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Chromogranin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692901/primary-high-grade-calcitonin-negative-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-thyroid-a-very-rare-cancer
#1
Joseph A Chorny, John J Orrego, José Manuel Cameselle-Teijeiro
Most medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs) are low grade and produce calcitonin. There are some calcitonin-negative MTCs that produce only calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Rarely, MTCs are negative for calcitonin and CGRP peptides, but contain their corresponding mRNAs. Primary thyroid neuroendocrine neoplasms other than MTCs are extremely rare. We describe a primary high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma that was negative for CGRP and calcitonin at both the protein and mRNA levels. A 42-year-old woman presented with a rapidly enlarging thyroid mass replacing most of the left lobe and isthmus...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679034/enteric-nervous-system-regulation-of-intestinal-stem-cell-differentiation-and-epithelial-monolayer-function
#2
Marissa Puzan, Sanjin Hosic, Caroline Ghio, Abigail Koppes
The Enteric Nervous System (ENS) is a complex network of neurons and glia, which regulates sensorimotor function throughout the gastroinestinal tract (GI). Here we investigated the role of the ENS and intestinal myofibroblasts in the maintenance of a primary intestinal epithelial barrier through regulation of monolayer permeability, cytokine production, and differentiation of intestinal stem cells. Utilizing a novel, in vitro, transwell-based coculture system, murine small intestinal stem cells were isolated and cultured with ENS neurons and glia or subepithelial myofibroblasts...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664741/primary-vaginal-gastric-type-adenocarcinoma-and-vaginal-adenosis-exhibiting-gastric-differentiation-report-of-a-series-with-detailed-immunohistochemical-analysis
#3
Richard Wing-Cheuk Wong, Michelle Moore, Karen L Talia, Raji Ganesan, W Glenn McCluggage
So-called gastric-type adenocarcinoma and related premalignant lesions have been characterized in the cervix, but similar lesions are not widely recognized in the vagina. We report a series of 11 vaginal glandular lesions exhibiting gastric differentiation, comprising 5 cases of adenocarcinoma and 6 of adenosis. All cases occurred in adults (aged 33 to 69) with no known history of diethylstilboestrol exposure. The vaginal adenocarcinomas exhibited morphologic features identical to gastric-type adenocarcinoma of the cervix, but 1 case additionally demonstrated basaloid and sarcomatoid components, which have not been previously reported in cervical gastric-type adenocarcinoma...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661717/primary-breast-carcinomas-with-neuroendocrine-features-clinicopathological-features-and-analysis-of-tumor-growth-patterns-in-36-cases
#4
Canan Kelten Talu, Cem Leblebici, Tulin Kilicaslan Ozturk, Ezgi Hacihasanoglu, Sevim Baykal Koca, Zuhal Gucin
Primary breast carcinoma with neuroendocrine features (NEBC) is an uncommon tumor. In the classification of WHO 2012, these tumors were categorized as: 1- neuroendocrine tumor, well-differentiated; 2- neuroendocrine carcinoma, poorly differentiated/small cell carcinoma; and 3- invasive breast carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. In this study, we reviewed NEBC except poorly differentiated/small cell carcinoma variant in order to define the morphological growth patterns and cytonuclear details of these tumors...
April 4, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659906/increased-chromogranin-a-positive-hormone-negative-cells-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#5
Abu Saleh Md Moin, Megan Cory, Jennifer Choi, Allison Ong, Sangeeta Dhawan, Sarah M Dry, Peter Butler, Robert Rizza, Alexandra Butler
Context: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and a loss of pancreatic acinar cells which can result in exocrine and eventually endocrine deficiency. Pancreatitis has been reported to induce formation of new endocrine cells (neogenesis) in mice. Our recent data has implicated Chromogranin A-positive hormone negative (CPHN) cells as potential evidence of neogenesis in humans. Objective: We sought to establish if CPHN cells were more abundant in chronic pancreatitis in humans...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659395/loss-of-psma-expression-in-non-neuroendocrine-dedifferentiated-acinar-prostate-cancer
#6
Peter Bronsert, Kathrin Reichel, Juri Ruf
The introduction of tracers targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has revolutionized PET imaging of acinar prostate adenocarcinoma. In general, an increasing PSMA expression is assumed with increasing dedifferentiation. Whereas loss of PSMA expression has been reported in case of neuroendocrine dedifferentiation, we present a patient with acinar prostate adenocarcinoma with a loss of PSMA expression after chemotherapy on PET/CT and in histological and immunohistochemical analyses. All tissue samples indicated the retention of acinar features but no expression of neuroendocrine markers (NSE, synaptophysin, chromogranin, and CD56), corresponding to nonelevated serum NSE...
April 13, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658283/-oligo-and-polysacharides-proteoglycans
#7
Lajos Jakab
After clearing up the confusion in the previously used nomenclature, the paper discusses the family of small-leucin-rich glycoproteins. After mentioning the family and its role in the organisation of the ground substance and in the regulation of inflammation, one unique molecule of proteoglycans is presented. This molecule is the inter-α-trypsin inhibitor. It has turned out that this peculiar molecule originally contains glycosaminoglycan beside the neutral carbohydrates. After summarizing the numerous connections of the proteoglycan molecule, the "self-sacrificing" nature of the molecule is presented...
April 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656116/chromogranin-a-and-its-derived-peptides-and-their-pharmacological-effects-during-intestinal-inflammation
#8
REVIEW
Nour Eissa, Hayam Hussein, Geoffrey N Hendy, Charles N Bernstein, Jean-Eric Ghia
The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ that produces a broad range of active peptides. Mucosal changes during inflammation alter the distribution and products of enteroendocrine cells (EECs) that play a role in immune activation and regulation of gut homeostasis by mediating communication between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) typically have altered expression of chromogranin (CHG)-A (CHGA), a major soluble protein secreted by EECs that functions as a pro-hormone...
April 12, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650834/-asynchronous-bilateral-neuroendocrine-breast-carcinoma-a-case-report
#9
Kaori Abe, Satoshi Mori, Yumi Koyama, Mayuko Takagi, Keita Adachi, Yukiko Hara, Eiko Waga, Katsuhisa Enomoto, Ryouichi Tomita, Shigeru Fujisaki, Tomohiro Hirano, Kenichi Sakurai
We report a case of asynchronous bilateral neuroendocrine breast carcinoma. The patient was a 49-year-old woman presenting with a bloody nipple discharge from the right breast. We suspected intraductal papilloma and performed a microdochectomy. A pathological analysis of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis as neuroendocrine carcinoma. The tumor was positive for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin, but negative for the HER2/neu marker. The Ki-67 labeling-index was 40%...
April 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626276/immunohistochemistry-in-diagnostic-parathyroid-pathology
#10
REVIEW
Lori A Erickson, Ozgur Mete
Pathologists are usually readily able to diagnose parathyroid tissues and diseases, particularly when they have knowledge of the clinical information, laboratory findings, and radiographic imaging studies. However, the identification of parathyroid tissue or lesions can be difficult in small biopsies, ectopic locations, supranumerary glands, and in some oxyphil/oncocytic lesions. Widely available immunohistochemical studies such as chromogranin-A, synaptophysin, keratin, parathyroid hormone, thyroglobulin, and thyroid transcription factor-1 can help in difficult cases...
April 7, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615106/differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-two-distinct-nkx6-1-populations-of-pancreatic-progenitors
#11
Idil I Aigha, Bushra Memon, Ahmed K Elsayed, Essam M Abdelalim
BACKGROUND: The expression of a specific combination of transcription factors (TFs) in the multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) is critical for determining pancreatic cell fate. NKX6.1 expression in PDX1+ MPCs is required for functional β cell generation. We have recently demonstrated the generation of a novel population of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived MPCs that exclusively express NKX6.1, independently of PDX1 (PDX1- /NKX6.1+ ). Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize this novel population to elucidate its role in pancreatic development...
April 3, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611053/extra-osseous-ewing-sarcoma-of-the-pancreas-case-report-with-radiologic-pathologic-and-molecular-correlation-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#12
Miglena K Komforti, Evgeniya Sokolovskaya, Catherine A D'Agostino, Ryma Benayed, Rebecca M Thomas
In 2002, due to extensive histomorphologic, immunohistochemical, and cytogenetic similarities, the World Health Organization unified undifferentiated small round blue cell neoplasms of soft tissue and bone (previously segregated as Ewing sarcoma or Primitive Neuroectodermal tumor) into one category: Ewing family of tumors (EFT). Osseous EFT are more common, and while extra-osseous EFT can occur anywhere in the body, those of the pancreas are rare and likely to be seen in the second decade of life in the head of the pancreas...
April 2, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609078/chromogranin-a-levels-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
Federico Verde, Petra Steinacker, Patrick Oeckl, Jochen H Weishaupt, Angela Rosenbohm, Vincenzo Silani, Albert C Ludolph, Markus Otto
Chromogranin A (CgA) is a protein found in large dense-core vesicles of neuroendocrine cells and neurons and regulating secretion. A relevance to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was suggested as its overexpression accelerates disease onset in model systems and it interacts with mutant forms of SOD1. Recently, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CgA levels have been reported in ALS patients relative to controls. With the aim of confirming this finding, we measured CgA and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNFH), an established ALS biomarker, in the CSF of 32 ALS patients and 32 disease controls...
February 27, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600100/unusual-cardiac-paraganglioma-mimicking-an-atypical-carcinoid-tumor-of-the-lung
#14
Dean Spencer, Mark Evans, Beverly Wang, J Lawrence Delrosario, Timmy Cheng, Jeffrey Milliken
We present a case of unusual cardiac paraganglioma (PG) initially misdiagnosed as atypical carcinoid tumor of the lung and discuss key clinical and pathologic characteristics that guide surgical management of these rare chromaffin cell tumors. A 64-year-old female with persistent cough and back pain was found to have a 4 cm × 3 cm mass abutting multiple cardiopulmonary structures. A biopsy was performed at an outside institution and pathology reported "atypical neuroendocrine carcinoma, consistent with carcinoid"...
January 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580118/invasive-solid-papillary-carcinoma-of-the-nipple-with-pagetoid-extension-and-nodal-metastasis
#15
Hideharu Domoto, Akiko Watanabe, Michio Sakata, Akihiko Shimada, Kiyoshi Mukai
We report a case of invasive solid papillary carcinoma (SPC) of the nipple with Pagetoid extension to the skin and lymph node metastasis. SPC is an uncommon primary breast cancer accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancers. Only 2 cases occurring in the nipple have been reported. However, both cases were without Pagetoid extension or lymph node metastasis. The presently reported tumor consisted of irregularly shaped solid cell nests with delicate fibrovascular cores. The tumor cells had round nuclei with low-grade atypia and eosinophilic cytoplasm...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576437/enterochromaffin-5-ht-cells-a-major-target-for-glp-1-and-gut-microbial-metabolites
#16
Mari L Lund, Kristoffer L Egerod, Maja S Engelstoft, Oksana Dmytriyeva, Elvar Theodorsson, Bhavik A Patel, Thue W Schwartz
OBJECTIVES: 5-HT storing enterochromaffin (EC) cells are believed to respond to nutrient and gut microbial components, and 5-HT receptor-expressing afferent vagal neurons have been described to be the major sensors of nutrients in the GI-tract. However, the molecular mechanism through which EC cells sense nutrients and gut microbiota is still unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: TPH1, the 5-HT generating enzyme, and chromogranin A, an acidic protein responsible for secretory granule storage of 5-HT, were highly enriched in FACS-purified EC cells from both small intestine and colon using a 5-HT antibody-based method...
March 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575826/paraganglioma-cytomorphologic-features-radiologic-and-clinical-findings-in-12-cases
#17
J Judd Fite, Zahra Maleki
BACKGROUND: The cytologic diagnosis of paraganglioma can be challenging because of its rarity, wide anatomic distribution, and variable cytomorphological features. DESIGN: The Johns Hopkins Hospital pathology archives were searched for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens confirmed as paraganglioma on histology (2003-2015). RESULTS: Twelve specimens from 10 patients (6 males and 4 females) with an age range of 16-81 years (mean = 47) were included...
March 25, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567279/-neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-breast-myth-or-reality-a-systematic-review
#18
Claire Cheymol, Olivia Abramovici, Christine Do Cao, Aurélie Dumont, Yves-Marie Robin, Farid El Hajbi, Eric Dansin, Jacques Bonneterre, Géraldine Lauridant
Primary neuroendocrine breast carcinomas are rare and little-known tumors. Only a limited number of studies on neuroendocrine breast carcinomas have been reported in the literature, and the vast majority of them are small retrospective series or case reports. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), they account for only 2 % to 5 % of breast cancers. Their diagnosis relies on the presence of a neuroendocrine architecture and the expression of neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin)...
March 19, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566943/p16-is-a-useful-supplemental-diagnostic-marker-of-pulmonary-small-cell-carcinoma-in-small-biopsies-and-cytology-specimens
#19
Marián Švajdler, Roman Mezencev, Ondrej Ondič, Bohuslava Šašková, Petr Mukenšnábl, Michal Michal
Pulmonary small cell carcinoma (SCLC) is usually diagnosed in small biopsy or cytological specimens based on cytomorphology; however in ambiguous cases diagnosis requires additional support by immunohistochemistry. While TP53 and RB1 alterations with secondary overexpression of p16 are mainstay events in SCLC pathogenesis, diagnostic value of p16-positivity in the diagnosis of SCLC has not yet been fully investigated. We examined the expression of p16, CD56, synaptophysin (SYP), chromogranin A and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1) in a series of pulmonary and extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas, pulmonary carcinoids and non-small cell lung carcinomas, and compared diagnostic performance of these markers in the diagnosis of SCLC...
April 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564132/large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-arising-in-the-endometrium-a-case-report
#20
Jumpei Ogura, Yasushi Adachi, Koji Yasumoto, Akiharu Okamura, Hirofumi Nonogaki, Kazuyo Kakui, Koji Yamanoi, Koh Suginami, Takashi Koyama, Susumu Ikehara
Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the endometrium is an extremely rare, high-grade malignant tumor. We herein report a case of a rapidly growing LCNEC arising in the endometrium. A 52-year-old woman was referred to Toyooka Hospital (Tooyoka, Japan) due to genital bleeding in February 2016. There had been no abnormalities on a regular gynecological and physical examination 3 months prior to the consultation. Imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and a pelvic examination revealed a tumor sized 16...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
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