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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331895/reduction-in-soil-n2o-emissions-by-ph-manipulation-and-enhanced-nosz-gene-transcription-under-different-water-regimes
#1
Muhammad Shaaban, Yupeng Wu, Muhammad Salman Khalid, Qi-An Peng, Xiangyu Xu, Lei Wu, Aneela Younas, Saqib Bashir, Yongliang Mo, Shan Lin, Muhammad Zafar-Ul-Hye, Muhammad Abid, Ronggui Hu
Several studies have been carried out to examine nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural soils in the past. However, the emissions of N2O particularly during amelioration of acidic soils have been rarely studied. We carried out the present study using a rice-rapeseed rotation soil (pH 5.44) that was amended with dolomite (0, 1 and 2 g kg-1 soil) under 60% water filled pore space (WFPS) and flooding. N2O emissions and several soil properties (pH, NH4+N, NO3--N, and nosZ gene transcripts) were measured throughout the study...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331490/supervised-machine-learning-for-population-genetics-a-new-paradigm
#2
REVIEW
Daniel R Schrider, Andrew D Kern
As population genomic datasets grow in size, researchers are faced with the daunting task of making sense of a flood of information. To keep pace with this explosion of data, computational methodologies for population genetic inference are rapidly being developed to best utilize genomic sequence data. In this review we discuss a new paradigm that has emerged in computational population genomics: that of supervised machine learning (ML). We review the fundamentals of ML, discuss recent applications of supervised ML to population genetics that outperform competing methods, and describe promising future directions in this area...
January 10, 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330821/effects-of-ferrous-sulfate-amendment-and-water-management-on-rice-growth-and-metal-loid-accumulation-in-arsenic-and-lead-co-contaminated-soil
#3
Lina Zou, Shu Zhang, Dechao Duan, Xinqiang Liang, Jiyan Shi, Jianming Xu, Xianjin Tang
Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) commonly co-exist with high concentrations in paddy soil mainly due to human activities in south of China. This study investigates the effect of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) amendment and water management on rice growth and arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) accumulation in rice plants. A paddy soil co-contaminated with As and Pb was chosen for the pot experiment with three FeSO4 levels (0, 0.25, and 1%, on a dry weight basis) and two water managements (flooded, non-flooded). The concentrations of As and Pb in iron plaques and rice plants were determined...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329536/dietary-flavonoid-intake-in-older-adults-how-many-days-of-dietary-assessment-are-required-and-what-is-the-impact-of-seasonality
#4
Katherine Kent, Karen E Charlton, Simone Lee, Jonathon Mond, Joanna Russell, Paul Mitchell, Victoria M Flood
BACKGROUND: Within- and between-person variation in nutrient intake is well established, but little is known about variability in dietary flavonoid intake, including the effect of seasonality. METHODS: Within- and between-individual variability of flavonoid intake, and intake of flavonoid subclasses was examined in older adults (n = 79; mean age 70.1 y (range: 60y-80y)), using three separate 4-day weighed food records (WFR) collected approximately 4 months apart...
January 12, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328062/cyanobacterial-photosynthesis-under-sulfidic-conditions-insights-from-the-isolate-leptolyngbya-sp-strain-hensonii
#5
Trinity L Hamilton, Judith M Klatt, Dirk de Beer, Jennifer L Macalady
We report the isolation of a pinnacle-forming cyanobacterium isolated from a microbial mat covering the sediment surface at Little Salt Spring-a flooded sinkhole in Florida with a perennially microoxic and sulfidic water column. The draft genome of the isolate encodes all of the enzymatic machinery necessary for both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, as well as genes for methylating hopanoids at the C-2 position. The physiological response of the isolate to H2S is complex: (i) no induction time is necessary for anoxygenic photosynthesis; (ii) rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are regulated by both H2S and irradiance; (iii) O2 production is inhibited by H2S concentrations as low as 1 μM and the recovery rate of oxygenic photosynthesis is dependent on irradiance; (iv) under the optimal light conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis, rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are nearly double those of oxygenic photosynthesis...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327721/midazolam-use-for-dental-conscious-sedation-how-safe-are-we
#6
Z Shehabi, C Flood, L Matthew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326981/adaptation-required-to-preserve-future-high-end-river-flood-risk-at-present-levels
#7
Sven N Willner, Anders Levermann, Fang Zhao, Katja Frieler
Earth's surface temperature will continue to rise for another 20 to 30 years even with the strongest carbon emission reduction currently considered. The associated changes in rainfall patterns can result in an increased flood risk worldwide. We compute the required increase in flood protection to keep high-end fluvial flood risk at present levels. The analysis is carried out worldwide for subnational administrative units. Most of the United States, Central Europe, and Northeast and West Africa, as well as large parts of India and Indonesia, require the strongest adaptation effort...
January 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324746/the-relationship-between-observational-scale-and-explained-variance-in-benthic-communities
#8
Alison M Flanagan, Roger D Flood, Michael G Frisk, Corey D Garza, Glenn R Lopez, Nicole P Maher, Robert M Cerrato
This study addresses the impact of spatial scale on explaining variance in benthic communities. In particular, the analysis estimated the fraction of community variation that occurred at a spatial scale smaller than the sampling interval (i.e., the geographic distance between samples). This estimate is important because it sets a limit on the amount of community variation that can be explained based on the spatial configuration of a study area and sampling design. Six benthic data sets were examined that consisted of faunal abundances, common environmental variables (water depth, grain size, and surficial percent cover), and sonar backscatter treated as a habitat proxy (categorical acoustic provinces)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324437/performance-of-a-high-resolution-depth-encoding-pet-detector-module-using-linearly-graded-sipm-arrays
#9
Junwei Du, Xiaowei Bai, Alberto Gola, Fabio Acerbi, Alessandro Ferri, Claudio Piemonte, Yongfeng Yang, Simon R Cherry
The goal of this study was to exploit the excellent spatial resolution characteristics of a position-sensitive silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and develop a high-resolution depth-of-interaction (DOI) encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector module. The detector consists of a 30 x 30 array of 0.445 mm x 0.445 mm x 20 mm polished LYSO crystals coupled to two 15.5 mm x 15.5 mm linearly-graded SiPM (LG-SiPM) arrays at both ends. The flood histograms show that all the crystals in the LYSO array can be resolved...
January 11, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324365/how-does-social-support-relieve-depression-among-flood-victims-the-contribution-of-feelings-of-safety-self-disclosure-and-negative-cognition
#10
Rui Zhen, Lijuan Quan, Xiao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common post-trauma symptoms that can be alleivated by social support. The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediating effects of social support on depression via feelings of safety, disclosure, and negative cognition. METHOD: One hundred and eighty-seven flood victims in Wuhu City, an area affected most severely by a flood during July 2016, were selected to complete a self-report questionnaire package. RESULTS: Social support has four indirect negative effects on depression, including a one-step indirect path to self-disclosure, 2 two-step paths from feelings of safety to self-disclosure, and from self-disclosure to negative cognition about self, and a three-step indirect path from feelings of life safety via self-disclosure to negative self-cognition...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322271/responses-of-macroinvertebrate-communities-to-pesticide-application-in-irrigated-rice-fields
#11
Cristina Stenert, Íris C M F de Mello, Mateus M Pires, Débora S Knauth, Naoki Katayama, Leonardo Maltchik
The ability to recover to original states after disturbances makes macroinvertebrates useful tools for assessing the impacts of pesticides. Many studies showed that direct exposure to pesticides decreases macroinvertebrate richness and alters their composition. The main objective of this study was to assess recovery patterns in macroinvertebrate communities after pesticide application in irrigated rice fields. We analyzed short-term temporal dynamics of macroinvertebrate communities after application of the herbicides bispyribac-sodium and clomazone and the insecticide chlorantraniliprole, over the rice-growing season in southern Brazil...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321871/leaf-trait-variations-associated-with-habitat-affinity-of-tropical-karst-tree-species
#12
Nalaka Geekiyanage, Uromi Manage Goodale, Kunfang Cao, Kaoru Kitajima
Karst hills, that is, jagged topography created by dissolution of limestone and other soluble rocks, are distributed extensively in tropical forest regions, including southern parts of China. They are characterized by a sharp mosaic of water and nutrient availability, from exposed hilltops with poor soil development to valleys with occasional flooding, to which trees show species-specific distributions. Here we report the relationship of leaf functional traits to habitat preference of tropical karst trees. We described leaf traits of 19 tropical tree species in a seasonal karst rainforest in Guangxi Province, China, 12 species in situ and 13 ex situ in a non-karst arboretum, which served as a common garden, with six species sampled in both...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321607/responses-in-shoot-elongation-carbohydrate-utilization-and-growth-recovery-of-an-invasive-species-to-submergence-at-different-water-temperatures
#13
Xiao Qi Ye, Bo Zeng, Jin Liu Meng, Ming Wu, Xiao Ping Zhang
Widely distributed amphibious exotic plant species may respond plastically to water temperatures when submerged. Alternanthera philoxeroides, a highly flood-tolerant species, originates from tropical regions and has successfully invaded temperate regions. The wide distribution of this species suggests it can respond to flooding at different water temperatures. In this study, the plastic responses of A. philoxeroides plants to submergence at water temperatures of 10 °C, 20 °C and 30 °C were investigated...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319418/aluminum-and-iron-leaching-from-power-plant-coal-fly-ash-for-preparation-of-polymeric-aluminum-ferric-chloride
#14
Yadong Zhang, Ming Li, Dong Liu, Xulian Hou, Jinglun Zou, Xiaotong Ma, Fanyi Shang, Zhaowen Wang
In this work, aluminum and iron existing in coal fly ash were extracted by method of hydrochloric acid leaching. Effects of solid-liquid ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, acid concentration, and raw ash mesh on recovery efficiencies of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 were investigated. XRD analysis indicated that anhydrite, hematite, mullite and quartz were the dominant minerals in the raw fly ash sample. XRF technique was applied to determine the mass fractions of chemical components in the raw ash and leached residues, while the concentrations of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in leaching solutions were measured by titration method...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316275/functional-trait-ecology-of-the-plateau-pika-ochotona-curzoniae-hodgson-1858-in-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-ecosystem
#15
Andrew T Smith, Badingqiuying, Maxwell C Wilson, Brigitte W Hogan
Understanding a species' functional traits allows for a directed and productive perspective on the role a species plays in nature, thus its relative importance to conservation planning. The functional trait ecology of the plateau pika Ochotona curzoniae (Hodgson, 1858) is examined to better understand the resilience and sustainability of the high alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The key functional traits of plateau pikas are their abundance and behavior of digging extensive burrow systems...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313187/allelic-variants-of-ossub1a-cause-differential-expression-of-transcription-factor-genes-in-response-to-submergence-in-rice
#16
Niharika Sharma, Trang Minh Dang, Namrata Singh, Slobodan Ruzicic, Bernd Mueller-Roeber, Ute Baumann, Sigrid Heuer
BACKGROUND: Flooding during seasonal monsoons affects millions of hectares of rice-cultivated areas across Asia. Submerged rice plants die within a week due to lack of oxygen, light and excessive elongation growth to escape the water. Submergence tolerance was first reported in an aus-type rice landrace, FR13A, and the ethylene-responsive transcription factor (TF) gene SUB1A-1 was identified as the major tolerance gene. Intolerant rice varieties generally lack the SUB1A gene but some intermediate tolerant varieties, such as IR64, carry the allelic variant SUB1A-2...
January 8, 2018: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312820/resistance-strategies-of-phragmites-australis-common-reed-to-pb-pollution-in-flood-and-drought-conditions
#17
Na Zhang, Jinwei Zhang, Zhiqiang Li, Jing Chen, Zhenhua Zhang, Chunsheng Mu
Resistance strategies of clonal organs, and parent and offspring shoots of Phragmites australis (common reed) to heavy metal pollution in soils are not well known. To clarify the tolerance or resistance strategies in reeds, we conducted a pot experiment with five levels of Pb concentration (0∼4,500 mg kg-1) in flood and drought conditions. Lead toxicity had no inhibitory effect on the number of offspring shoots in flood environment; however, biomass accumulation, and photosynthetic and clonal growth parameters were inhibited in both water environment...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310622/entrapment-as-a-mediator-of-suicide-crises
#18
Shuang Li, Zimri S Yaseen, Hae-Joon Kim, Jessica Briggs, Molly Duffy, Anna Frechette-Hagan, Lisa J Cohen, Igor I Galynker
BACKGROUND: Prior research has validated the construct of a suicide crisis syndrome (SCS), a specific psychological state that precedes and may precipitate suicidal behavior. The feeling of entrapment is a central concept of the SCS as well as of several other recent models of suicide. However, its exact relationship with suicidality is not fully understood. In efforts to clarify the exact role of entrapment in the suicidal process, we have examined if entrapment mediates the relationship of other components of the SCS, including ruminative flooding, panic-dissociation, fear of dying and emotional pain, with suicidal ideation (SI) in recently hospitalized psychiatric inpatients...
January 8, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310032/understanding-the-uncertainty-of-estimating-herbicide-and-nutrient-mass-loads-in-a-flood-event-with-guidance-on-estimator-selection
#19
Andrew Joseph Novic, Christoph Ort, Dominique S O'Brien, Stephen E Lewis, Aaron M Davis, Jochen F Mueller
The aim of this study was to understand the uncertainty of estimating loads for observed herbicides and nutrients during a flood event and provide guidance on estimator selection. A high-resolution grab sampling campaign (258 samples over 100 h) was conducted during a flood event in a tropical waterway in Queensland, Australia. Ten herbicides and three nutrient compounds were detected at elevated concentrations. Each had a unique chemograph with differences in transport processes (e.g. dependence on flow, dilution processes and timing of concentration pulses)...
December 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309964/a-framework-to-assess-landscape-structural-capacity-to-provide-regulating-ecosystem-services-in-west-africa
#20
Justice Nana Inkoom, Susanne Frank, Klaus Greve, Christine Fürst
The Sudanian savanna landscapes of West Africa are amongst the world's most vulnerable areas to climate change impacts. Inappropriate land use and agriculture management practices continuously impede the capacity of agricultural landscapes to provide ecosystem services (ES). Given the absence of practical assessment techniques to evaluate the landscape's capacity to provide regulating ES in this region, the goal of this paper is to propose an integrative assessment framework which combines remote sensing, geographic information systems, expert weighting and landscape metrics-based assessment...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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