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Community impacts

Annamaria Iorio, Michele Senni, Giulia Barbati, Stephen J Greene, Stefano Poli, Elena Zambon, Concetta Di Nora, Giovanni Cioffi, Luigi Tarantini, Antonello Gavazzi, Gianfranco Sinagra, Andrea Di Lenarda
AIM: To assess adverse outcomes attributable to non-cardiac co-morbidities and to compare their effects by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) group [LVEF <50% (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, HFrEF), LVEF ≥50% (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, HFpEF)] in a contemporary, unselected chronic heart failure population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This community-based cohort enrolled patients from October 2009 to December 2013. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and the population attributable fraction (PAF) were used to compare the contribution of 15 non-cardiac co-morbidities to adverse outcome...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
Jennifer L Guelfo, Thomas Marlow, David M Klein, David A Savitz, Scott Frickel, Michelle Crimi, Eric M Suuberg
BACKGROUND: Multiple Northeast U.S. communities have discovered per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water aquifers in excess of health-based regulatory levels or advisories. Regional stakeholders (consultants, regulators, and others) need technical background and tools to mitigate risks associated with exposure to PFAS-affected groundwater. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to identify challenges faced by stakeholders to extend best practices to other regions experiencing PFAS releases and to establish a framework for research strategies and best management practices...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Anand Krishnan, Priyamadhaba Behera, Baridalyne Nongkynrih
Background.: Family studies are an integral part of teaching of community medicine to all undergraduate medical and nursing students. It enhances the understanding of students about social determinants and multifactorial causation of disease. However, there is no standard approach towards it and it is seen as a clinical presentation with some elements of family included. We describe a systematic and comprehensive approach to a family study. Methods.: Based on the existing literature and personal experience, we identified 11 domains under the acronym Family ASSESSMENT-Structure, Socioeconomic, Sickness, Nutritional, Educational, Environmental, Affordability, System (health), Mental, Family influence, Threats...
September 2017: National Medical Journal of India
Aspen T Reese, Eugenia H Cho, Bruce Klitzman, Scott P Nichols, Natalie A Wisniewski, Max M Villa, Heather K Durand, Sharon Jiang, Firas S Midani, Sai N Nimmagadda, Thomas M O'Connell, Justin P Wright, Marc A Deshusses, Lawrence A David
How host and microbial factors combine to structure gut microbial communities remains incompletely understood. Redox potential is an important environmental feature affected by both host and microbial actions. We assessed how antibiotics, which can impact host and microbial function, change redox state and how this contributes to post-antibiotic succession. We showed gut redox potential increased within hours of an antibiotic dose in mice. Host and microbial functioning changed under treatment, but shifts in redox potentials could be attributed specifically to bacterial suppression in a host-free ex vivo human gut microbiota model...
June 19, 2018: ELife
Nobutoshi Nawa, Aya Isumi, Takeo Fujiwara
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between community-level social capital and physical abuse towards children, and the mediating effect of parental psychological distress by multilevel mediation analyses. METHODS: We analyzed data from a population-based study of first-grade elementary school children (6-7 years old) in Adachi City, Tokyo, Japan. The caregivers of first-grade students from all elementary schools in Adachi City (N = 5355) were asked to respond to a questionnaire assessing parents' self-reported physical abuse (beating and hitting) and neighborhood social capital...
June 18, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Sarabjot Kaur, Ravinder Garg, Simmi Aggarwal, Sumit Pal Singh Chawla, Ranabir Pal
Introduction: Adult onset seizure disorder is a major public health concern in terms of burden of disease, nature of illness, and its impact on individual, family, and community. This study was done to assess the clinical profile and etiology of adult onset seizures and correlates of clinical and radiological pattern. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted on 100 cases presenting with adult onset seizures. Results: Adult onset seizures were most prevalent in the young and middle-aged adults than elderly; generalized seizures were more common than focal seizures...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Amrita Sarkar, Ophelia Mary Kharmujai, Wallambok Lynrah, Neilatuo U Suokhrie
Background: In Meghalaya, only 51.4% expectant mothers go for any institutional delivery with a wide rural-urban gap causing morbidity and mortality in the mothers and the neonates. Objectives: The objective of this study is to find out the factors influencing the choice of the place of delivery in rural women. Methodology: The present qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2016 in Bhoirymbong community health center (CHC) and the area catered to by it...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Ipsa Mohapatra, Sai Chandan Das, Sonia Samantaray
Background: Around 3 billion people use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for cooking and heating, and this number is expected to grow until at least 2030. Around 73.7% of households in rural Odisha use wood for cooking. This current study is an attempt to evaluate the impact of solid cooking fuels on health of rural women in age group of 20-40 years and to study the relationship between the duration of exposure to cooking fuels and various health problems. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in a village which is under the field practice area of the rural health and training centre, under Department of Community Medicine, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Enrico Ser-Giacomi, Lucie Zinger, Shruti Malviya, Colomban De Vargas, Eric Karsenti, Chris Bowler, Silvia De Monte
Marine plankton populate 70% of Earth's surface, providing the energy that fuels ocean food webs and contributing to global biogeochemical cycles. Plankton communities are extremely diverse and geographically variable, and are overwhelmingly composed of low-abundance species. The role of this rare biosphere and its ecological underpinnings are however still unclear. Here, we analyse the extensive dataset generated by the Tara Oceans expedition for marine microbial eukaryotes (protists) and use an adaptive algorithm to explore how metabarcoding-based abundance distributions vary across plankton communities in the global ocean...
June 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Michael G Walsh, Allard W de Smalen, Siobhan M Mor
Climate change is impacting ecosystem structure and function, with potentially drastic downstream effects on human and animal health. Emerging zoonotic diseases are expected to be particularly vulnerable to climate and biodiversity disturbance. Anthrax is an archetypal zoonosis that manifests its most significant burden on vulnerable pastoralist communities. The current study sought to investigate the influence of temperature increases on geographic anthrax suitability in the temperate, boreal, and arctic North, where observed climate impact has been rapid...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carla E Rosenfeld, Bruce R James, Cara Santelli
Mining and other industrial activities worldwide have resulted in Se-enriched surface soils, which pose risks to human and environmental health. Although not well studied, microbial activity can alter Se bioavailability and distribution, even in oxic environments. We used high throughput sequencing to profile bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting mine soils in southeastern Idaho, comparing mined and unmined locations within two reclaimed phosphate mine areas containing variable Se concentrations. The goal was to determine whether microbial communities differed in (i) different mines, (ii) mined areas compared to unmined areas, and (iii) varying soil Se concentrations...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Fernando V Ramirez Rozzi
To understand the diversity of human growth and development from an evolutionary point of view, there is an urgent need to characterize the life-history variables of vanishing forager societies. The small body size of the Baka pygmies is the outcome of a low growth rate during infancy. While the ages at sexual maturity, menarche, and first delivery are similar to those in other populations, fertility aspects are unknown. In the Le Bosquet district in Cameroon, thanks to systematic birth records kept from 1980 onwards, we were able to assign ages to individuals with certainty...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fartoon M Siad, Xiao Yang Fang, Maria J Santana, Sonia Butalia, Marilynne A Hebert, Doreen M Rabi
OBJECTIVES: East African (EA) women are a subpopulation who are at very high risk for gestational diabetes (GDM) and poor obstetric outcomes, but little is known about the care experiences of this understudied group. The objective of this study was to document the impact of a diagnosis of GDM and the perceptions of diabetes care among EA immigrant women. METHODS: Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 EA immigrant women diagnosed with GDM in Calgary; they were recruited from community and tertiary care settings...
February 2, 2018: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Kamilla L Venner, Dennis M Donovan, Aimee N C Campbell, Dennis C Wendt, Traci Rieckmann, Sandra M Radin, Sandra L Momper, Carmen L Rosa
The U.S. is experiencing an alarming opioid epidemic, and although American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) are especially hard hit, there is a paucity of opioid-related treatment research with these communities. AI/ANs are second only to Whites in the U.S. for overdose mortality. Thus, the National Institute on Drug Abuse convened a meeting of key stakeholders to elicit feedback on the acceptability and uptake of medication assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorders (OUDs) among AI/ANs. Five themes from this one-day meeting emerged: 1) the mismatch between Western secular and reductionistic medicine and the AI/AN holistic healing tradition; 2) the need to integrate MAT into AI/AN traditional healing; 3) the conflict between standardized MAT delivery and the traditional AI/AN desire for healing to include being medicine free; 4) systemic barriers; and 5) the need to improve research with AI/ANs using culturally relevant methods...
May 23, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
C E Strachan, A Nuwa, D Muhangi, A P Okui, M E H Helinski, J K Tibenderana
BACKGROUND: Successful pre-referral treatment with rectal artesunate (RA) for suspected severe malaria requires operational linkages between community health workers (CHWs) and referral facilities, acceptance of pre-referral treatment and adherence to referral practices by CHWs and caregivers. This qualitative study investigated how community understanding of the concept of 'pre-referral treatment' is used in referral related decision-making following provision of RA in Uganda. METHODS: Narrative interviews were conducted with 30 caregivers of children under five who received RA within the previous three months and the 30 associated CHWs who provided the treatment...
June 19, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Jennie Gamlin, Seth Holmes
BACKGROUND: Preventable maternal and infant mortality continues to be significantly higher in Latin American indigenous regions compared to non-indigenous, with inequalities of race, gender and poverty exacerbated by deficiencies in service provision. Standard programmes aimed at improving perinatal health have had a limited impact on mortality rates in these populations, and state and national statistical data and evaluations of services are of little relevance to the environments that most indigenous ethnicities inhabit...
June 18, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Katie B Tellor, Steffany N Nguyen, Amanda C Bultas, Anastasia L Armbruster, Nicholas A Greenwald, Abigail M Yancey
BACKGROUND: Despite well established empiric dose adjustments for drug and disease-state interactions, the impact of body mass index (BM) on warfarin remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate warfarin requirements in hospitalized patients, stratified by BMI. METHODS: This retrospective review included two cohorts of patients: cohort A (patients admitted with a therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR)) and cohort B (newly initiated on warfarin during hospitalization)...
June 1, 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
Siobhan C Watkins, Emily Sible, Catherine Putonti
Despite the abundance, ubiquity and impact of environmental viruses, their inherent genomic plasticity and extreme diversity pose significant challenges for the examination of bacteriophages on Earth. Viral metagenomic studies have offered insight into broader aspects of phage ecology and repeatedly uncover genes to which we are currently unable to assign function. A combined effort of phage isolation and metagenomic survey of Chicago&rsquo;s nearshore waters of Lake Michigan revealed the presence of Pbunaviruses, relatives of the Pseudomonas phage PB1...
June 16, 2018: Viruses
Giovanna Visioli, Anna Maria Sanangelantoni, Teofilo Vamerali, Cristian Dal Cortivo, Massimo Blandino
In an open field trial on two agricultural soils in NW Italy, the impact of two seed-applied biostimulants on the rhizosphere bacterial community of young maize plants was evaluated. The 16S rDNA profiling was carried out on control and treated plant rhizosphere samples collected at the 4-leaf stage and on bulk soil. In both soils, the rhizospheres were significantly enriched in Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteriodetes, while the abundances of Acidobacteria, Cloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes decreased compared with bulk soil...
June 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Amy R Riley-Powell, Gwenyth O Lee, Nehal S Naik, Kelly E Jensen, Christina O'Neal, Gabriela Salmón-Mulanovich, Stella M Hartinger, Daniel G Bausch, Valerie A Paz-Soldan
The interoceanic highway (IOH) in Madre de Dios, Peru has driven dramatic change in the Peruvian Amazon basin. We conducted a mixed methods study to examine the impact of these changes on the subjective well-being (SWB) of four communities on the IOH. Themes that emerged qualitatively included changing health threats, environmental degradation, and the impact of increased migration. To achieve a higher level of SWB, respondents emphasized the need for higher incomes, opportunities to learn new skills, and a better education for their children...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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