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Dmitri Atiakshin, Igor Buchwalow, Vera Samoilova, Markus Tiemann
Mast cells are haematopoietic cells that arise from pluripotent precursors of the bone marrow. They play immunomodulatory roles in both health and disease. When appropriately activated, mast cells undergo degranulation, and preformed granule compounds are rapidly released into the surroundings. In many cases, the effects that mast cells have on various inflammatory settings are closely associated with the enzymatic characteristics of tryptase, the main granule compound of mast cells. Tryptase degranulation is often linked with the development of an immune response, allergy, inflammation, and remodelling of tissue architecture...
March 12, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Toy Lee, Derrick Sanderson, Paula Doyle, Gunhilde Buchsbaum
BACKGROUND: Rates of administration of intravenous sodium fluorescein during cystoscopy have increased since indigotindisulfonate sodium was removed from the market in 2014. Although sodium fluorescein has been extensively evaluated and found to be safe, side effects including anaphylaxis have been observed, with an incidence between 0.05% and 1.0%. CASE: We present a case of anaphylactic shock after administration of intravenous sodium fluorescein for the assessment of ureteral efflux in a patient with a history of frequent severe allergic reactions undergoing urethral lysis and cystoscopy for urinary retention...
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ghislaine Annie C Isabwe, Marlene Garcia Neuer, Leticia de Las Vecillas Sanchez, Donna-Marie Lynch, Kathleen Marquis, Mariana Castells
BACKGROUND: The increasing use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has led to a rise in hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), which prevent their use as first-line therapy. HSRs symptoms, diagnostic tools and directed management approaches have not been standardized. OBJECTIVE: We propose a novel evidence-based classification of HSRs to mAbs, based on the clinical phenotypes, underlying endotypes and biomarkers; as well as their management with desensitization. METHODS: Phenotypes, endotypes and biomarkers of HSRs to 16 mAbs for 104 patients were described and compared to the outcomes of 526 subcutaneous and intravenous desensitizations...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ning Ding, Jing Jiang, Pingping Qin, Qiaoxia Wang, Jiatong Hu, Zhigang Li
Mast cells (MCs) play a crucial role in mediating the establishment of networks among the circulatory, nervous and immune system at acupoints. However, the changes which occur in MCs during acupoint sensitization, i.e. the dynamic transformation of an acupoint from a "silenced" to an "activated" status, remain uncharacterized. To investigate the morphological and functional changes of MCs as an aid to understanding the cellular mechanism underlying acupoint sensitization, a rat model of knee osteoarthritis (OA) was induced by an injection of mono-iodoacetate (MIA) on day 0...
2018: PloS One
Shelley Dua, James Dowey, Loraine Foley, Sabita Islam, Yvonne King, Pamela Ewan, Andrew T Clark
BACKGROUND: Serum tryptase is useful in diagnosing drug and venom anaphylaxis. Its utility in food anaphylaxis is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether tryptase rises in food allergic reactions, optimal sampling time points, and a diagnostic cutoff for confirming a clinical reaction. METHODS: Characterized peanut allergic patients were recruited and underwent up to 4 peanut challenges and 1 placebo challenge each...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Juan Lu, Xiao-Mei Chen, Hao-Ran Huang, Fei-Peng Zhao, Fan Wang, Xiong Liu, Xiang-Ping Li
BACKGROUND: One of the most striking characteristics of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the presence of a very abundant immune cells infiltrate containing mainly T-lymphocytes. The purpose of this study was to present our analysis providing a comprehensive characterization of antitumor inflammatory response in NPC. METHODS: The densities of 9 types of inflammatory cells were assessed in 197 patients with NPC, including CD3 + T-lymphocytes, CD8 + cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, CD20 + B-lymphocytes, CD56 + natural killer (NK) cells, FOXP3 + regulatory T-lymphocytes, CD1a + immature dendritic cells, CD83 + mature dendritic cells, neutrophil elastase + neutrophils, and tryptase + mast cells...
March 1, 2018: Head & Neck
Vito Longo, Roberto Tamma, Oronzo Brunetti, Salvatore Pisconti, Antonella Argentiero, Nicola Silvestris, Domenico Ribatti
Mast cells are recognized as critical components of the tumor stromal microenvironment in several solid and hematological malignancies, promoting angiogenesis and tumor growth. A correlation between mast cells infiltration, angiogenesis and tumor progression has been reported for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma as well. Mast cells contribute to the aggressiveness of the pancreatic ductal carcinoma enhancing the expression of several pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2, platelet-derived growth factor and angiopoietin-1 as well as stimulating the pancreatic cancer cells proliferation by IL-13 and tryptase...
February 28, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Anastasia I Petra, Irene Tsilioni, Alexandra Taracanova, Alexandra Katsarou-Katsari, Theoharis C Theoharides
BACKGROUND: Cytokine interleukin (IL) 31 has emerged as an important component of allergic and inflammatory diseases associated with pruritus, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and mastocytosis. Mast cells (MC) are stimulated by allergic and nonallergic triggers, and play a critical role in such diseases by secreting histamine and tryptase as well as cytokines and chemokines. IL-33 has been reported to augment MC responses, but its effect on secretion of IL-31 is not known. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether IL-33 can stimulate the secretion of IL-31 from cultured human MCs and whether this response is augmented by either the neuropeptide substance P (SP) or immunoglobulin E (IgE) and anti-IgE in the absence or presence of IL-4...
March 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Ilaria Marech, Michele Ammendola, Christian Leporini, Rosa Patruno, Maria Luposella, Nicola Zizzo, Giuseppe Passantino, Rosario Sacco, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Valeria Zuccalà, Silvana Leo, Rosalba Dentamaro, Mariangela Porcelli, Pietro Gadaleta, Giovambattista De Sarro, Cosmo Damiano Gadaleta, Girolamo Ranieri
C-Kit protein is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase (TK) receptor (c-KitR-TK), which is predominantly expressed on mast cells (MCs) playing a role in tumor angiogenesis. It could be also expressed on epithelial breast cancer cells (EBCCs), but no data have been published regarding the correlation between mast cells positive to c-KitR (MCs-c-KitR), EBCCs positive to c-KitR (EBCCs-c-KitR), BC angiogenesis in terms of microvessel density (MVD) and the main clinic-pathological features. This study aims to evaluate the above parameters and their correlations in a series of selected 121 female early BC patients...
January 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Maria Magdalena Tomasiak-Łozowska, Maciej Klimek, Agnieszka Lis, Marcin Moniuszko, Anna Bodzenta-Łukaszyk
Anaphylaxis is defined as severe, life-threatening, systemic or general, immediate reaction of hypersensitivity, with repeatable symptoms caused by the dose of stimulus which is well tolerated by healthy persons. The proper diagnosis, immediate treatment and differential diagnosis are crucial for saving patient's life. However, anaphylaxis is relatively frequently misdiagnosed or confused with other clinical entities. Thus, there is a continuous need for identifying detectable markers improving the proper diagnosis of anaphylaxis...
February 24, 2018: Advances in Medical Sciences
Anuradha Rajamanickam, Saravanan Munisankar, Yukthi Bhootra, Chandra Kumar Dolla, Thomas B Nutman, Subash Babu
Infection with the helminth parasite Strongyloides stercoralis ( Ss ) is commonly clinically asymptomatic that is often accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia. Granulocytes are activated during helminth infection and can act as immune effector cells. Plasma levels of eosinophil and neutrophil granular proteins convey an indirect measure of granulocyte degranulation and are prominently augmented in numerous helminth-infected patients. In this study, we sought to examine the levels of eosinophil, neutrophil, and mast cell activation-associated granule proteins in asymptomatic Ss infection and to understand their kinetics following anthelmintic therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Pascale Dewachter, Sylvie Chollet-Martin, Claudie Mouton-Faivre, Luc de Chaisemartin, Pascale Nicaise-Roland
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are the main agents involved during perioperative immediate hypersensitivity. The etiological diagnosis (IgE-mediated allergy vs nonallergy) is linked to the clinical presentation together with tryptase and histamine levels and skin test results. The role of basophil activation test (BAT) needs to be better defined in this setting. OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of BAT compared with the results of skin testing in 31 patients experiencing immediate NMBA hypersensitivity and compare skin test results and BAT performances in the identification of alternative NMBAs...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Patrícia Rocha Martins, Rodolfo Duarte Nascimento, Aline Tomaz Dos Santos, Enio Chaves de Oliveira, Patricia Massara Martinelli, Débora d'Avila Reis
Chagas disease is an infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that affects millions of people worldwide and is endemic in Latin America. Megacolon is the most frequent complication of the digestive chronic form and happens due to lesions of the enteric nervous system. The neuronal lesions seem to initiate in the acute phase and persist during the chronic phase, albeit the mechanisms involved in this process are still debated. Among the cells of the immune system possibly involved in this pathological process is the mast cell (MC) due to its well-known role in the bi-directional communication between the immune and nervous systems...
February 22, 2018: Parasitology Research
Ramone Faith Williams, Rosalynn M Nazarian, Gideon P Smith
We present the case of woman in her 50s who developed numerous red-brown telangiectatic macules on her trunk and extremities, as well as persistent dry eyes and dry mouth. Skin biopsy was consistent with telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans (TMEP). Serum tryptase was elevated suggesting systemic involvement. Anti-Ro and La were negative. ANA was positive. Salivary gland biopsy revealed a focus score of 3 and immunostains revealed infiltrates of aberrant CD117 positive mast cells. This case suggests a mechanistic role of mastocytosis in salivary compromise...
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Elizabeth L McKinnon, Andrew J Rand, Alan D Proia
Purpose: To describe the ophthalmic symptoms and histopathological findings in a rare case of an eyelid mastocytoma in an adult. Observations: A man in his early 60s developed a painless, non-tender, non-pruritic, mobile nodule on the right lower eyelid beneath the inferior orbital rim. The lesion grew to 15 × 9 mm over eleven months. Biopsy revealed a diffuse infiltrate of histiocytoid and spindle-shaped mast cells forming cords and small nests between collagen fibers in the superficial and deep dermis...
March 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Yalin Zheng, Lin Nong, Li Liang, Wei Wang, Ting Li
BACKGROUND: Mast cell leukemia (MCL) is a very rare form of systemic mastocytosis (SM) and accounts for less than 0.5% of all mastocytosis. The diagnosis of MCL requires the presence of SM criteria, accompanied by leukemic infiltrating of atypical mast cells (MCs) in bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood as well as extracutaneous organs. MCL is a fatal disease that almost always behaves aggressively, and the median survival time is only about six months. Herein, we present a rare case of de novo MCL without CD25 expression and KIT mutations...
February 20, 2018: Diagnostic Pathology
Carine Gomez, Ania Carsin, Marion Gouitaa, Martine Reynaud-Gaubert, Jean-Christophe Dubus, Jean-Louis Mège, Stéphane Ranque, Joana Vitte
Pulmonary and systemic antifungal immunity influences quality of life and survival of people with cystic fibrosis. Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) induces specific IgG and IgE. Mast cells respond to IgE, IgG and direct interactions with Af. Mast cells are the source of the protease tryptase. We aimed at evaluating serum baseline tryptase as a potential biomarker of the Af-host interaction in cystic fibrosis patients. Serum baseline tryptase, IgE and IgG directed to Af extract and Af molecular allergens were measured in 76 cystic fibrosis patients...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Didier G Ebo, Margaretha Faber, Jessy Elst, Athina L Van Gasse, Chris H Bridts, Christel Mertens, Luc S De Clerck, Margo M Hagendorens, Vito Sabato
Quantification of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies constitutes an important measure to document anesthesia-related immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHRs). However, only a few drug-specific assays are available and their predictive value is not known. In cases of non-IgE mediated IHRs, diagnosis might benefit from cellular tests such as basophil mediator release tests and basophil activation tests (BATs). To review the potential and limitations of quantification of sIgE, mediator release, and BAT in anesthesia-related IHRs, a literature search was conducted using the key words allergy, basophil activation, CD63, CD203c, diagnosis, drugs, hypersensitivity, flow cytometry, MRGPRX2, specific IgE antibodies, leukotrienes, histamine, and tryptase; this was complemented by the authors' experience...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Mathias Schneeweiss, Barbara Peter, Siham Bibi, Gregor Eisenwort, Dubravka Smiljkovic, Katharina Blatt, Mohamad Jawhar, Daniela Berger, Gabriele Stefanzl, Susanne Herndlhofer, Georg Greiner, Gregor Hoermann, Emir Hadzijusufovic, Karoline V Gleixner, Peter Bettelheim, Klaus Geissler, Wolfgang R Sperr, Andreas Reiter, Michel Arock, Peter Valent
Systemic mastocytosis is a complex disease defined by abnormal growth and accumulation of neoplastic mast cells in various organs. Most patients exhibit a D816V-mutated variant of KIT, which confers resistance against imatinib. Clinical problems in systemic mastocytosis arise from mediator-related symptoms and/or organ destruction caused by malignant expansion of neoplastic mast cells and/or other myeloid cells in various organ systems. DCC-2618 is a spectrum-selective pan KIT and PDGFRA inhibitor which blocks KIT D816V and multiple other kinase-targets relevant to systemic mastocytosis...
February 8, 2018: Haematologica
B Sayyaf Dezfuli, M Manera, G Bosi, P Merella, J A DePasquale, L Giari
This investigation aims to fill gaps in our understanding of the intestinal immune cells of elasmobranchs. Whole digestive tracts of fifteen thornback ray Raja clavata were provided by a trawl fleet from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Histochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural observations were conducted on the spiral intestine. Three types of granular cells were identified; type I in epithelium, types II and III in lamina propria-submucosa, with each of them containing cytoplasmic granules with different ultrastructural characteristics...
February 9, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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