different parts all over Europe. This information can be helpful for the emergency doctors to find the correct diagnosis of wound botulism in patients who are intravenous drug users. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 40-year-old man who presented to the emergency department in 2016. He suffered from mild dysarthria, diplopia, dysphagia and ptosis since two days. The CT-scan of the cerebrum and the liquor were without any pathological results...
October 26, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054436/in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-screening-of-candidate-therapeutics-to-restore-neurotransmission-in-nerve-terminals-intoxicated-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-a1
#8
Phillip H Beske, Aaron B Bradford, Katie M Hoffman, Sydney Mason, Patrick M McNutt
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceedingly potent neurological poisons that block cholinergic release in the peripheral nervous system and cause death by asphyxiation. While post-exposure prophylaxis can effectively eliminate toxin in the bloodstream, there are no clinically effective treatments to prevent or reverse disease once BoNT has entered the neuron. To address the need for post-symptomatic countermeasures, we designed and developed an in vitro assay based on whole-cell, patch-clamp electrophysiological monitoring of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents in synaptically active murine embryonic stem cell-derived neurons...
October 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042313/the-hypothetical-protein-p47-of-clostridium-botulinum-e1-strain-beluga-has-a-structural-topology-similar-to-bactericidal-permeability-increasing-protein
#9
Kwok-Ho Lam, Ruifeng Qi, Shun Liu, Amelie Kroh, Guorui Yao, Kay Perry, Andreas Rummel, Rongsheng Jin
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are causative agents of the life-threatening disease botulism. They are naturally produced by species of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum as stable and non-covalent complexes, in which the BoNT molecule is assembled with several auxiliary non-toxic proteins. Some BoNT serotypes, represented by the well-studied BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A), are produced by Clostridium strains that carry the ha gene cluster, which encodes four neurotoxin-associated proteins (NTNHA, HA17, HA33, and HA70) that play an important role to deliver and protect BoNTs in the gastrointestinal tract during oral intoxication...
October 16, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031941/the-travel-diaries-of-tetanus-and-botulinum-neurotoxins
#10
Sunaina Surana, Andrew P Tosolini, Ione F G Meyer, Alexander D Fellows, Sergey S Novoselov, Giampietro Schiavo
Tetanus (TeNT) and botulinum (BoNT) neurotoxins, the causative agents of tetanus and botulism, respectively, are the most potent toxic molecules known to mankind. This extreme potency is attributed to: i) their specificity for essential components of the neurotransmitter release machinery present at vertebrate synapses, and ii) their high-affinity targeting to motor neurons by binding to polysialogangliosides and protein receptors. Comprising the clostridial neurotoxin family, TeNT and BoNTs engage distinct surface receptors and intracellular sorting pathways in neurons...
October 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982302/tracking-sources-of-clostridium-botulinum-type-e-contamination-in-seal-meat
#11
Daniel Leclair, Jeffrey M Farber, Franco Pagotto, Sandy Suppa, Bill Doidge, John W Austin
Botulism in Nunavik, Quebec is associated with the consumption of aged marine mammal meat and fat. The objective was to identify meat handling practices presenting a risk of contamination of seal meat with C. botulinum. Potential sources of contamination were assessed through interviews with igunaq producers from five communities of Nunavik. These sources were verified by detection and isolation of C. botulinum from igunaq prepared in the field from seal carcasses. Interviews indicated practices presenting a risk for contamination included: placing meat or fat on coastal rocks, using seawater for rinsing, and ageing meat in inverted seal skin pouches...
2017: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943257/immuno-detection-of-cleaved-snap-25-from-differentiated-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-provides-a-sensitive-assay-for-determination-of-botulinum-a-toxin-and-antitoxin-potency
#12
G Yadirgi, P Stickings, S Rajagopal, Y Liu, D Sesardic
Botulinum toxin type A is a causative agent of human botulism. Due to high toxicity and ease of production it is classified by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention as a category A bioterrorism agent. The same serotype, BoNT/A, is also the most widely used in pharmaceutical preparations for treatment of a diverse range of neuromuscular disorders. Traditionally, animals are used to confirm the presence and activity of toxin and to establish neutralizing capabilities of countermeasures in toxin neutralization tests...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937601/humoral-response-of-buffaloes-to-a-recombinant-vaccine-against-botulism-serotypes-c-and-d
#13
Denis Y Otaka, José D Barbosa, Clóvis Moreira, Marcos R A Ferreira, Carlos E P Cunha, Antônio R S Brito, Rafael A Donassolo, Ângela N Moreira, Fabrício R Conceição, Felipe M Salvarani
Botulism is a fatal intoxication caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which are mainly produced by Clostridium botulinum and characterized by flaccid paralysis. The BoNTs C and D are the main serotypes responsible for botulism in animals, including buffaloes. Botulism is one of the leading causes of death in adult ruminants in Brazil due to the high mortality rates, even though botulism in buffaloes is poorly reported and does not reflect the real economic impact of this disease in Brazilian herds. Vaccination is reported as the most important prophylactic measure for botulism control, although there are no specific vaccines commercially available for buffaloes in Brazil...
September 22, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924131/takotsubo-like-myocardial-dysfunction-in-a-patient-with-botulism
#14
Shuichi Tonomura, Yoshiaki Kakehi, Masatoshi Sato, Yuki Naito, Hisao Shimizu, Yasunobu Goto, Nobuyuki Takahashi
Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) can disrupt the neuromuscular and autonomic functions. We herein report a case of autonomic system dysfunction that manifested as Takotsubo-like myocardial dysfunction in a patient with botulism. Takotsubo syndrome results in acute cardiac insufficiency, another fatal complication of botulism in addition to respiratory muscle paralysis, particularly in patients with cardiovascular disease.
September 15, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923072/a-childhood-onset-intestinal-toxemia-botulism-during-chemotherapy-for-relapsed-acute-leukemia
#15
Noriko Ohyama, Michiko Torio, Kentaro Nakashima, Yuuki Koga, Shunsuke Kanno, Hisanori Nishio, Kei Nishiyama, Momoko Sasazuki, Haru Kato, Hiroshi Asakura, Satoshi Akamine, Masafumi Sanefuji, Yoshito Ishizaki, Yasunari Sakai, Shouichi Ohga
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a potentially fatal infection characterized by progressive muscle weakness, bulbar paralysis, constipation and other autonomic dysfunctions. A recent report suggested that cancer chemotherapy might increase the risk for the intestinal toxemia botulism in both adults and children. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 5-year-old boy, who developed general muscle weakness, constipation, ptosis and mydriasis during the third induction therapy for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898517/characterization-of-the-functional-activity-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-subtype-b6
#16
Tomoko Kohda, Keiji Nakamura, Koji Hosomi, Yasushi Torii, Shunji Kozaki, Masafumi Mukamoto
Clostridium botulinum produces the highly potent neurotoxin, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), which is classified into seven serotypes, A-G, and the subtype classification is confirmed by the diversity of the amino acid sequence among the serotypes. The BoNT from the Osaka05 strain is associated with type B infant botulism and has been divided into BoNT/B subtype B6 (BoNT/B6) by phylogenetic analysis and the antigenicity of its C-terminal heavy chain (HC) domain. However, the molecular basis for its properties, including the potency, is poorly understood...
September 12, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888640/a-bovine-botulism-outbreak-associated-with-a-suspected-cross-contamination-from-a-poultry-farm
#17
R Souillard, C Le Maréchal, V Ballan, F Mahé, M Chemaly, S Le Bouquin
In October 2014, an outbreak of botulism type D/C occurred on two cattle farms in close proximity. A poultry farm located nearby with no history of botulism had transferred poultry manure to both bovine farms before the beginning of the outbreak. Given this context, epidemiological investigation was conducted to determine if the poultry farm was a reservoir of C. botulinum type D/C and to identify the source of contamination on the cattle farms. Environmental samples were collected at three houses on the poultry farm (boot swabs from the surroundings, swabs from the ventilation system, boot swabs from the poultry litter and darkling beetles samples), and on the two cattle farms (silage samples, boot swabs from the cattle stalls, boot swabs from the cattle pasture and poultry manure samples)...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879524/uptake-of-clostridial-neurotoxins-into-cells-and-dissemination
#18
Chloé Connan, Michel R Popoff
Clostridial neurotoxins, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT), are potent toxins, which are responsible for severe neurological diseases in man and animals. BoNTs induce a flaccid paralysis (botulism) by inhibiting acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junctions, whereas TeNT causes a spastic paralysis (tetanus) by blocking the neurotransmitter release (glycine, GABA) in inhibitory interneurons within the central nervous system. Clostridial neurotoxins recognize specific receptor(s) on the target neuronal cells and enter via a receptor-mediated endocytosis...
September 7, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874241/infant-botulism-in-denmark-from-1995-to-2015
#19
Bergitte Drivenes, Tyra Grove Krause, Mikael Andersson, Luise Müller, Kurt Fuursted, Tanja Pedersen, Anne Kirkeby Hansen, Malene Landbo Børresen
INTRODUCTION: Infant botulism is a rare, probably underdiagnosed, life-threatening disease caused by the toxin-producing bacterium Clostridium botulinum. METHODS: We investigated reported cases of infant botulism in Denmark from 1995 to 2015, and compared the incidence with that of other western countries. RESULTS: We found nine cases of infant botulism in Denmark from 1995 to 2015. The incidence of infant botulism in Denmark was similar to that seen in other western countries, but likely underestimated...
September 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869522/recombinant-botulinum-neurotoxin-hc-subunit-bont-hc-and-catalytically-inactive-clostridium-botulinum-holoproteins-cibont-hps-as-vaccine-candidates-for-the-prevention-of-botulism
#20
Robert P Webb, Theresa J Smith, Leonard A Smith, Patrick M Wright, Rebecca L Guernieri, Jennifer L Brown, Janet C Skerry
There are few available medical countermeasures against botulism and the discontinuation of the pentavalent botulinum toxoid vaccine by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2011 has resulted in the need for a safe and effective prophylactic alternative. Advances in genetic engineering have resulted in subsequent vaccine efforts being primarily focused on the production of highly purified recombinant protein antigens representing one or more domains of the botulinum neurotoxin. Recombinant subunit vaccines based on the carboxy one-third of the toxin (Hc) developed in our lab against serotypes A-F have been shown to be safe and effective...
September 3, 2017: Toxins
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