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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732336/using-machine-learning-to-identify-air-pollution-exposure-profiles-associated-with-early-cognitive-skills-among-u-s-children
#1
Jeanette A Stingone, Om P Pandey, Luz Claudio, Gaurav Pandey
Data-driven machine learning methods present an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of multiple air pollutants on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to apply a two-stage, data-driven approach to identify associations between air pollutant exposure profiles and children's cognitive skills. Data from 6900 children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of children born in 2001 and followed through kindergarten, were linked to estimated concentrations of 104 ambient air toxics in the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment using ZIP code of residence at age 9 months...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732073/first-trimester-fetal-growth-restriction-and-the-occurrence-of-miscarriage-in-rural-bangladesh-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Harunor Rashid, Enbo Ma, Farzana Ferdous, Eva-Charlotte Ekström, Yukiko Wagatsuma
Fetal growth restriction in early pregnancy increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, which has a significant social and psychological impact on women. There is limited information related to community-based study to evaluate early indicators related to miscarriage. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between fetal growth restriction, measured by ultrasound crown-rump length (CRL), and subsequent occurrence of miscarriage in pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. The study was conducted within the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions Trial in Matlab (MINIMat study), Bangladesh...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732017/disease-severity-in-patients-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-is-not-altered-by-co-infection-with-intestinal-parasites
#3
Fitsumbrhan Tajebe, Mulusew Getahun, Emebet Adem, Asrat Hailu, Mulualem Lemma, Helina Fikre, John Raynes, Aschalew Tamiru, Zemenay Mulugeta, Ermias Diro, Frederic Toulza, Ziv Shkedy, Tadesse Ayele, Manuel Modolell, Markus Munder, Ingrid Müller, Yegnasew Takele, Pascale Kropf
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that affects the poorest communities and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by the presence of Leishmania parasites in the spleen, liver and bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, prolonged fever, systemic inflammation and low body mass index (BMI). The factors impacting on the severity of VL are poorly characterized. Here we performed a cross-sectional study to assess whether co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites influences disease severity, assessed with clinical and haematological data, inflammation, cytokine profiles and BMI...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731929/impact-of-aortic-rather-than-brachial-pulsatile-haemodynamics-on-variations-in-end-organ-measures-across-the-full-adult-blood-pressure-range
#4
Bryan Hodson, Gavin R Norton, Imraan Ballim, Carlos D Libhaber, Pinhas Sareli, Angela J Woodiwiss
AIMS: To determine the extent to which the adverse effects of blood pressure (BP) are mediated by pulsatile haemodynamic changes across the normotensive as compared with the hypertensive adult brachial BP range, and whether aortic rather than brachial pulsatile changes best index these effects. METHODS: In 1307 community participants, the contribution of pulsatile haemodynamics (applanation tonometry and SphygmoCor software) to variations in left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (echocardiography) (n = 920), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) (n = 712) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (n = 1164) were assessed...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731547/does-hospital-ownership-influence-hospital-referral-region-health-rankings-in-the-united-states
#5
Hanadi Hamadi, Emma Apatu, Aaron Spaulding
Extensive evidence demonstrates that a hospital's organizational ownership structure impacts its overall performance, but little is known concerning the influence of hospital structure on the health of its community. This paper explores the association between US hospital referral region (HRR) health rankings and hospital ownership and performance. Data from the 2016 Commonwealth Fund Scorecard on Local Health System Performance, the American Hospital Association dataset, and the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing dataset are utilized to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of 36 quality measures across 306 HRRs...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731514/with-or-without-you-effects-of-the-concurrent-range-expansion-of-an-herbivore-and-its-natural-enemy-on-native-species-interactions
#6
David Carrasco, Gaylord A Desurmont, Diane Laplanche, Magali Proffit, Rieta Gols, Paul G Becher, Mattias C Larsson, Ted C J Turlings, Peter Anderson
Global climatic changes may lead to the arrival of multiple range-expanding species from different trophic levels into new habitats, either simultaneously or in quick succession, potentially causing the introduction of manifold novel interactions into native food webs. Unraveling the complex biotic interactions between native and range-expanding species is critical to understand the impact of climate change on community ecology, but experimental evidence is lacking. In a series of laboratory experiments that simulated direct and indirect species interactions, we investigated the effects of the concurrent arrival of a range-expanding insect herbivore in Europe, Spodoptera littoralis, and its associated parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris, on the native herbivore Mamestra brassicae, and its associated parasitoid M...
July 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731386/impact-of-childhood-adversity-and-out-of-home-placement-for-male-adolescents-who-have-engaged-in-sexually-abusive-behavior
#7
Kelcey L Hall, Jill D Stinson, Michele R Moser
Child maltreatment and household dysfunction have long been linked to delinquency, adult criminality, and sexual offending. However, the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), factors related to out-of-home placement, and the onset of maladaptive behaviors has not thoroughly been explored in adolescents who have engaged in sexually abusive behavior. In the present study, we examined archival records of 120 male youths who have received treatment for sexually abusive behavior. As expected, the male adolescents in this sample have experienced higher rates of ACEs than samples of adult males in the community, adult males who committed sexual offenses, and juvenile justice-involved males as reported in the literature...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730727/better-arthritis-care-patients-expectations-and-priorities-the-competencies-that-community-based-health-professionals-need-to-improve-their-care-of-people-with-arthritis
#8
J Erwin, K Edwards, A Woolf, S Whitcombe, S Kilty
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify the competencies that patients think non-specialist community-based nurses and allied health professionals (AHPs) need to enable them to assess, care for and manage arthritis appropriately. METHODS: Four face-to-face focus groups were held with a total of 16 women and nine men with arthritis, to discuss the care they received from community-based health professionals, the skills and knowledge they expected from community-based health professionals and what they prioritized...
July 21, 2017: Musculoskeletal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730409/iron-oxides-alter-methanogenic-pathways-of-acetate-in-production-water-of-high-temperature-petroleum-reservoir
#9
Pan Pan, Bo Hong, Serge Maurice Mbadinga, Li-Ying Wang, Jin-Feng Liu, Shi-Zhong Yang, Ji-Dong Gu, Bo-Zhong Mu
Acetate is a key intermediate in anaerobic crude oil biodegradation and also a precursor for methanogenesis in petroleum reservoirs. The impact of iron oxides, viz. β-FeOOH (akaganéite) and magnetite (Fe3O4), on the methanogenic acetate metabolism in production water of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir was investigated. Methane production was observed in all the treatments amended with acetate. In the microcosms amended with acetate solely about 30% of the acetate utilized was converted to methane, whereas methane production was stimulated in the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4) resulting in a 48...
July 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730366/to-coil-or-not-to-coil-application-practices-perception-and-efficacy-of-mosquito-coils-in-a-malaria-endemic-community-in-ghana
#10
Silas W Avicor, Mustafa F F Wajidi, Ebenezer O Owusu
Although evidence of mosquito coils' impact on disease epidemiology is limited, they are popularized as mosquito-borne disease prevention devices. Their usage affects the environment, human and mosquito health. This study investigated the perception, usage pattern and efficacy of coils in a predominantly poor malaria-endemic Ghanaian peri-urban area. Information on protection methods, perception and usage pattern was garnered using questionnaires. The efficacy of commonly used coils in the area was then assessed on the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, in a glass chamber...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730185/social-networks-as-predictors-of-colorectal-cancer-screening-in-african-americans
#11
Ernest Alema-Mensah, Selina A Smith, Mechelle Claridy, Victor Ede, Benjamin Ansa, Daniel S Blumenthal
BACKGROUND: Early detection can reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality by 15%-33%, and screening is widely recommended for average-risk adults beginning at age 50 years. Colorectal cancer mortality rates are higher in African Americans than in whites, while screening rates are somewhat lower. Individual social networks can reduce emotional and/or logistical barriers to health-promoting but distasteful procedures such as CRC screening. The aim of this study was to examine social network interactions, and their impact on CRC screening among African Americans...
2017: Journal of the Georgia Public Health Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729950/alder-and-the-golden-fleece-high-diversity-of-frankia-and-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-revealed-from-alnus-glutinosa-subsp-barbata-roots-close-to-a-tertiary-and-glacial-refugium
#12
Melanie Roy, Adrien C Pozzi, Raphaëlle Gareil, Melissande Nagati, Sophie Manzi, Imen Nouioui, Nino Sharikadze, Patricia Jargeat, Hervé Gryta, Pierre-Arthur Moreau, Maria P Fernandez, Monique Gardes
BACKGROUND: Recent climatic history has strongly impacted plant populations, but little is known about its effect on microbes. Alders, which host few and specific symbionts, have high genetic diversity in glacial refugia. Here, we tested the prediction that communities of root symbionts survived in refugia with their host populations. We expected to detect endemic symbionts and a higher species richness in refugia as compared to recolonized areas. METHODS: We sampled ectomycorrhizal (EM) root tips and the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia communities in eight sites colonized by Alnus glutinosa subsp...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729854/microbiome-of-trichodesmium-colonies-from-the-north-pacific-subtropical-gyre
#13
Mary R Gradoville, Byron C Crump, Ricardo M Letelier, Matthew J Church, Angelicque E White
Filamentous diazotrophic Cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium, often found in colonial form, provide an important source of new nitrogen to tropical and subtropical marine ecosystems. Colonies are composed of several clades of Trichodesmium in association with a diverse community of bacterial and eukaryotic epibionts. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequencing, carbon (C) and dinitrogen (N2) fixation assays, and metagenomics to describe the diversity and functional potential of the microbiome associated with Trichodesmium colonies collected from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729670/forest-edge-disturbance-increases-rattan-abundance-in-tropical-rain-forest-fragments
#14
Mason J Campbell, Will Edwards, Ainhoa Magrach, Susan G Laurance, Mohammed Alamgir, Gabriel Porolak, William F Laurance
Human-induced forest fragmentation poses one of the largest threats to global diversity yet its impact on rattans (climbing palms) has remained virtually unexplored. Rattan is arguably the world's most valuable non-timber forest product though current levels of harvesting and land-use change place wild populations at risk. To assess rattan response to fragmentation exclusive of harvesting impacts we examined rattan abundance, demography and ecology within the forests of northeastern, Australia. We assessed the community abundance of rattans, and component adult (>3 m) and juvenile (≤3 m) abundance in five intact forests and five fragments (23-58 ha) to determine their response to a range of environmental and ecological parameters...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729309/the-role-of-a-decision-support-smartphone-application-in-enhancing-community-health-volunteers-effectiveness-to-improve-maternal-and-newborn-outcomes-in-nairobi-kenya-quasi-experimental-research-protocol
#15
Pauline Bakibinga, Eva Kamande, Milka Omuya, Abdhalah K Ziraba, Catherine Kyobutungi
INTRODUCTION: Improving maternal and newborn survival remains major aspirations for many countries in the Global South. Slum settlements, a result of rapid urbanisation in many developing countries including Kenya, exhibit high levels of maternal and neonatal mortality. There are limited referral mechanisms for sick neonates and their mothers from the community to healthcare facilities with ability to provide adequate care. In this study, we specifically plan to develop and assess the added value of having community health volunteers (CHVs) use smartphones to identify and track mothers and children in a bid to reduce pregnancy-related complications and newborn deaths in the urban slums of Kamukunji subcounty in Nairobi, Kenya...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728909/assessing-impacts-of-dna-extraction-methods-on-next-generation-sequencing-of-water-and-wastewater-samples
#16
Connie Walden, Franck Carbonero, Wen Zhang
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is increasingly affordable and easier to perform. However, standard protocols prior to the sequencing step are only available for few selected sample types. Here we investigated the impact of DNA extraction methods on the consistency of NGS results. Four commercial DNA extraction kits (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, MO BIO Power Water Kit, and MO BIO Power Soil DNA Isolation Kit) were used on sample sources including lake water and wastewater, and sample types including planktonic and biofilm bacteria communities...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728852/for-publication-in-vitro-characteristics-of-an-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salarl-hind-gut-microbial-community-in-relation-to-different-dietary-treatments
#17
Kamarul Zaman Zarkasi, Richard S Taylor, Brett D Glencross, Guy C J Abell, Mark L Tamplin, John P Bowman
In this study, microbial community dynamics were assessed within a simple in vitro model system in order to understand those changes influenced by diet.The abundance and diversity of bacteria were monitored within different treatment slurries inoculated with salmon faecal samples in order to mimic the effects of dietary variables. A total of five complete diets and two ingredients (plant meal)were tested. The total viable counts (TVCs) and sequencing data revealed that there was very clear separation between the complete diets and the plant meal treatments, suggesting a dynamic response by the allochthonous bacteria to the treatments...
July 17, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728553/supporting-and-retaining-village-health-teams-an-assessment-of-a-community-health-worker-program-in-two-ugandan-districts
#18
Daniel C Mays, Edward J O'Neil, Edison A Mworozi, Benjamin J Lough, Zachary J Tabb, Ashlyn E Whitlock, Edward M Mutimba, Zohray M Talib
BACKGROUND: Uganda's national community health worker program involves volunteer Village Health Teams (VHTs) delivering basic health services and education. Evidence demonstrates their positive impact on health outcomes, particularly for Ugandans who would otherwise lack access to health services. Despite their impact, VHTs are not optimally supported and attrition is a growing problem. In this study, we examined the support needs and existing challenges of VHTs in two Ugandan districts and evaluated specific factors associated with long-term retention...
July 20, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728350/the-association-between-smoking-or-passive-smoking-and-cardiovascular-diseases-using-a-bayesian-hierarchical-model-based-on-the-2008-2013-korea-community-health-survey
#19
WhanHee Lee, SungHee Hwang, HaYoung Choi, Ho Kim
Objectives: Smoking and passive smoking have been extensively reported as risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite the biological mechanisms underlying the impact of hazardous chemical substances contained in tobacco in cardiovascular diseases, studies investigating the association between smoking and passive smoking with morbidity are at an inchoate stage in Korea. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the risks of smoking and passive smoking on cardiovascular morbidity at the national and regional levels...
June 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728139/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-influence-of-the-neighborhood-environment-on-recreational-walking-within-the-neighborhood-results-from-reside
#20
Hayley Christian, Matthew Knuiman, Mark Divitini, Sarah Foster, Paula Hooper, Bryan Boruff, Fiona Bull, Billie Giles-Corti
BACKGROUND: There is limited longitudinal evidence confirming the role of neighborhood environment attributes in encouraging people to walk more or if active people simply choose to live in activity-friendly neighborhoods. Natural experiments of policy changes to create more walkable communities provide stronger evidence for a causal effect of neighborhood environments on residents' walking. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between objective and perceived neighborhood environment measures and neighborhood recreational walking...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
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