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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244845/diet-and-stable-isotope-analyses-reveal-the-feeding-ecology-of-the-orangeback-squid-sthenoteuthis-pteropus-steenstrup-1855-mollusca-ommastrephidae-in-the-eastern-tropical-atlantic
#1
Véronique Merten, Bernd Christiansen, Jamileh Javidpour, Uwe Piatkowski, Oscar Puebla, Rebeca Gasca, Henk-Jan T Hoving
In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855) (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) is a dominant species of the epipelagic nekton community. This carnivore squid has a short lifespan and is one of the fastest-growing squids. In this study, we characterise the role of S. pteropus in the pelagic food web of the eastern tropical Atlantic by investigating its diet and the dynamics of its feeding habits throughout its ontogeny and migration. During three expeditions in the eastern tropical Atlantic in 2015, 129 specimens were caught by hand jigging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244837/frailty-and-quality-of-life-among-older-people-with-and-without-a-cancer-diagnosis-findings-from-topics-mds
#2
Noralie Geessink, Yvonne Schoon, Harry van Goor, Marcel Olde Rikkert, René Melis
BACKGROUND: The number of older cancer patients is rising. Especially in older people, treatment considerations should balance the impact of disease and treatment on quality of life (QOL) and survival. How a cancer diagnosis in older people interacts with concomitant frailty to impact on QOL is largely unknown. We aimed to determine the association between frailty and QOL among community-dwelling older people aged 65 years or above with and without a cancer diagnosis cross-sectionally and at 12 months follow-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244107/the-importance-of-gender-analysis-in-research-for-health-systems-strengthening
#3
Sally Theobald, Rosemary Morgan, Kate Hawkins, Sarah Ssali, Asha George, Sassy Molyneux
This editorial discusses a collection of papers examining gender across a range of health policy and systems contexts, from access to services, governance, health financing, and human resources for health. The papers interrogate differing health issues and core health systems functions using a gender lens. Together they produce new knowledge on the multiple impacts of gender on health experiences and demonstrate the importance of gender analyses and gender sensitive interventions for promoting well-being and health systems strengthening...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243065/long-term-effects-of-grazing-and-topography-on-extra-radical-hyphae-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-in-semi-arid-grasslands
#4
Haiyan Ren, Weiyang Gui, Yongfei Bai, Claudia Stein, Jorge L M Rodrigues, Gail W T Wilson, Adam B Cobb, Yingjun Zhang, Gaowen Yang
Grazing and topography have drastic effects on plant communities and soil properties. These effects are thought to influence arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. However, the simultaneous impacts of grazing pressure (sheep ha-1) and topography on plant and soil factors and their relationship to the production of extra-radical AM hyphae are not well understood. Our 10-year study assessed relationships between grazing, plant species richness, aboveground plant productivity, soil nutrients, edaphic properties, and AM hyphal length density (HLD) in different topographic areas (flat or sloped)...
December 14, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242825/hydraulic-fracturing-and-infant-health-new-evidence-from-pennsylvania
#5
Janet Currie, Michael Greenstone, Katherine Meckel
The development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") is considered the biggest change to the global energy production system in the last half-century. However, several communities have banned fracking because of unresolved concerns about the impact of this process on human health. To evaluate the potential health impacts of fracking, we analyzed records of more than 1.1 million births in Pennsylvania from 2004 to 2013, comparing infants born to mothers living at different distances from active fracking sites and those born both before and after fracking was initiated at each site...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242716/dietary-broccoli-impacts-microbial-community-structure-and-attenuates-chemically-induced-colitis-in-mice-in-an-ah-receptor-dependent-manner
#6
Troy D Hubbard, Iain A Murray, Robert G Nichols, Kaitlyn Cassel, Michael Podolsky, Guray Kuzu, Yuan Tian, Phillip Smith, Mary J Kennett, Andrew D Patterson, Gary H Perdew
Consumption of broccoli mediates numerous chemo-protective benefits through the intake of phytochemicals, some of which modulate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activity. Whether AHR activation is a critical aspect of the therapeutic potential of dietary broccoli is not known. Here we administered isocaloric diets, with or without supplementation of whole broccoli (15% w/w), to congenic mice expressing the high-affinity Ahrb/b or low-affinity Ahrd/d alleles, for 24 days and examined the effects on AHR activity, intestinal microbial community structure, inflammatory status, and response to chemically induced colitis...
October 2017: Journal of Functional Foods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242585/risks-to-pollinators-and-pollination-from-invasive-alien-species
#7
REVIEW
Adam J Vanbergen, Anahí Espíndola, Marcelo A Aizen
Invasive alien species modify pollinator biodiversity and the services they provide that underpin ecosystem function and human well-being. Building on the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) global assessment of pollinators and pollination, we synthesize current understanding of invasive alien impacts on pollinators and pollination. Invasive alien species create risks and opportunities for pollinator nutrition, re-organize species interactions to affect native pollination and community stability, and spread and select for virulent diseases...
January 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242140/positive-impacts-of-a-vegetable-cooking-skills-program-among-low-income-parents-and-children
#8
Francine Overcash, Allison Ritter, Traci Mann, Elton Mykerezi, Joseph Redden, Aaron Rendahl, Zata Vickers, Marla Reicks
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a vegetable-focused cooking skills and nutrition program on parent and child psychosocial measures, vegetable liking, variety, and home availability. DESIGN: Baseline and postcourse surveys collected 1-week after the course. SETTING: Low-income communities in Minneapolis-St Paul. PARTICIPANTS: Parent-child dyads (n = 89; one third each Hispanic, African American, and white) with complete pre-post course data; flyer and e-mail recruitment...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241403/social-support-and-verbal-interaction-are-differentially-associated-with-cognitive-function-in-midlife-and-older-age
#9
Megan L Zuelsdorff, Rebecca L Koscik, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Paul E Peppard, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, Sterling C Johnson, Corinne D Engelman
Social engagement is associated with healthy aging and preserved cognition. Two dimensions of engagement, verbal interactions and perceived support, likely impact cognition via distinct mechanistic pathways. We explored the cognitive benefit of each construct among enrollees (N = 1,052, mean age = 60.2 years) in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention study, who provide neuropsychological and sociobehavioral data at two-year intervals. Outcomes included six cognitive factor scores representing key domains of executive function and memory...
December 15, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241356/the-impact-of-experiential-avoidance-and-event-centrality-in-trauma-related-rumination-and-posttraumatic-stress
#10
Lia S Bishop, Victoria E Ameral, Kathleen M Palm Reed
Cognitive control strategies like rumination often increase posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, extant research has provided equivocal results when attempting to explain why this phenomenon occurs. The current study explored several mechanisms that may clarify such findings. For this study, 193 trauma-exposed community members completed measures of PTSD, rumination, experiential avoidance, and event centrality. Elevated reports of rumination were associated with greater PTSD symptomology, experiential avoidance, and event centrality...
December 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240970/rumen-bacteria-at-work-bioaugmentation-strategies-to-enhance-biogas-production-from-cow-manure
#11
E Gozde Ozbayram, Çağrı Akyol, Bahar Ince, Canan Karakoç, Orhan Ince
AIMS: To investigate the effects of different bioaugmentation strategies for enhancing the biogas production from cow manure and evaluate microbial community patterns. METHODS AND RESULTS: Co-inoculation with cow rumen fluid and cow rumen-derived enriched microbial consortia were evaluated in anaerobic batch tests at 36 °C and 41 °C. Singular addition of both rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture had a promising enhancement on methane yields; however, the highest methane yield (311 mL CH4 / g VS at 41 °C) was achieved when the anaerobic seed sludge was co-inoculated together with rumen fluid and enriched bioaugmentation culture...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240836/is-quality-of-life-different-between-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-people-the-importance-of-cardiovascular-risks
#12
L M Peña-Longobardo, B Rodríguez-Sánchez, M Mata-Cases, L Rodríguez-Mañas, M Capel, J Oliva-Moreno
BACKGROUND: To analyse and compare the impact of cardiovascular risk factors and disease on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with and without diabetes living in the community. METHODS: We used data of 1,905 people with diabetes and 19,031 people without diabetes from the last Spanish National Health Survey (years 2011-2012). The HRQoL instrument used was the EuroQol 5D-5L, based on time trade-off scores. Matching methods were used to assess any differences in the HRQoL in people with and without diabetes with the same characteristics (age, gender, education level, and healthy lifestyle), according to cardiovascular risk factors and diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240614/a-measure-of-the-potential-impact-of-hospital-community-health-activities-on-population-health-and-equity
#13
James W Begun, Linda M Kahn, Brooke A Cunningham, Jan K Malcolm, Sandra Potthoff
CONTEXT: Many hospitals in the United States are exploring greater investment in community health activities that address upstream causes of poor health. OBJECTIVE: Develop and apply a measure to categorize and estimate the potential impact of hospitals' community health activities on population health and equity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We propose a scale of potential impact on population health and equity, based on the cliff analogy developed by Jones and colleagues...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240455/development-and-evaluation-of-a-student-initiated-test-preparation-program-for-the-usmle-step-1-examination
#14
Lindsay F Schwartz, Matthew Lineberry, Yoon Soo Park, Carol S Kamin, Abbas A Hyderi
PROBLEM: Studies have documented performance on the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE) Step 1 exam as an important factor that residency program directors consider when deciding which applicants to interview and rank. Therefore, success on this exam, though only one aspect of applicant evaluation, is important in determining future career prospects for medical students. Unfortunately, mean test scores at the University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago (UIC) have historically been below the national average...
December 14, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239493/mortality-in-patients-with-community-onset-pneumonia-at-low-risk-of-drug-resistant-pathogens-impact-of-%C3%AE-lactam-plus-macrolide-combination-therapy
#15
Junya Okumura, Yuichiro Shindo, Kunihiko Takahashi, Masahiro Sano, Yasuteru Sugino, Tetsuya Yagi, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Hideo Saka, Shigeyuki Matsui, Yoshinori Hasegawa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Drug-resistant pathogen (DRP) risk stratification is important for choosing a treatment strategy for community-onset pneumonia. Evidence for benefits of non-antipseudomonal β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy (BLM) on mortality is limited in patients at low DRP risk. Risk factors for mortality remain to be clarified. METHODS: Post hoc analysis using a prospective multicentre study cohort of community-onset pneumonia was performed to assess 30-day differences in mortality between non-antipseudomonal β-lactam monotherapy (BL) and BLM groups...
December 14, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239489/how-many-melanomas-might-be-prevented-if-more-people-applied-sunscreen-regularly
#16
C M Olsen, L F Wilson, A C Green, N Biswas, J Loyalka, D C Whiteman
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation causes cutaneous melanoma. Sunscreen prevents sunburn and protects skin cells against mutations. High-quality epidemiological studies suggest regular sunscreen use prevents melanoma. OBJECTIVES: To calculate the potential impact fraction (PIF) for melanoma in the U.S.A. and Australia assuming a range of different intervention scenarios intended to increase sunscreen use. METHODS: We calculated the PIF, the proportional difference between the observed number of melanomas arising under prevailing levels of sunscreen use compared with the number expected under counterfactual scenarios...
December 14, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239268/a-community-perspective-on-bowel-management-and-quality-of-life-after-spinal-cord-injury-the-influence-of-autonomic-dysreflexia
#17
Jessica A Inskip, Vera-Ellen M Lucci, Maureen S McGrath, Rhonda Willms, Victoria E Claydon
Autonomic dysfunction is common in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and leads to numerous abnormalities, including profound cardiovascular and bowel dysfunction. In those with high level lesions, bowel management is a common trigger for autonomic dysreflexia (AD, hypertension provoked by sensory stimuli below the level of injury). Improving bowel care is integral for enhancing quality of life (QoL). We aimed to describe the relationships between bowel care, AD, and QoL in individuals with SCI. We performed an online community survey of individuals living with SCI (n=287; injury levels C1-sacral)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239253/fifty-top-cited-spine-articles-from-mainland-china-a-citation-analysis
#18
Yaohong Wu, Yachao Zhao, Linghan Lin, Zhijun Lu, Zhaoyang Guo, Xiaoming Li, Rongchun Chen, Huasong Ma
Objective To identify the 50 top-cited spine articles from mainland China and to analyze their main characteristics. Methods Web of Science was used to identify the 50 top-cited spine articles from mainland China in 27 spine-related journals. The title, year of publication, number of citations, journal, anatomic focus, subspecialty, evidence level, city, institution and author were recorded. Results The top 50 articles had 29-122 citations and were published in 11 English-language journals; most (32) were published in the 2000s...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239235/assessing-self-reported-disability-in-a-low-literate-population-with-chronic-low-back-pain-cross-cultural-adaptation-and-psychometric-testing-of-igbo-roland-morris-disability-questionnaire
#19
Chinonso N Igwesi-Chidobe, Chinwe Obiekwe, Isaac O Sorinola, Emma L Godfrey
PURPOSE: Cross-culturally adapt and validate the Igbo Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. METHOD: Cross-cultural adaptation, test-retest, and cross-sectional psychometric testing. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire was forward and back translated by clinical/non-clinical translators. An expert committee appraised the translations. Twelve participants with chronic low back pain pre-tested the measure in a rural Nigerian community. Internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha; test-retest reliability using intra-class correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plot; and minimal detectable change were investigated in a convenient sample of 50 people with chronic low back pain in rural and urban Nigeria...
December 14, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239230/impact-of-a-scribe-program-on-patient-throughput-physician-productivity-and-patient-satisfaction-in-a-community-based-emergency-department
#20
Waqas Shuaib, John Hilmi, Joshua Caballero, Ijaz Rashid, Hashim Stanazai, Alan Ajanovic, Alex Moshtaghi, Ahmed Amari, Kerolos Tawfeek, Anjit Khurana, Hesham Hasabo, Abdulrehman Baqais, Ahmed A Mattar, Theodore J Gaeta
Previous literature on the impact of scribe programs varies and has mostly been reported from academic institutions or other clinics. We report the implementation of the scribe program in the emergency room of a community hospital and its impact on patient throughput, physician productivity, and patient satisfaction. We performed a quasi-experimental, before-and-after study measuring patient throughput metrics, physician productivity, and patient satisfaction. The intervention measuring the scribe implementation was divided into pre- and post-implementation periods...
March 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
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