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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764946/comparative-genomics-reveals-the-core-gene-toolbox-for-the-fungus-insect-symbiosis
#1
Yan Wang, Matt Stata, Wei Wang, Jason E Stajich, Merlin M White, Jean-Marc Moncalvo
Modern genomics has shed light on many entomopathogenic fungi and expanded our knowledge widely; however, little is known about the genomic features of the insect-commensal fungi. Harpellales are obligate commensals living in the digestive tracts of disease-bearing insects (black flies, midges, and mosquitoes). In this study, we produced and annotated whole-genome sequences of nine Harpellales taxa and conducted the first comparative analyses to infer the genomic diversity within the members of the Harpellales...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764372/genomic-evidence-for-intraspecific-hybridization-in-a-clonal-and-extremely-halotolerant-yeast
#2
Cene Gostinčar, Jason E Stajich, Jerneja Zupančič, Polona Zalar, Nina Gunde-Cimerman
BACKGROUND: The black yeast Hortaea werneckii (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) is one of the most extremely halotolerant fungi, capable of growth at NaCl concentrations close to saturation. Although dothideomycetous fungi are typically haploid, the reference H. werneckii strain has a diploid genome consisting of two subgenomes with a high level of heterozygosity. RESULTS: In order to explain the origin of the H. werneckii diploid genome we here report the genome sequencing of eleven strains isolated from different habitats and geographic locations...
May 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756353/effect-of-potassium-sorbate-e-202-and-the-antifungal-pgafp-protein-on-aspergillus-carbonarius-growth-and-ochratoxin-a-production-in-raisin-simulating-media
#3
Sihem Fodil, Josué Delgado, Leonardo Varvaro, Thaer Yaseen, Alicia Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. The presence of OTA in raisins is mainly related to the black Aspergillus spp. contamination. This toxin poses risks to human and animal health due to their high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, new strategies to avoid the risk associated to OTA are necessary. RESULTS: In the present study, a comparison between the effects of the antifungal protein PgAFP and potassium sorbate (E-202), on the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius, biosynthetic- and stress-related gene expression and its OTA production at two water activity (aw ) levels 0...
May 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728121/improving-the-delivery-and-efficiency-of-fungus-impregnated-cloths-for-control-of-adult-aedes-aegypti-using-a-synthetic-attractive-lure
#4
Adriano R Paula, Leila E I Silva, Anderson Ribeiro, Tariq M Butt, Carlos P Silva, Richard I Samuels
BACKGROUND: Entomopathogenic fungi are highly promising agents for controlling Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Deploying fungus-impregnated black cloths in PET traps efficiently reduced Ae. aegypti female survival rates under intra-domicile conditions. With the aim of further increasing the effectiveness of the traps, the addition of attractive lures to fungus-impregnated traps was evaluated. METHODS: Black cloths were suspended inside 2 l plastic bottles called "PET traps"...
May 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726228/-effects-of-crude-toxin-from-alternaria-alternata-on-the-growth-and-physiological-metabolism-of-chrysanthemum-jinba-seedlings
#5
Kai Kai Zhang, Shuang Zhao, Hui Jie Chen, Jia Qi Ni, Xiao Fan Jiang, Fa di Chen, Wei Min Fang
The chrysanthemum black spot caused by Alternaria alternata significantly reduced the quality and yield of chrysanthemum. The crude toxin secreted by A. alternata in the metabolic process have elopathic effects on plants, which is the main pathogenic factor for the occurrence of chrysanthemum black spot. The pathogenic fungi A. alternate was isolated from chrysanthemum black spot leaves, The effects of crude toxin on plant height, stem diameter, root length, resistant material content, membrane relative permeability, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in different treatments of chrysanthemum 'Jinba' seedlings were investigated...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720967/how-does-salinity-shape-bacterial-and-fungal-microbiomes-of-alnus-glutinosa-roots
#6
Dominika Thiem, Marcin Gołębiewski, Piotr Hulisz, Agnieszka Piernik, Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz
Black alder ( Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.) belongs to dual mycorrhizal trees, forming ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular (AM) root structures, as well as represents actinorrhizal plants that associate with nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia sp. We hypothesized that the unique ternary structure of symbionts can influence community structure of other plant-associated microorganisms (bacterial and fungal endophytes), particularly under seasonally changing salinity in A. glutinosa roots. In our study we analyzed black alder root bacterial and fungal microbiome present at two forest test sites (saline and non-saline) in two different seasons (spring and fall)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681943/morphological-and-molecular-identification-of-the-causal-agent-of-anthracnose-disease-of-avocado-in-kenya
#7
S K Kimaru, E Monda, R C Cheruiyot, J Mbaka, A Alakonya
Anthracnose disease of avocado contributes to a huge loss of avocado fruits due to postharvest rot in Kenya. The causal agent of this disease has not been clear but presumed to be Colletotrichum gloeosporioides as reported in other regions where avocado is grown. The fungus mainly infects fruits causing symptoms such as small blackish spots, "pepper spots," and black spots with raised margin which coalesce as infection progresses. Due to economic losses associated with the disease and emerging information of other species of fungi as causal agents of the disease, this study was aimed at identifying causal agent(s) of the disease...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674805/ectomycorrhizal-and-endophytic-fungi-associated-with-alnus-glutinosa-growing-in-a-saline-area-of-central-poland
#8
Dominika Thiem, Agnieszka Piernik, Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz
Alnus glutinosa (black alder) is a mycorrhizal pioneer tree species with tolerance to high concentrations of salt in the soil and can therefore be considered to be an important tree for the regeneration of forests areas devastated by excessive salt. However, there is still a lack of information about the ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) associated with mature individuals of A. glutinosa growing in natural saline conditions. The main objective of this study was to test the effect of soil salinity and other physicochemical parameters on root tips colonized by EMF, as well as on the species richness and diversity of an EMF community associated with A...
2018: Symbiosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669988/establishment-of-protocol-for-preparation-of-gene-edited-bovine-ear-derived-fibroblasts-for-somatic-cell-nuclear-transplantation
#9
Takeshi Ishino, Mayuko Hashimoto, Misato Amagasa, Natsuko Saito, Osamu Dochi, Rikio Kirisawa, Hiroshi Kitamura
Recently, gene-editing using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/ CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) technique has attempted to utilize fibroblasts of livestock animals for somatic cell nuclear transfer. In this study, we establish the procedure for preparing skin fibroblast clones whose genes were edited by the CRISPR/Cas9 technique. After isolating fibroblasts from earlobes of Japanese Black cattle, subsequent collagenase-digestion and extensive wash procedures enabled us to avoid contamination of fungi...
2018: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655593/investigating-the-potential-of-an-autodissemination-system-for-managing-populations-of-vine-weevil-otiorhynchus-sulcatus-coleoptera-curculionidae-with-entomopathogenic-fungi
#10
Tom W Pope, Gemma Hough, Charlotte Arbona, Harriet Roberts, Jude Bennison, John Buxton, Gill Prince, Dave Chandler
Vine weevil, also known as black vine weevil, (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is an economically important pest affecting soft fruit and nursery stock in temperate regions. We used laboratory and polytunnel experiments to investigate a novel control system based on autodissemination of spores of an entomopathogenic fungus to populations of adult vine weevils. The fungus was applied as a conidial powder, used on its own or formulated with talc, to a simple plastic refuge for vine weevils. The potential for adult weevils to disseminate the fungus was investigated first in polytunnel experiments using fluorescent powders applied to the refuge in lieu of fungal conidia...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651174/identification-and-pathogenicity-of-fungal-pathogens-causing-black-point-in-wheat-on-the-north-china-plain
#11
Kai-Ge Xu, Yu-Mei Jiang, Yang-Kun Li, Qiao-Qiao Xu, Ji-Shan Niu, Xin-Xin Zhu, Qiao-Yun Li
Fungi associated with black point were isolated from three highly susceptible wheat genotypes in the North China Plain. The 21 isolates represented 11 fungal genera. The most prevalent genera were Alternaria (isolation frequency of 56.7%), Bipolaris (16.1%), and Fusarium (6.0%). The other eight genera were Curvularia , Aspergillus , Cladosporium , Exserohilum , Epicoccum , Nigrospora , Penicillium , and Ulocladium ; their isolation frequencies ranged from 0.8 to 4.8%. The pathogenicity of the isolates was individually assessed in the greenhouse by inoculating wheat plants with spore suspensions...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611230/in-vitro-activities-of-antifungal-drugs-against-environmental-exophiala-isolates-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Dolunay Gülmez, Özlem Doğan, Barış Boral, Aylin Döğen, Macit İlkit, G Sybren de Hoog, Sevtap Arikan-Akdagli
BACKGROUND: Exophiala is a genus of black fungi isolated worldwide from environmental and clinical specimens. Data on antifungal susceptibility of Exophiala isolates are limited and the methodology on susceptibility testing is not yet standardized. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated in vitro antifungal susceptibilities of environmental Exophiala isolates. METHODS: A total of 87 Exophiala isolated from dishwashers or railway ties were included...
April 3, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579911/aflatoxigenic-and-ochratoxigenic-fungi-and-their-mycotoxins-in-spices-marketed-in-brazil
#13
Marcelo Valle Garcia, Carlos Augusto Mallmann, Marina Venturini Copetti
During their processing, spices usually remain close to the ground for drying, a fact that disposes to fungal contamination, as well as moisture transferred from the tropical environment can allow their multiplication and synthesis of mycotoxins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of potentially toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in spices marketed in Brazil. The fungal contamination was evaluated by direct plating for samples of clove, black and white peppers. Spread plate was used for the samples of rosemary, cinnamon, fennel, pepperoni pepper and oregano...
April 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557534/mycetoma-in-the-togolese-an-update-from-a-single-center-experience
#14
Tchin Darré, Bayaki Saka, Abas Mouhari-Toure, Mazamaesso Tchaou, Améyo Monique Dorkenoo, Kwamé Doh, Atchi Walla, Koffi Amégbor, Vincent Palokinam Pitché, Gado Napo-Koura
BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a chronic inflammatory process caused either by fungi (eumycetoma) or bacteria (actinomycetoma). In this retrospective study, we report epidemiologic and histopathological data of mycetoma observed in the Lome Hospital, Togo in a 25-year period (1992-2016). METHODOLOGY: This is a retrospective study, over a period of 25 years, to analyze epidemiological and etiological findings of mycetomas seen in the single laboratory of pathological anatomy of the Lomé, Togo...
March 20, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538737/black-yeasts-in-the-omics-era-achievements-and-challenges
#15
Leandro Ferreira Moreno, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Sybren de Hoog
Black yeasts (BY) comprise a group of polyextremotolerant fungi, mainly belonging to the order Chaetothyriales, which are capable of colonizing a wide range of extreme environments. The tolerance to hostile habitats can be explained by their intrinsic ability to survive under acidic, alkaline, and toxic conditions, high temperature, low nutrient availability, and osmotic and mechanical stress. Occasionally, some species can cause human chromoblastomycosis, a chronic subcutaneous infection, as well as disseminated or cerebral phaeohyphomycosis...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526231/fungi-in-spices-and-mycotoxigenic-potential-of-some-aspergilli-isolated
#16
Marcelo Valle Garcia, Gilson Parussolo, Camila Brombilla Moro, Angélica Olivier Bernardi, Marina Venturini Copetti
The aim of this study was to identify fungal species present in 200 samples of rosemary, fennel, cinnamon, clove, pepperoni, black and white pepper and oregano and evaluate the mycotoxigenic potential of the some Aspergilli isolated. Clove, black and white peppers were analyzed by direct plating. For rosemary, cinnamon, fennel, pepperoni pepper and oregano samples were used spread plate. Mycotoxigenic capacity was verified by the agar plug method. With the exception of clove, all the spices showed high fungal contamination, especially by Aspergillus sp...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509668/overview-of-oxidative-stress-response-genes-in-selected-halophilic-fungi
#17
Cene Gostinčar, Nina Gunde-Cimerman
Exposure of microorganisms to stress, including to high concentrations of salt, can lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species in the cell. To limit the resulting damage, cells have evolved a variety of antioxidant defenses. The role of these defenses in halotolerance has been proposed before. Whole genome sequencing for some of the most halotolerant and halophilic fungal species has enabled us to investigate the possible links between oxidative and salt stress tolerance on the genomic level. We identified genes involved in oxidative stress response in the halophilic basidiomycete Wallemia ichthyophaga , and halotolerant ascomycetous black yeasts Hortaea werneckii and Aureobasidium pullulans , and compared them to genes from 16 other fungi, both asco- and basidiomycetes...
March 6, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504057/rapid-identification-of-seven-waterborne-exophiala-species-by-rca-dna-padlock-probes
#18
M J Najafzadeh, V A Vicente, Peiying Feng, A Naseri, Jiufeng Sun, A Rezaei-Matehkolaei, G S de Hoog
The black yeast genus Exophiala includes numerous potential opportunistic species that potentially cause systematic and disseminated infections in immunocompetent individuals. Species causing systemic disease have ability to grow at 37-40 °C, while others consistently lack thermotolerance and are involved in diseases of cold-blooded, waterborne vertebrates and occasionally invertebrates. We explain a fast and sensitive assay for recognition and identification of waterborne Exophiala species without sequencing...
March 5, 2018: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503471/phylogeny-of-the-order-phyllachorales-ascomycota-sordariomycetes-among-and-within-order-relationships-based-on-five-molecular-loci
#19
M Mardones, T Trampe-Jaschik, S Oster, M Elliott, H Urbina, I Schmitt, M Piepenbring
The order Phyllachorales ( Pezizomycotina , Ascomycota ) is a group of biotrophic, obligate plant parasitic fungi with a tropical distribution and high host specificity. Traditionally two families are recognised within this order: Phyllachoraceae and Phaeochoraceae , based mostly on morphological and host characteristics. Currently, the position of the order within the class Sordariomycetes is inconclusive, as well as the monophyly of the order, and its internal phylogenetic structure. Here we present a phylogeny of the order Phyllachorales based on sequence data of 29 species with a broad host range resulting from a wide geographical sampling...
December 2017: Persoonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484711/in-vivo-characterization-of-pustules-in-malassezia-folliculitis-by-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-and-optical-coherence-tomography-a-case-series-study
#20
A J B Andersen, C Fuchs, M Ardigo, M Haedersdal, M Mogensen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Malassezia Folliculitis (MaF) is an inflammatory condition of hair follicles caused by Malassezia yeast. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) are imaging technologies enabling in vivo visualization of superficial skin layers. This study explores morphology of pustules in MaF imaged by OCT and RCM. METHODS: Patients with microscopically verified MaF were included in this case series. Morphology was evaluated qualitatively with RCM and OCT, focusing on shape, border and content of selected pustules...
February 27, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
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