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Community impacts

Dandan Ge, Long Sun, Chengchao Zhou, Yangyang Qian, Li Zhang, Alexis Medina
BACKGROUND: Suicide is a global public health problem that has a significant negative influence on individuals, families and the society. The objective of this study is to explore the risk factors associated with suicidal ideation among the elderly in Shandong Province, China. METHOD: A total of 3313 participants (60+) of Shandong Province, China were included in this study. Suicidal ideation was assessed by using questions from the NCS (National Comorbidity Survey)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ruca Maass, Christian A Kloeckner, Bengt Lindstrøm, Monica Lillefjell
Neighborhood social capital has repeatedly been linked to favorable health-outcomes and life satisfaction. However, it has been questioned whether it's impact on health has been over-rated. We aim to investigate relationships between neighborhood social capital and self-rated health (SRH) and life satisfaction (LS) respectively, both directly and indirectly mediated via Sense of Coherence and self-esteem. Based on a cross-sectional population-survey (N=865) in a medium size Norwegian municipality, we specified a structural equation model (SEM) including the above-listed variables, while controlling for gender, age, education, income, and employment status...
October 19, 2016: Health & Place
C Romano, E Fanelli, G D'Anna, C Pipitone, S Vizzini, A Mazzola, F Badalamenti
This study examines the impact of bottom trawl fishing on the macrobenthic communities inhabiting the coastal terrigenous mud off the northern coast of Sicily (Western Mediterranean). Two intensely trawled gulfs were compared with two gulfs from which trawling has been excluded for 15 years. The results show a significant effect of trawling on the faunal assemblage and when comparing the mean biomass and the whole isotopic composition of the benthic communities. A similar pattern, although not significant, was found for total abundance, biomass, production/biomass ratio and diversity...
October 11, 2016: Marine Environmental Research
Omar Mahmoud, Lara Hathout, Sherif G Shaaban, Mohamed A Elshaikh, Sushil Beriwal, William Small
PURPOSE: The Gynecologic Oncology group (GOG) 0263 trial is currently exploring whether adding chemotherapy to adjuvant radiotherapy improves recurrence-free and/or overall survival in stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients with pathologic intermediate-risk factors. Using the National Cancer Data Base, we evaluated the benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy over adjuvant radiotherapy alone in the community practice setting. MATERIALS: The analysis included 869 stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy retrieving intermediate-risk factors justifying adjuvant therapy...
October 18, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Chanrith Ngin, Sok Chamreun Choub, Carinne Brody
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among key populations in Cambodia continues to rise. To address this issue, KHANA, the largest national HIV organization in the country developed and implemented the Sustainable Action against HIV and AIDS in Communities (SAHACOM) project. This study aims to determine the impacts of the SAHACOM on sexual behaviors and the uptake of HIV/STI services among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Cambodia. METHODS: We compared outcome indicators at midterm (n = 352) and endline (n = 394)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
T Lavender, S Wakasiaka, L McGowan, M Moraa, J Omari, W Khisa
AIM: this study aimed to gain understanding of the views of community members in relation to obstetric fistula. DESIGN AND METHOD: a qualitative, grounded theory approach was adopted. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 45 community members. The constant comparison method enabled generation of codes and subsequent conceptualisations, from the data. SETTING: participants were from communities served by two hospitals in Kenya; Kisii and Kenyatta...
October 4, 2016: Midwifery
Mair Underwood
BACKGROUND: As a result of the mainstreaming of bodybuilding, the majority of image and performance enhancing drug (IPED) users are now not athletes or competitive bodybuilders, but recreational bodybuilders. Previous approaches provide little insight into how the shift from competitive to recreational contexts impacts the use of IPEDs. METHODS: In this study an online ethnographic approach is used to explore the social lives of IPEDs in a recreational context. The study focusses on the Zyzz fandom, an international online community of thousands of recreational bodybuilders who idolise the alleged IPED user Zyzz...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Higinio Mora, Jerónimo M Mora-Pascual, Alberto García-García, Pablo Martínez-González
The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is currently one of the most popular methods for rigid registration so that it has become the standard in the Robotics and Computer Vision communities. Many applications take advantage of it to align 2D/3D surfaces due to its popularity and simplicity. Nevertheless, some of its phases present a high computational cost thus rendering impossible some of its applications. In this work, it is proposed an efficient approach for the matching phase of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm...
2016: PloS One
H Orpana, M Chawla, E Gallagher, E Escaravage
INTRODUCTION: In 2006, the World Health Organization launched the Global Age-Friendly Cities Project to support active aging. Canada has a large number of age-friendly initiatives; however, little is known about the effectiveness and outcomes of age-friendly community (AFC) initiatives. In addition, stakeholders report that they lack the capacity and tools to develop and conduct evaluations of their AFC initiatives. In order to address these gaps, the Public Health Agency of Canada developed indicators to support the evaluation of AFC initiatives relevant to a wide range of Canadian communities...
October 2016: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
C Steensma, L Loukine, H Orpana, L McRae, J Vachon, F Mo, M Boileau-Falardeau, C Reid, B C Choi
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have evaluated the impact of depression in terms of losses to both premature mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) on the overall population. Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) is a summary measure of population health that combines both morbidity and mortality into a single summary statistic that describes the current health status of a population. METHODS: We estimated HALE for the Canadian adult population according to depression status...
October 2016: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Yingying Hong, Kyle Schmidt, Danielle Marks, Samantha Hatter, Anne Marshall, Luiz Albino, Paul Ebner
Numerous studies have assessed the efficacy of phage-based methods to inhibit Salmonella contamination in food products. As with most antibacterials, bacteria can develop resistance to phage in vitro. Here, we applied a single broad-spectrum Salmonella phage, vB_SalS_SJ_2 (SJ2; 10(8) PFU; MOI = 10), to Salmonella-contaminated meat and eggs to quantify the development of resistance in actual food matrices. Treatment with a single phage significantly reduced Salmonella Typhimurium contamination in both ground pork and liquid egg at various time points...
October 21, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Tommi L Gaines, Daniel Werb, Jaime Arredondo, Victor M Alaniz, Carlos Vilalta, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexico enacted a drug policy reform (Narcomenudeo) designed to divert persons possessing small amounts of illicit drugs to treatment rather than incarceration. To assess reform impact, this study examines the spatial-temporal trends of drug-related policing in Tijuana, Mexico post-enactment. METHOD: Location of self-reported arrests (N = 1,160) among a prospective, community-recruited cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana (N = 552) was mapped across city neighborhoods...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
David Y Lee, Annabelle Teng, Rose C Pedersen, Farees R Tavangari, Vikram Attaluri, Elisabeth C McLemore, Stacey L Stern, Anton J Bilchik, Melanie R Goldfarb
INTRODUCTION: Stage II-III rectal cancer requires multidisciplinary cancer care, and adolescents and young adults (AYA, ages 15-39 years) often do not receive optimal cancer therapy. METHODS: Overall, 3295 AYAs with clinical stage II-III rectal cancer were identified in the National Cancer Database. Factors associated with the receipt of adjuvant and surgical therapies, as well as overall survival (OS), were examined. RESULTS: The majority of patients were non-Hispanic White (72...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Ajaratu Keshinro, Ioannis Hatzaras, Kenneth Rifkind, Shubhada Dhage, Kathie-Ann Joseph
INTRODUCTION: Cancer screening is a key component of primary care, and access to regular screening mammography (SMG) is highly dependent on recommendation and referral by a primary care provider (PCP). Women with no health insurance or who are underinsured often lack access to a regular PCP and thus access to routine screening. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 173 surgical patients diagnosed between January 2012 and December 2013. The main outcome variables were PCP status, method of cancer detection, and breast cancer stage at diagnosis...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Uta Hanning, Andreas Roesler, Annette Peters, Klaus Berger, Bernhard T Baune
While MRI brain changes have been related to mortality during ageing, the role of inflammation in this relationship remains poorly understood. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the impact of MRI changes on all-cause mortality and the mediating role of cytokines. All-cause mortality was evaluated in 268 community dwelling elderly (age 65-83 years) in the MEMO study (Memory and Morbidity in Augsburg elderly). MRI markers of brain atrophy and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), C-reactive protein (CRP) and a panel of cytokines in serum were assessed...
October 20, 2016: Age (2005-)
Marcel D Torode, Kirk L Barnett, Sarah L Facey, Uffe N Nielsen, Sally A Power, Scott N Johnson
Climate change is predicted to result in altered precipitation patterns, which may reshape many grassland ecosystems. Rainfall is expected to change in a number of different ways, ranging from periods of prolonged drought to extreme precipitation events, yet there are few community wide studies to accurately simulate future changes. We aimed to test how above- and below-ground grassland invertebrate populations were affected by contrasting future rainfall scenarios. We subjected a grassland community to potential future rainfall scenarios including ambient, increased amount (+50% of ambient), reduced amount (-50% of ambient), reduced frequency (no water for 21 days, followed by the total ambient rainfall applied in a single application) and summer drought (no rainfall for 13 weeks during the growing season)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Stephen J Jacquemin, Mark Pyron
BACKGROUND: Aquatic habitats have been altered over the past century due to a variety of anthropogenic influences. Ecomorphology is an area of aquatic ecology that can both directly and indirectly assess the effects of habitat alterations on organisms. However, few studies have explored long term trends in morphological variation. Long term changes in morphology can potentially impact niche and ultimately contribute to organismal success and the ecosystem. Therefore, in this study we assessed long term morphological variation with body size, sex, time, and hydrology using museum collections of five species of Cyprinidae (Minnows) from lentic and lotic systems over the past 100 years to gain insight into long term patterns in morphology...
October 20, 2016: BMC Ecology
Mona Malakouti, Gabrielle E Brown, Argentina Leon, Eva Wang, April N Naegeli, Emily Edson-Heredia, Ethan Levin, John Y M Koo
INTRODUCTION: Patient-reported outcome measures are increasingly utilized in dermatology to assess the impact of skin disease on quality of life. Despite recognition of the influence of skin disease on intimate relationships, an instrument to assess intimacy has not been developed. The objective of this study was to create the Dermatologic Intimacy Scale (DIS) and administer the prototype to a patient population. METHODS: A group of healthcare providers at the University of California San Francisco created the DIS prototype...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Huong Nguyen, Jerome Vanclay, John Herbohn, Jennifer Firn
There is growing interest in multi-species tropical plantations but little information exists to guide their design and silviculture. The Rainforestation Farming system is the oldest tropical polyculture planting system in the Philippines and provides a unique opportunity to understand the underlying processes affecting tree performance within diverse plantings. Data collected from 85 plots distributed across the 18 mixed-species plantations in the Philippines was used to identify the factors influencing growth, probability of harvest, and death of trees in these complex plantings...
2016: PloS One
Natasa M Milic, Srdjan Masic, Jelena Milin-Lazovic, Goran Trajkovic, Zoran Bukumiric, Marko Savic, Nikola V Milic, Andja Cirkovic, Milan Gajic, Mirjana Kostic, Aleksandra Ilic, Dejana Stanisavljevic
BACKGROUND: The scientific community increasingly is recognizing the need to bolster standards of data analysis given the widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings. The aim of this study was to investigate students' attitudes towards statistics within a multi-site medical educational context, monitor their changes and impact on student achievement. In addition, we performed a systematic review to better support our future pedagogical decisions in teaching applied statistics to medical students...
2016: PloS One
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