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Black fungi

Martina Réblová, Vit Hubka, Olle Thureborn, Johannes Lundberg, Therese Sallstedt, Mats Wedin, Magnus Ivarsson
Rock-inhabiting fungi harbour species-rich, poorly differentiated, extremophilic taxa of polyphyletic origin. Their closest relatives are often well-known species from various biotopes with significant pathogenic potential. Speleothems represent a unique rock-dwelling habitat, whose mycobiota are largely unexplored. Isolation of fungi from speleothem biofilm covering bare granite walls in the Kungsträdgården metro station in Stockholm yielded axenic cultures of two distinct black yeast morphotypes. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from six nuclear loci, ITS, nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA, rpb1, rpb2 and β-tubulin, support their placement in the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycota)...
2016: PloS One
Hung K Doan, Karina Perez, Richard M Davis, David C Slaughter
From 2009 to 2011, freshly harvested processing tomatoes from California commercial fields were surveyed for mold species present in the mature fruit. Molds were recovered from the majority of fruit that had visual symptoms of black mold and other decays and from about a quarter of randomly sampled, asymptomatic fruit. Alternaria, Fusarium, and Geotrichum spp. were the most commonly recovered fungi in both symptomatic and random samples. Based on pairwise statistical analysis, the frequencies of 2 different fungal genera in a composite 11 kg-sample were, in general, statistically independent events, with the exception of a weak association between the incidence of Geotrichum with Alternaria, Cladosporium, or Stemphylium...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Dongmei Shi, Guixia Lu, Huan Mei, G Sybren de Hoog, Hailin Zheng, Guanzhao Liang, Yongnian Shen, Tianhang Li, Weida Liu
Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, although also other filamentous and yeast-like fungi are associated with nail invasion. Chaetomium is an environmental genus of ascomycetes exhibiting a certain degree of extremotolerance. We report the first case of onychomycosis in a 46-year-old woman in China caused by Chaetomium globosum. The patient showed yellowish black discoloration with periungual inflammation on the left first toenail. We confirmed the causative agent, C. globosum, by KOH mount, culture, micromorphology and DNA sequence analysis...
September 2016: Medical Mycology Case Reports
Eduardo Henrique Goulin, Daiani Cristina Savi, Desirrê Alexia Lourenço Petters, Vanessa Kava, Lygia Galli-Terasawa, Geraldo José Silva, Chirlei Glienke
Phyllosticta citricarpa is the epidemiological agent of Citrus Black Spot (CBS) disease, which is responsible for large economic losses worldwide. CBS is characterized by the presence of spores (pycnidiospores) in dark lesions of fruit, which are also responsible for short distance dispersal of the disease. The identification of genes involved in asexual reproduction of P. citricarpa can be an alternative for directional disease control. We analyzed a library of mutants obtained through Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system, looking for alterations in growth and reproductive structure formation...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Hernán R Bonomi, Laila Toum, Gabriela Sycz, Rodrigo Sieira, Andrés M Toscani, Gustavo E Gudesblat, Federico C Leskow, Fernando A Goldbaum, Adrián A Vojnov, Florencia Malamud
Phytochromes constitute a major photoreceptor family found in plants, algae, fungi, and prokaryotes, including pathogens. Here, we report that Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), the causal agent of black rot disease which affects cruciferous crops worldwide, codes for a functional bacteriophytochrome (XccBphP). XccBphP possesses an N-terminal PAS2-GAF-PHY photosensory domain triad and a C-terminal PAS9 domain as its output module. Our results show that illumination of Xcc, prior to plant infection, attenuates its virulence in an XccBphP-dependent manner...
September 12, 2016: EMBO Reports
Adrian Man, Anca Mare, Felicia Toma, Augustin Curticăpean, Luigi Santacroce
: The study of fungal contamination in food and mycotoxicoses is a priority today, both internationally and nationally. The purpose of this study is to have a general view over the quality of the most common spices that are sold in Romanian markets, by assessing the degree of fungal, bacterial and mycotoxin contamination in pepper and chili powders. METHODS: we tested four types of spices: white pepper, black pepper, sweet and hot chili powders from 12 different distributing companies, summing a total of 35 sample types...
August 23, 2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Jian-fu Liu, Jing-xiong Chen, Shi-you Gu
Aiming at the possihle air microbial pollution of urban black odorous water the contamination characteristics of bacteria, fungi and total microbe as well as health risks of different types of population within certain distance from the urban black odorous water were studied. The results showed that hbcteria and fungi pollution was primary within offshore 200 m; under near calm condition, there was an aggregation phenomenon of microorganisms within offshore 20 m; the concentrations of bacteria, fungi and total microbe were the highest in the morning, the middle at noon, and the lowest in the afternoon; within offshore 200 m, the width of black odorous water was significantly correlated with the concentrations of bacteria, fungi and total microorganisms; the microbial health risk of residents mainly existed in the offshore 100 m range; at the same offshore distance, the short-term exposure health risk to children was the greatest, followed by women, men to a minimum...
April 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Anne Talk, Susanne Kublik, Marie Uksa, Marion Engel, Rüdiger Berghahn, Gerhard Welzl, Michael Schloter, Silvia Mohr
In the first tier risk assessment (RA) of pesticides, risk for aquatic communities is estimated by using results from standard laboratory tests with algae, daphnids and fish for single pesticides such as herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. However, fungi as key organisms for nutrient cycling in ecosystems as well as multiple pesticide applications are not considered in the RA. In this study, the effects of multiple low pesticide pulses using regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) on the dynamics of non-target aquatic fungi were investigated in a study using pond mesocosm...
August 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Ti-Cheng Chang, Anthony Salvucci, Pedro W Crous, Ioannis Stergiopoulos
The Sigatoka disease complex, caused by the closely-related Dothideomycete fungi Pseudocercospora musae (yellow sigatoka), Pseudocercospora eumusae (eumusae leaf spot), and Pseudocercospora fijiensis (black sigatoka), is currently the most devastating disease on banana worldwide. The three species emerged on bananas from a recent common ancestor and show clear differences in virulence, with P. eumusae and P. fijiensis considered the most aggressive. In order to understand the genomic modifications associated with shifts in the species virulence spectra after speciation, and to identify their pathogenic core that can be exploited in disease management programs, we have sequenced and analyzed the genomes of P...
August 2016: PLoS Genetics
Roslyn D Noar, Margaret E Daub
Mycosphaerella fijiensis, causal agent of black Sigatoka disease of banana, is a Dothideomycete fungus closely related to fungi that produce polyketides important for plant pathogenicity. We utilized the M. fijiensis genome sequence to predict PKS genes and their gene clusters and make bioinformatics predictions about the types of compounds produced by these clusters. Eight PKS gene clusters were identified in the M. fijiensis genome, placing M. fijiensis into the 23rd percentile for the number of PKS genes compared to other Dothideomycetes...
2016: PloS One
Craig Bateman, Martin Šigut, James Skelton, Katherine E Smith, Jiri Hulcr
Studies of symbioses have traditionally focused on explaining one-to-one interactions between organisms. In reality, symbioses are often much more dynamic. They can involve many interacting members, and change depending on context. In studies of the ambrosia symbiosis-the mutualism between wood borer beetles and fungi-two variables have introduced uncertainty when explaining interactions: imprecise symbiont identification, and disregard for anatomical complexity of the insects. The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff, is a globally invasive ambrosia beetle that infests >200 plant species...
August 2016: Environmental Entomology
C Wiegand, P Mugisha, G K Mulyowa, P Elsner, U C Hipler, Y Gräser, S Uhrlaß, P Nenoff
BACKGROUND: Tinea capitis is caused by anthropophilic, zoophilic or geophilic dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum or Trichophyton. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation of tinea capitis among children in western Uganda. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From February to June 2012, skin and hair samples were obtained from 115 patients aged from 1 to 16 years presenting at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MUSC) with clinically suspected tinea capitis...
September 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Katreena P Sarmiento, Vivian A Panes, Mudjekeewis D Santos
Chitin deacetylases have been identified and studied in several fungi and insects but not in crustaceans. These glycoproteins function in catalyzing the conversion of chitin to chitosan by the hydrolysis of N-acetamido bonds of chitin. Here, for the first time, the full length cDNA of chitin deacetylase (CDA) gene from crustaceans was fully cloned using a partial fragment obtained from a transcriptome database of the gills of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that survived White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection employing Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) PCR...
August 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
V Julliand, P Grimm
In the early 1990s, the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem looked like a "black box." Its vital role in hydrolyzing and fermenting fiber, thus providing energy to the host, was recognized. Although there was a critical lack of information on the hindgut microbes, their role in preventing intestinal diseases was suggested. Traditionally, the microbes of the horse hindgut were studied using culture-dependent techniques. More recently, culture-independent methods have been used and provided further insight. This review presents the history and updated knowledge regarding the microbes that live inside the different intestinal ecosystems and which collective genomes compose the hindgut microbiome...
June 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Ping Wu, Wen Zhu Wu, Zhi Hua Han, Hong Yang
Phenamacril (JS399-19 with independent intellectual property developed by China), azoxystrobin, and kresoxim-methyl are strobilurin fungicide. Due to their broad spectrum and good control of most of known fungi, strobilurin fungicide has been widely used in agriculture management. Thus, it is important to evaluate their environmental behaviors particularly in soils and underground water. In this study, the sorption/desorption and mobility of strobilurin fungicides in three Chinese soils (Jiangxi red soil, Taihu paddy soil, and Northeast China black soil) were conducted using comprehensively analytic approaches including batch experiment and soil thin-layer chromatography...
June 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Şahin Palta, Ayşe Genç Lermi, Rıdvan Beki
The object of the present research was to establish correlations between the status of root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and different types of land use. In order to achieve this aim, rhizosphere soil samples from grassland crops were taken during June and July of 2013 in order to use for determining several soil characteristics. The 27 different taxa and 60 soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere level in the study areas. The existence of AMF was confirmed in 100 % of these plants with different rations of colonization (approximately 12-89 %)...
June 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Peter J Irga, Brigette Armstrong, William L King, Margaret Burchett, Fraser R Torpy
Habitat fragmentation in urban environments concentrates bird populations that have managed to adapt to these newly developed areas. Consequently, the roosts of these birds are potentially creating environments conducive to fungal growth and dissemination. Airborne fungi derived from these environments are relatively unstudied, as is the potential health risk arising from these fungi. This study documented the diversity of culturable airborne fungal propagules associated with forty urban bird roosts. Environmental variables from each site were recorded to allow us to analyse the correspondence between different bird species, the substrate they occupy and airborne fungal propagules...
October 2016: Mycopathologia
Lynn K Carta, Shiguang Li, Andrea M Skantar, George Newcombe
During a long-term, large network study of the ecology of plant endophytes in native habitats, various nematodes have been found. Two poplar species, Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) and Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood), are important ecological and genomic models now used in ongoing plant-pathogen-endophyte interaction studies. In this study, two different aphelenchid nematodes within surface-sterilized healthy leaves of these two Populus spp. in northwestern North America were discovered...
March 2016: Journal of Nematology
Xiaoping Niu, Hong Gao, Jianmin Qi, Miancai Chen, Aifen Tao, Jiantang Xu, Zhigang Dai, Jianguang Su
Anthracnose, caused by the Colletotrichum species of fungi, is one of the most serious diseases affecting jute in China. The disease causes chlorotic regions with black brown sunken necrotic pits on the surfaces of stems. In late stages of disease, plants undergo defoliation, dieback and blight, which make anthracnose a major threat to jute fiber production and quality in China. In this study, 7 strains of Colletotrichum fungi were isolated from diseased jute stems from Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangxi, and Henan plantations in China...
2016: Scientific Reports
Qiu-hua Cai, Jin-xiang Zuo, Zhong-huan Li, Ya-ping Zhang, Yong-gang Zhao, Qiao Deng, Jin Ouyang, Jun-jie Huang, Lu Yu, Jian Zou, Zheng-xiong Zhao
Field experiments were conducted in Shilin and Xundian respectively to study the diffe- rence of rhizosphere microbe quantity and functional diversity with plate culture method and Biolog technique among Hongda (high susceptibility, S), Yun87 (middle resistance, MR) and K326 (high resistance, R) , three flue-cured tobacco cultivars with different resistance to bacterial wilt and black shank. The results indicated that the amounts of bacteria, actinomycetes and the total number of microbes in tobacco plants' rhizosphere were positively correlated with the cultivar' s re- sistance, while it was opposite for the fungi...
December 2015: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
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