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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086953/student-and-faculty-perceptions-on-the-rapid-scale-up-of-medical-students-in-ethiopia
#1
Brittney S Mengistu, Holly Vins, Caitrin M Kelly, Daphne R McGee, Jennifer O Spicer, Miliard Derbew, Abebe Bekele, Damen Haile Mariam, Carlos Del Rio, Henry M Blumberg, Dawn L Comeau
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is a country of over 94 million people that has a severe physician shortage with approximately only 2.5 physicians per 100,000 persons. Recently, the Ethiopian government implemented a "flood and retain" initiative to rapidly increase the quantity of physicians in Ethiopia. Consequently, medical student enrollment at Addis Ababa University (AAU) School of Medicine increased from 100 to approximately 300-400 students per class. This study evaluated the impact of the rapid scale-up in the number of medical students on the quality of medical education at AAU and the impact of the U...
January 13, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086893/seasonal-variation-in-geographical-access-to-maternal-health-services-in-regions-of-southern-mozambique
#2
Prestige Tatenda Makanga, Nadine Schuurman, Charfudin Sacoor, Helena Edith Boene, Faustino Vilanculo, Marianne Vidler, Laura Magee, Peter von Dadelszen, Esperança Sevene, Khátia Munguambe, Tabassum Firoz
BACKGROUND: Geographic proximity to health facilities is a known determinant of access to maternal care. Methods of quantifying geographical access to care have largely ignored the impact of precipitation and flooding. Further, travel has largely been imagined as unimodal where one transport mode is used for entire journeys to seek care. This study proposes a new approach for modeling potential spatio-temporal access by evaluating the impact of precipitation and floods on access to maternal health services using multiple transport modes, in southern Mozambique...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086866/perceptions-and-utilization-of-generic-medicines-in-guatemala-a-mixed-methods-study-with-physicians-and-pharmacy-staff
#3
David Flood, Irène Mathieu, Anita Chary, Pablo García, Peter Rohloff
BACKGROUND: Access to low-cost essential generic medicines is a critical health policy goal in low-and-middle income countries (LMICs). Guatemala is an LMIC where there is both limited availability and affordability of these medications. However, attitudes of physicians and pharmacy staff regarding low-cost generics, especially generics for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), have not been fully explored in Guatemala. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews with 30 pharmacy staff and 12 physicians in several highland towns in Guatemala were conducted...
January 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081273/assessing-the-impact-of-retreat-mechanisms-in-a-simple-antarctic-ice-sheet-model-using-bayesian-calibration
#4
Kelsey L Ruckert, Gary Shaffer, David Pollard, Yawen Guan, Tony E Wong, Chris E Forest, Klaus Keller
The response of the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) to changing climate forcings is an important driver of sea-level changes. Anthropogenic climate change may drive a sizeable AIS tipping point response with subsequent increases in coastal flooding risks. Many studies analyzing flood risks use simple models to project the future responses of AIS and its sea-level contributions. These analyses have provided important new insights, but they are often silent on the effects of potentially important processes such as Marine Ice Sheet Instability (MISI) or Marine Ice Cliff Instability (MICI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079147/flood-dynamics-in-urbanised-landscapes-100-years-of-climate-and-humans-interaction
#5
G Sofia, G Roder, G Dalla Fontana, P Tarolli
Raising interest in the interaction between humans and climate drivers to understand the past and current development of floods in urbanised landscapes is of great importance. This study presents a regional screening of land-use, rainfall regime and flood dynamics in north-eastern Italy, covering the timeframe 1900-2010. This analysis suggests that, statistically, both climate and land-use have been contributing to a significant increase of the contribution of short duration floods to the increase in the number of flooded locations...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071915/variational-flooding-study-of-a-sn2-reaction
#6
GiovanniMaria Piccini, James McCarty, Omar Valsson, Michele Parrinello
We have studied the reaction dynamics of a prototypical organic reaction using a variationally optimized truncated bias to accelerate transitions between educts and products reactant states. The asymmetric SN2nucleophilic substitution reaction of fluoromethane and chloromethane CH3F + Cl- <=> CH3Cl + F- is considered and many independent biased molecular dynamics simulations have been performed at 600, 900, and 1200 K collecting several hundred transitions at each temperature. The transition times and relative rate constants have been obtained for both reaction directions...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071701/simultaneous-abrupt-shifts-in-hydrology-and-fish-assemblage-structure-in-a-floodplain-lake-in-the-central-amazon
#7
Cristhiana P Röpke, Sidinéia Amadio, Jansen Zuanon, Efrem J G Ferreira, Cláudia Pereira de Deus, Tiago H S Pires, Kirk O Winemiller
Combined effects of climate change and deforestation have altered precipitation patterns in the Amazon. This has led to changes in the frequency of extreme events of flood and drought in recent decades and in the magnitude of the annual flood pulse, a phenomenon that influences virtually all aspects of river-floodplain ecosystem dynamics. Analysis of long-term data revealed abrupt and synchronous changes in hydrology and fish assemblage structure of a floodplain lake near the confluence of Amazon and Negro rivers...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069894/genetics-physiological-mechanisms-and-breeding-of-flood-tolerant-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#8
REVIEW
Anuradha Singh, Endang M Septiningsih, Harendra S Balyan, Nagendra K Singh, Vandna Rai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069309/characterizing-nutrient-distributions-and-fluxes-in-a-eutrophic-reservoir-midwestern-united-states
#9
Alexandra R Pearce, Lisa G Chambers, Elizabeth A Hasenmueller
Harmful algal blooms are increasingly common in aquatic ecosystems and have been linked to runoff from agricultural land. This study investigated the internal nutrient (i.e., phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N)) dynamics of a eutrophic reservoir in the Midwestern United States to constrain the potential for sedimentary nutrients to stimulate harmful algal blooms. The spatial distribution of nutrients in the water column (soluble reactive P (SRP), nitrate/nitrite-N (NOx-N), and ammonium-N (NH4(+)-N)) and sediments (total P, total carbon (C), total N, and organic matter (OM)) were quantified and mapped...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065635/meals-enhancing-nutrition-after-discharge-findings-from-a-pilot-randomized-controlled%C3%A2-trial
#10
David R Buys, Anthony D Campbell, Alice Godfryd, Kellie Flood, Elizabeth Kitchin, Meredith L Kilgore, Sally Allocca, Julie L Locher
BACKGROUND: After older adults experience episodes of poor health or are hospitalized, they may not return to premorbid or prehospitalization eating behaviors. Furthermore, poor nutrition increases hospital readmission risk, but evidence-based interventions addressing these risks are limited. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study's objective was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial assessing a post-discharge home-delivered meal program's impact on older adults' nutritional intake and hospital readmissions and to assess patient acceptability and satisfaction with the program...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065177/association-between-carbohydrate-nutrition-and-prevalence-of-depressive-symptoms-in-older-adults
#11
Bamini Gopinath, Victoria M Flood, George Burlutksy, Jimmy C Y Louie, Paul Mitchell
We aimed to examine the relationship between dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load of foods consumed, intakes of carbohydrates, sugars and fibre, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older adults. Data collected from 2334 participants aged 55+ years and 1952 participants aged 60+ years were analysed. Dietary information was collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Depressive symptoms were based on antidepressant use or either the 36-Item Short-Form Survey, which included the Mental Health Index (MHI), or the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 Scale...
January 9, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063656/effect-of-cyclic-redox-oscillations-on-water-quality-in-freshwater-acid-sulfate-soil-wetlands
#12
Niloofar Karimian, Scott G Johnston, Edward D Burton
Restoration of acid sulfate soil (ASS) wetlands by freshwater re-flooding can lead to the reformation of various Fe(II) and reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) species in surface soil layers. However, in many locations, wetland water levels undergo large seasonal fluctuations that drive extreme redox oscillations. Newly formed RIS species [e.g. greigite, mackinawite, nano-pyrite and S(0)] and Fe(II) are vulnerable to rapid oxidation during dry periods and may generate substantial acidity. Rainfall following a dry period may then mobilise acidity and metal cations in surface waters prior to eventual recovery in pH by re-establishment of reducing conditions...
January 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063282/hypothetical-scenario-exercises-to-improve-planning-and-readiness-for-drinking-water-quality-management-during-extreme-weather-events
#13
Daniel Deere, Frederic D L Leusch, Andrew Humpage, David Cunliffe, Stuart J Khan
Two hypothetical scenario exercises were designed and conducted to reflect the increasingly extreme weather-related challenges faced by water utilities as the global climate changes. The first event was based on an extreme flood scenario. The second scenario involved a combination of weather events, including a wild forest fire ('bushfire') followed by runoff due to significant rainfall. For each scenario, a panel of diverse personnel from water utilities and relevant agencies (e.g. health departments) formed a hypothetical water utility and associated regulatory body to manage water quality following the simulated extreme weather event...
December 19, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062101/flood-probability-quantification-for-road-infrastructure-data-driven-spatial-statistical-approach-and-case-study-applications
#14
Zahra Kalantari, Marco Cavalli, Carolina Cantone, Stefano Crema, Georgia Destouni
Climate-driven increase in the frequency of extreme hydrological events is expected to impose greater strain on the built environment and major transport infrastructure, such as roads and railways. This study develops a data-driven spatial-statistical approach to quantifying and mapping the probability of flooding at critical road-stream intersection locations, where water flow and sediment transport may accumulate and cause serious road damage. The approach is based on novel integration of key watershed and road characteristics, including also measures of sediment connectivity...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060393/comparing-parafoveal-cone-photoreceptor-mosaic-metrics-in-younger-and-older-age-groups-using-an-adaptive-optics-retinal-camera
#15
Julie Jacob, Michel Paques, Valérie Krivosic, Bénédicte Dupas, Ali Erginay, Ramin Tadayoni, Alain Gaudric
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To analyze cone mosaic metrics on adaptive optics (AO) images as a function of retinal eccentricity in two different age groups using a commercial flood illumination AO device. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-three eyes of 28 healthy subjects divided into two age groups were imaged using an AO flood-illumination camera (rtx1; Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France). A 16° × 4° field was obtained horizontally. Cone-packing metrics were determined in five neighboring 50 µm × 50 µm regions...
January 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059447/the-crisis-map-of-the-czech-republic-the-nationwide-deployment-of-an-ushahidi-application-for-disasters
#16
Jiří Pánek, Lukáš Marek, Vít Pászto, Jaroslav Valůch
Crisis mapping is a legitimate component of both crisis informatics and disaster risk management. It has become an effective tool for humanitarian workers, especially after the earthquake in Haiti in 2010. Ushahidi is among the many mapping platforms on offer in the growing field of crisis mapping, and involves the application of crowdsourcing to create online and interactive maps of areas in turmoil. This paper presents the Crisis Map of the Czech Republic, which is the first such instrument to be deployed nationwide in Central Europe...
January 6, 2017: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057341/the-impact-of-agricultural-management-on-selected-soil-properties-in-citrus-orchards-in-eastern-spain-a-comparison-between-conventional-and-organic-citrus-orchards-with-drip-and-flood-irrigation
#17
M A Hondebrink, L H Cammeraat, A Cerdà
The agricultural management of citrus orchards is changing from flood irrigated managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. Eastern Spain is the oldest and largest European producer of citrus, and is representative of the environmental changes triggered by innovations in orchard management. In order to determine the impact of land management on different soil quality parameters, twelve citrus orchards sites were selected with different land and irrigation management techniques. Soil samples were taken at two depths, 0-2cm and 5-10cm for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments...
January 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056261/-build-a-fortified-dam-to-prevent-and-control-flood-of-hypercholesterolemia-and-cardiovascular-disease
#18
X L Yang, D F Gu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055128/a-decade-of-boreal-rich-fen-greenhouse-gas-fluxes-in-response-to-natural-and-experimental-water-table-variability
#19
David Olefeldt, Eugénie S Euskirchen, Jennifer Harden, Evan Kane, A David McGuire, Mark P Waldrop, Merritt R Turetsky
Rich fens are common boreal ecosystems with distinct hydrology, biogeochemistry and ecology that influence their carbon (C) balance. We present growing season soil chamber methane emission (FCH4 ), ecosystem respiration (ER), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and gross primary production (GPP) fluxes from a nine year water table manipulation experiment in an Alaskan rich fen. The study included major flood and drought years, where wetting and drying treatments further modified the severity of droughts. Results support previous findings from peatlands that drought causes reduced magnitude of growing season FCH4 , GPP, and NEE, thus reducing or reversing their C sink function...
January 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055032/a-global-distributed-basin-morphometric-dataset
#20
Xinyi Shen, Emmanouil N Anagnostou, Yiwen Mei, Yang Hong
Basin morphometry is vital information for relating storms to hydrologic hazards, such as landslides and floods. In this paper we present the first comprehensive global dataset of distributed basin morphometry at 30 arc seconds resolution. The dataset includes nine prime morphometric variables; in addition we present formulas for generating twenty-one additional morphometric variables based on combination of the prime variables. The dataset can aid different applications including studies of land-atmosphere interaction, and modelling of floods and droughts for sustainable water management...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Data
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