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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331682/post-mortem-tryptase-cut-off-level-for-anaphylactic-death
#1
R Tse, C X Wong, K Kesha, J Garland, Y Tran, S Anne, H Elstub, A D Cala, C Palmiere, K L Patchett
Serum mast cell tryptase is used to support the diagnosis of anaphylaxis. The recommended clinical cut-off for total tryptase (<11.4μg/L) appears unsuitable in the post mortem setting due to largely unknown processes which result in significantly elevated levels in these samples. Consequently there is no widely accepted tryptase cut-off level for diagnosing an anaphylactic death. This 5-year retrospective study compared total tryptase levels in post mortem femoral blood in anaphylactic deaths and control...
December 28, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329223/mast-cells-key-contributors-to-cardiac-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Scott P Levick, Alexander Widiapradja
Historically, increased numbers of mast cells have been associated with fibrosis in numerous cardiac pathologies, implicating mast cells in the development of cardiac fibrosis. Subsequently, several approaches have been utilised to demonstrate a causal role for mast cells in animal models of cardiac fibrosis including mast cell stabilising compounds, rodents deficient in mast cells, and inhibition of the actions of mast cell-specific proteases such as chymase and tryptase. Whilst most evidence supports a pro-fibrotic role for mast cells, there is evidence that in some settings these cells can oppose fibrosis...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319891/teicoplanin-anaphylaxis-associated-with-surgical-prophylaxis
#3
Tariq Azamgarhi, Ashik Shah, Simon Warren
BACKGROUND: The rate of true anaphylaxis to teicoplanin is currently unknown. METHODS: A case-series including all suspected anaphylactic reactions attributed to teicoplanin anaphylaxis within a single institution over a 29-month period were categorised according to the probability of true IgE mediated anaphylaxis using previously published criteria. The number of patients who receive Teicoplanin was determined and used to calculate the rate of IgE mediated anaphylaxis...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311469/-sex-differences-of-the-inflammatory-mediator-level-at-the-time-of-itch-onset-in-patients-with-chronic-venous-disease
#4
Yasushi Takai, Keiichi Hiramoto, Yoshiyuki Nishimura, Kazuya Ooi
 This study investigated the sex differences of the inflammatory mediator level at the time of itch onset in patients with chronic venous disease (CVD). Twenty-seven CVD patients (nineteen women, eight men) and nine healthy controls (five women, four men) participated. CVD-associated itching was observed in both men and women. Before sclerotherapy, both sexes had elevations in several itch-related mediators. Among these, women had significantly higher tryptase, whereas men had significantly higher β-endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280620/a-novel-electrochemiluminescence-peptide-based-biosensor-with-hetero-nanostructures-as-co-reaction-accelerator-for-the-ultra-sensitive-determination-of-tryptase
#5
Fang-Fang Wu, Ying Zhou, Han Zhang, Ruo Yuan, Ya-Qin Chai
In this work, a luminol-centric biosensor was constructed for the ultrasensitive detection of tryptase (TPS) combining dissolved O2 as the endogenous coreactant and Au-Ag-Pt hetero-nanostructures (AAPHNs) as co-reaction accelerator. Dissolved O2 could rapidly generate superoxide anion radical (O2•-) with the catalysis of AAPHNs to in situ react with luminol anion radical (L•-) to generate excited-state species 3-aminophthalate (AP2-*) for emitting ECL signal, resulting in a remarkable "single on" state...
December 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258788/anaphylactic-reactions-after-discontinuation-of-hymenoptera-venom-immunotherapy-a-clonal-mast-cell-disorder-should-be-suspected
#6
Patrizia Bonadonna, Roberta Zanotti, Mauro Pagani, Massimiliano Bonifacio, Luigi Scaffidi, Elisa Olivieri, Maurizio Franchini, Federico Reccardini, Maria Teresa Costantino, Chiara Roncallo, Marina Mauro, Elisa Boni, Fabio Lodi Rizzini, Maria Beatrice Bilò, Anna Rosaria Marcarelli, Giovanni Passalacqua
BACKGROUND: Up to 75% of patients with severe anaphylactic reactions after Hymenoptera sting are at risk of further severe reactions if re-stung. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is highly effective in protecting individuals with ascertained Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) and previous severe reactions. After a 3- to 5-year VIT course, most patients remain protected after VIT discontinuation. Otherwise, a lifelong treatment should be considered in high-risk patients (eg, in mastocytosis). Several case reports evidenced that patients with mastocytosis and HVA, although protected during VIT, can re-experience severe and sometimes fatal reactions after VIT discontinuation...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240865/mast-cell-burden-in-a-patient-with-cutaneous-disease
#7
Olabola Awosika, Misty Eleryan, Monica Rengifo-Pardo, Alison Ehrlich
<p>Mastocytosis is a disease characterized by the abnormal clonal proliferation of mast cells in skin and/or extracutaneous organs, often relating to activating mutations of c-KIT. Histopathology special stains, such as Giemsa, Leder, and Toluidine blue, are key for the diagnosis of cutaneous mastocytosis (CM). In adults, skin lesions can be associated with systemic disease. Tryptase is a diagnostic marker in mastocytosis and thought to reflect the burden of mast cell disease. In this report, we present a case of cutaneous mast cell disease with associated findings of elevated serum tryptase and mast cell infiltration of the bone marrow consistent with indolent systemic mastocytosis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221165/angiogenesis-in-adenosquamous-cancer-of-pancreas
#8
Nicola Silvestris, Katia Danza, Vito Longo, Oronzo Brunetti, Livia Fucci, Antonella Argentiero, Angela Calabrese, Ivana Cataldo, Roberto Tamma, Domenico Ribatti, Stefania Tommasi
Adenosquamous carcinoma of the pancreas (ASCP) is an uncommon variant of exocrine pancreatic malignancies, characterized by a histological admixture of adenomatous and squamous cell elements. This cancer is characterized by a poorly differentiated histology and a poorer clinical outcome compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Unlike PDAC, that is characterized by a low microvascular density (MVD) and collapsed vasculature, no data are available about angiogenesis in ASPC. Immunohistochemical evaluation of MVD and trypatse-positive mast cells (MCs) were performed on a single case of ASCP compared to PDAC...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210337/death-following-ceftazidime-induced-kounis-syndrome
#9
Idg Kitulwatte, S Gangahawatte, Ulms Perera, Pas Edirisinghe
Kounis syndrome, also known as allergic myocardial infarction or allergic angina syndrome, coincides with chest pain and allergic reactions. It involves the activation of interrelated inflammatory cells following allergic, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. We report a case of Kounis syndrome complicated by an injection of ceftazidime. A 52-year-old man developed shortness of breath and hypotension, leading to immediate unconsciousness, after a ceftazidime injection. Despite intensive care management, he showed no improvement and died approximately 19 h after ceftazidime administration...
December 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192477/mast-cells-and-cancer-a-review-of-literature
#10
Giovanni Paolino, Paola Corsetti, Elisa Moliterni, Serena Corsetti, Dario Didona, Marcello Albanesi, Carlo Mattozzi, Paolo Lido, Stefano Calvieri
Mast cells (MCs) are a potent proangiogenic factor in tumors, they product several pro- angiogenic factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF), tryptase and chymase. Tryptase is a serine protease classified as α-tryptase and β-tryptase, both produced by MCs. Tryptase degrades the tissues, playing an important role in angiogenesis and in the development of metastases. Serum tryptase increases with age, with increased damage to cells and risk of developing a malignancy and it could be considered the expression of a fundamental role of MCs in tumor growth or, on the contrary, in the antitumor response...
November 30, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189281/improvement-of-the-elevated-tryptase-criterion-to-discriminate-ige-from-non-ige-mediated-allergic-reactions
#11
Gabriel Gastaminza, Alberto Lafuente, Maria Jose Goikoetxea, Carmen M D'Amelio, Amalia Bernad-Alonso, Olga Vega, Juan Ambrosio Martinez-Molina, Marta Ferrer, Jorge M Nuñez-Cordoba
BACKGROUND: Differentiating between immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent and IgE-independent hypersensitivity reactions may improve the etiologic orientation and clinical management of patients with allergic reactions in the anesthesia setting. Serum tryptase levels may be useful to discriminate the immune mechanism of allergic reactions, but the diagnostic accuracy and optimal cutpoint remain unclear.We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of tryptase during reaction (TDR) alone and the TDR/basal tryptase (TDR/BT) ratio for discriminating IgE- from non-IgE-mediated allergic reactions, and to estimate the best cut point for these indicators...
November 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183244/sodium-butyrate-enhances-intestinal-integrity-inhibits-mast-cell-activation-inflammatory-mediator-production-and-jnk-signaling-pathway-in-weaned-pigs
#12
Chun Chun Wang, Huan Wu, Fang Hui Lin, Rong Gong, Fei Xie, Yan Peng, Jie Feng, Cai Hong Hu
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium butyrate on the intestinal barrier and mast cell activation, as well as inflammatory mediator production, and determine whether mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways are involved in these processes. A total of 72 piglets, weaned at 28 ± 1 d age, were allotted to two dietary treatments (control vs. 450 mg/kg sodium butyrate) for 2 wk. The results showed that supplemental sodium butyrate increased daily gain, improved intestinal morphology, as indicated by greater villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio, and intestinal barrier function reflected by increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased paracellular flux of dextran (4 kDa)...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181004/identification-of-secretory-leukoprotease-inhibitor-as-an-endogenous-negative-regulator-in-allergic-effector-cells
#13
Shintaro Matsuba, Toshiki Yabe-Wada, Kazuya Takeda, Tetsuya Sato, Mikita Suyama, Toshiyuki Takai, Toshiaki Kikuchi, Toshihiro Nukiwa, Akira Nakamura
Mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils are central effectors in allergic inflammatory disorders. These cells secrete abundant serine proteases as well as chemical mediators and cytokines; however, the expression profiles and functions of their endogenous inhibitors remain elusive. We found that murine secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) is expressed in basophils and eosinophils but in not in mast cells. SLPI-deficient (Slpi-/-) basophils produce more cytokines than wild-type mice after IgE stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173156/identification-of-human-acetylcholine-esterase-inhibitors-from-the-constituents-of-egb761-by-modeling-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#14
Lihu Zhang, Dongdong Li, Fuliang Cao, Wei Xiao, Linguo Zhao, Zhenzhong Wang, Gang Ding
EGb761, a standardized and well-defined product extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, has beneficial effects on the treatment of multiple diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identification of natural acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitors from EGb761 would provide a novel therapeutic approach against the Alzheimer's disease. A series of 21 kinds of promising EGB761 compounds were selected, and subsequently evaluated for their potential ability to bind AChE enzyme by molecular docking and a deep analysis of protein surface pocket features...
November 23, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172064/propofol-attenuates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-partly-through-inhibition-of-resident-cardiac-mast-cell-activation
#15
Xiaoqian Yu, Xiaotong Sun, Meng Zhao, Yonghao Hou, Jingxin Li, Jingui Yu, Yuedong Hou
Cardiac mast cell activation is involved in the process of myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury and exacerbates myocardial infarction. Propofol, an anesthetic with antioxidant property, can reduce myocardial infarct size in I/R injury. The present study was designed to investigate whether propofol can attenuate myocardial I/R injury by inhibiting resident cardiac mast cell activation by a Langendorff model. Thirty rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=6 per group): control group and four test groups (I/R, I/R+compound 48/80, I/R+propofol, I/R+compound 48/80+propofol)...
November 21, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165303/immunoreactivity-to-cyp24a1-but-not-vitamin-d-receptor-is-increased-in-mast-cells-of-keratinocyte-skin-cancers
#16
Antti Kaukinen, Hanna Siiskonen, Jukka Pelkonen, Ilkka T Harvima
In mouse skin models, mast cells have been shown to express vitamin D receptor (VDR) that can mediate the immunosuppressive effects of ultraviolet B radiation and vitamin D3. However, VDR activation leads to the expression of CYP24A1, a hydroxylase that can inactivate vitamin D3 metabolites. To examine immunoreactivity to VDR and CYP24A1 in mast cells from normal human skin, keratinocyte skin cancers, and disorders of chronic inflammation. Frozen biopsies were collected from the non-lesional and lesional skin of patients with actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease/squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and psoriasis...
November 22, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164232/mast-cell-derived-tryptase-in-geographic-atrophy
#17
D Scott McLeod, Imran Bhutto, Malia M Edwards, Manasee Gedam, Rajkumar Baldeosingh, Gerard A Lutty
Purpose: Our previous study demonstrated significantly more degranulating mast cells (MCs) in choroids from subjects with age-related macular degeneration compared to aged controls. This study examined the immunolocalization of tryptase, the most abundant MC secretory granule-derived serine protease, in aged control eyes and eyes with geographic atrophy (GA). Methods: Postmortem human eyes with and without GA were obtained from the National Disease Research Interchange...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161766/identification-of-alpha-gal-sensitivity-in-patients-with-a-diagnosis-of-idiopathic-anaphylaxis
#18
M C Carter, K N Ruiz-Esteves, L Workman, P Lieberman, T A E Platts-Mills, D D Metcalfe
IgE antibodies (Ab) specific to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) are responsible for a delayed form of anaphylaxis that occurs 3-6 hours after red meat ingestion. In a unique prospective study of seventy participants referred with a diagnosis of idiopathic anaphylaxis (IA), six (9%) were found to have IgE to alpha-gal. Upon institution of a diet free of red meat, all patients had no further episodes of anaphylaxis. Two of these individuals had indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM). Those with ISM had more severe clinical reactions but lower specific IgE to alpha-gal and higher serum tryptase levels, reflective of the mast cell burden...
November 21, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159510/differences-in-sampling-techniques-on-total-post-mortem-tryptase
#19
R Tse, J Garland, K Kesha, H Elstub, A D Cala, Y Ahn, S Stables, C Palmiere
BACKGROUND: The measurement of mast cell tryptase is commonly used to support the diagnosis of anaphylaxis. In the post-mortem setting, the literature recommends sampling from peripheral blood sources (femoral blood) but does not specify the exact sampling technique. Sampling techniques vary between pathologists, and it is unclear whether different sampling techniques have any impact on post-mortem tryptase levels. AIM: The aim of this study is to compare the difference in femoral total post-mortem tryptase levels between two sampling techniques...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145790/innate-immunity-in-cardiac-myxomas-and-its-pathological-and-clinical-correlations
#20
Anna Di Vito, Gianluca Santise, Chiara Mignogna, Eusebio Chiefari, Gabriella Cardillo, Ivan Presta, Franco Arturi, Natalia Malara, Francesco Brunetti, Annalidia Donato, Domenico Maisano, Stefania Leonetti, Daniele Maselli, Tullio Barni, Giuseppe Donato
Cardiac myxomas are the most common benign cardiac tumor. We investigated the immunohistochemical properties of 11 surgically excised cardiac myxomas, in order to analyze the correlation between macrophages and mast cell populations and clinical parameters. CD68(+)/CD163(-)/iNOS(-) (M0) cells represent the most abundant macrophage phenotype; however, CD68(+)/CD163(+) cells (M2) were also frequent. CD68(+)/iNOS(+) (M1) elements were rare. Mast cells, defined as a population of c-kit (CD117)(+) and/or tryptase(+) cells were also detected...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
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