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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299723/mold-and-human-health-a-reality-check
#1
REVIEW
Andrea T Borchers, Christopher Chang, M Eric Gershwin
There are possibly millions of mold species on earth. The vast majority of these mold spores live in harmony with humans, rarely causing disease. The rare species that does cause disease does so by triggering allergies or asthma, or may be involved in hypersensitivity diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or allergic fungal sinusitis. Other hypersensitivity diseases include those related to occupational or domiciliary exposures to certain mold species, as in the case of Pigeon Breeder's disease, Farmer's lung, or humidifier fever...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298348/a-phylogenetic-perspective-on-the-association-between-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae-and-black-yeasts-ascomycota-chaetothyriales
#2
Marie Vasse, Hermann Voglmayr, Veronika Mayer, Cécile Gueidan, Maximilian Nepel, Leandro Moreno, Sybren de Hoog, Marc-André Selosse, Doyle McKey, Rumsaïs Blatrix
The frequency and the geographical extent of symbiotic associations between ants and fungi of the order Chaetothyriales have been highlighted only recently. Using a phylogenetic approach based on seven molecular markers, we showed that ant-associated Chaetothyriales are scattered through the phylogeny of this order. There was no clustering according to geographical origin or to the taxonomy of the ant host. However, strains tended to be clustered according to the type of association with ants: strains from ant-made carton and strains from plant cavities occupied by ants ('domatia') rarely clustered together...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261240/effects-of-rhizophagus-irregularis-on-photosynthesis-and-antioxidative-enzymatic-system-in-robinia-pseudoacacia-l-under-drought-stress
#3
Fei He, Min Sheng, Ming Tang
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonize roots improving plant water status and tolerance to drought. However, it is not clear whether the presence of AM would affect the photosynthesis and antioxidant gene-enzymes response, which help to alleviate drought stress of the host plant. Here, pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of Rhizophagus irregularis, an AM fungus, on the tissue water content, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251870/genomic-exaptation-enables-lasius-niger-adaptation-to-urban-environments
#4
Evgenii A Konorov, Mikhail A Nikitin, Kirill V Mikhailov, Sergey N Lysenkov, Mikhail Belenky, Peter L Chang, Sergey V Nuzhdin, Victoria A Scobeyeva
BACKGROUND: The world is rapidly urbanizing, and only a subset of species are able to succeed in stressful city environments. Efficient genome-enabled stress response appears to be a likely prerequisite for urban adaptation. Despite the important role ants play in the ecosytem, only the genomes of ~13 have been sequenced so far. Here, we present the draft genome assembly of the black garden ant Lasius niger - the most successful urban inhabitant of all ants - and we compare it with the genomes of other ant species, including the closely related Camponotus floridanus...
February 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218268/rapid-and-sensitive-diagnoses-of-dry-root-rot-pathogen-of-chickpea-rhizoctonia-bataticola-taub-butler-using-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay
#5
Raju Ghosh, Avijit Tarafdar, Mamta Sharma
Dry root rot (DRR) caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler, is an emerging disease in chickpea. The disease is often mistaken with other root rots like Fusarium wilt, collar rot and black root rot in chickpea. Therefore, its timely and specific detection is important. Current detection protocols are either based on mycological methods or on protocols involving DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we report the rapid and specific detection of R. bataticola using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting fungal specific 5...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217468/subcutaneous-phaeohyphomycosis-in-an-immunocompetent-individual-a-case-report
#6
Sudharani Chintagunta, Geetakiran Arakkal, Sudha V Damarla, Akshay K Vodapalli
Phaeohyphomycosis is a rare mycotic infection caused by various heterogenous groups of phaeoid (dematiaceous) fungi involving the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Common clinical manifestations are subcutaneous abscesses or cystic swellings. Here, we report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis presenting as multiple asymptomatic cystic swellings over the hands and feet without any predisposing factors. Histopathology showed granulomatous inflammation and special stain with Grocott's methanamine silver stain revealed broad pigmented hyphae...
January 2017: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215352/photoreceptors-in-the-dark-a-functional-white-collar-like-complex-and-other-putative-light-sensing-components-encoded-by-the-genome-of-the-subterranean-fungus-tuber-melanosporum
#7
Raffaele Gerace, Barbara Montanini, Marco Proietto, Elisabetta Levati, Cristina De Luca, Andrea Brenna, Patrizia Filetici, Annegret Kohler, Simone Ottonello, Paola Ballario
Light is perceived and transduced by fungi, where it modulates processes as diverse as growth and morphogenesis, sexual development and secondary metabolism. A special case in point is that of fungi with a subterranean, light-shielded habitat such as Tuber spp. Using as reference the genome sequence of the black truffle Tuber melanosporum, we used bioinformatic prediction tools and expression data to gain insight on the photoreceptor systems of this hypogeous ectomycorrhizal fungus. These include a chromophore-less opsin, a putative red-light-sensing phytochrome not expressed at detectable levels in any of the examined lifecycle stages, and a nearly canonical two-component (WC-1/WC-2) photoreceptor system similar to the Neurospora white collar complex (WCC)...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213748/immobilization-of-irpex-lacteus-to-liquid-core-alginate-beads-and-their-application-to-degradation-of-pollutants
#8
Jan Šíma, Rachel Milne, Čeněk Novotný, Pavel Hasal
White rot fungi (WRF) are applicable to biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants. However, excessive biomass growth typical for WRF cultivation can hinder their large scale applications. Therefore, immobilization of Irpex lacteus to liquid-core alginate beads restricting excessive mycelium growth and simultaneously keeping high degradation rate of pollutants was tested. Effective diffusivities of dyes to the beads varied from (2.98 ± 0.69) × 10(-10) to (10.27 ± 2.60) × 10(-10) m(2)/s. Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Naphthol Blue Black (NBB) were used as model dyes...
February 17, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211475/biofilm-formation-of-the-black-yeast-like-fungus-exophiala-dermatitidis-and-its-susceptibility-to-antiinfective-agents
#9
Lisa Kirchhoff, Maike Olsowski, Katrin Zilmans, Silke Dittmer, Gerhard Haase, Ludwig Sedlacek, Eike Steinmann, Jan Buer, Peter-Michael Rath, Joerg Steinmann
Various fungi have the ability to colonize surfaces and to form biofilms. Fungal biofilm-associated infections are frequently refractory to targeted treatment because of resistance to antifungal drugs. One fungus that frequently colonises the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is the opportunistic black yeast-like fungus Exophiala dermatitidis. We investigated the biofilm-forming ability of E. dermatitidis and its susceptibility to various antiinfective agents and natural compounds. We tested 58 E...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208834/in%C3%A2-pursuit%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-vitamin%C3%A2-d%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-plants
#10
Lucinda J Black, Robyn M Lucas, Jill L Sherriff, Lars Olof Björn, Janet F Bornman
Vitamin D deficiency is a global concern. Much research has concentrated on the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in human skin following exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-315 nm). In many regions of the world there is insufficient UV-B radiation during winter months for adequate vitamin D production, and even when there is sufficient UV-B radiation, lifestyles and concerns about the risks of sun exposure may lead to insufficient exposure and to vitamin D deficiency. In these situations, dietary intake of vitamin D from foods or supplements is important for maintaining optimal vitamin D status...
February 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196534/comparative-genomics-reveals-high-biological-diversity-and-specific-adaptations-in-the-industrially-and-medically-important-fungal-genus-aspergillus
#11
Ronald P de Vries, Robert Riley, Ad Wiebenga, Guillermo Aguilar-Osorio, Sotiris Amillis, Cristiane Akemi Uchima, Gregor Anderluh, Mojtaba Asadollahi, Marion Askin, Kerrie Barry, Evy Battaglia, Özgür Bayram, Tiziano Benocci, Susanna A Braus-Stromeyer, Camila Caldana, David Cánovas, Gustavo C Cerqueira, Fusheng Chen, Wanping Chen, Cindy Choi, Alicia Clum, Renato Augusto Corrêa Dos Santos, André Ricardo de Lima Damásio, George Diallinas, Tamás Emri, Erzsébet Fekete, Michel Flipphi, Susanne Freyberg, Antonia Gallo, Christos Gournas, Rob Habgood, Matthieu Hainaut, María Laura Harispe, Bernard Henrissat, Kristiina S Hildén, Ryan Hope, Abeer Hossain, Eugenia Karabika, Levente Karaffa, Zsolt Karányi, Nada Kraševec, Alan Kuo, Harald Kusch, Kurt LaButti, Ellen L Lagendijk, Alla Lapidus, Anthony Levasseur, Erika Lindquist, Anna Lipzen, Antonio F Logrieco, Andrew MacCabe, Miia R Mäkelä, Iran Malavazi, Petter Melin, Vera Meyer, Natalia Mielnichuk, Márton Miskei, Ákos P Molnár, Giuseppina Mulé, Chew Yee Ngan, Margarita Orejas, Erzsébet Orosz, Jean Paul Ouedraogo, Karin M Overkamp, Hee-Soo Park, Giancarlo Perrone, Francois Piumi, Peter J Punt, Arthur F J Ram, Ana Ramón, Stefan Rauscher, Eric Record, Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón, Vincent Robert, Julian Röhrig, Roberto Ruller, Asaf Salamov, Nadhira S Salih, Rob A Samson, Erzsébet Sándor, Manuel Sanguinetti, Tabea Schütze, Kristina Sepčić, Ekaterina Shelest, Gavin Sherlock, Vicky Sophianopoulou, Fabio M Squina, Hui Sun, Antonia Susca, Richard B Todd, Adrian Tsang, Shiela E Unkles, Nathalie van de Wiele, Diana van Rossen-Uffink, Juliana Velasco de Castro Oliveira, Tammi C Vesth, Jaap Visser, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Miaomiao Zhou, Mikael R Andersen, David B Archer, Scott E Baker, Isabelle Benoit, Axel A Brakhage, Gerhard H Braus, Reinhard Fischer, Jens C Frisvad, Gustavo H Goldman, Jos Houbraken, Berl Oakley, István Pócsi, Claudio Scazzocchio, Bernhard Seiboth, Patricia A vanKuyk, Jennifer Wortman, Paul S Dyer, Igor V Grigoriev
BACKGROUND: The fungal genus Aspergillus is of critical importance to humankind. Species include those with industrial applications, important pathogens of humans, animals and crops, a source of potent carcinogenic contaminants of food, and an important genetic model. The genome sequences of eight aspergilli have already been explored to investigate aspects of fungal biology, raising questions about evolution and specialization within this genus. RESULTS: We have generated genome sequences for ten novel, highly diverse Aspergillus species and compared these in detail to sister and more distant genera...
February 14, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190754/consistent-high-prevalence-of-exophiala-dermatitidis-a-neurotropic-opportunist-on-railway-sleepers
#12
S A Yazdanparast, S Mohseni, G S De Hoog, N Aslani, A Sadeh, H Badali
Environmental isolation of black yeasts potentially causing human disorders is essential for understanding ecology and routes of infection. Several Exophiala species show prevalence for man-made environments rich in monoaromatic compounds, such as creosote-treated or petroleum-stained railway sleepers. Ambient climatic conditions play a role in species composition in suitable habitats. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish the composition of Exophiala species in railway stations as a potential source of human infections in a subtropical region with evaluation of their antifungal susceptibility profiles...
February 9, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187150/phylogenomic-analyses-reveal-the-diversity-of-laccase-coding-genes-in-fonsecaea-genomes
#13
Leandro Ferreira Moreno, Peiying Feng, Vinicius Almir Weiss, Vania Aparecida Vicente, J Benjamin Stielow, Sybren de Hoog
The genus Fonsecaea comprises black yeast-like fungi of clinical relevance, including etiologic agents of chromoblastomycosis and cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. Presence of melanin and assimilation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons and alkylbenzenes have been proposed as virulence factors. Multicopper oxidase (MCO) is a family of enzymes including laccases, ferroxidases and ascorbate oxidases which are able to catalyze the oxidation of various aromatic organic compounds with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176768/soil-networks-become-more-connected-and-take-up-more-carbon-as-nature-restoration-progresses
#14
Elly Morriën, S Emilia Hannula, L Basten Snoek, Nico R Helmsing, Hans Zweers, Mattias de Hollander, Raquel Luján Soto, Marie-Lara Bouffaud, Marc Buée, Wim Dimmers, Henk Duyts, Stefan Geisen, Mariangela Girlanda, Rob I Griffiths, Helene-Bracht Jørgensen, John Jensen, Pierre Plassart, Dirk Redecker, Rűdiger M Schmelz, Olaf Schmidt, Bruce C Thomson, Emilie Tisserant, Stephane Uroz, Anne Winding, Mark J Bailey, Michael Bonkowski, Jack H Faber, Francis Martin, Philippe Lemanceau, Wietse de Boer, Johannes A van Veen, Wim H van der Putten
Soil organisms have an important role in aboveground community dynamics and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial ecosystems. However, most studies have considered soil biota as a black box or focussed on specific groups, whereas little is known about entire soil networks. Here we show that during the course of nature restoration on abandoned arable land a compositional shift in soil biota, preceded by tightening of the belowground networks, corresponds with enhanced efficiency of carbon uptake. In mid- and long-term abandoned field soil, carbon uptake by fungi increases without an increase in fungal biomass or shift in bacterial-to-fungal ratio...
February 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163966/an-active-principle-of-nigella-sativa-l-thymoquinone-showing-significant-antimicrobial-activity-against-anaerobic-bacteria
#15
Mohammad Akram Randhawa, Awwad Khalaf Alenazy, Majed Gorayan Alrowaili, Jamith Basha
AIM/BACKGROUND: Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active principle of Nigella sativa seed (black seed) and is known to control many fungi, bacteria, and some viruses. However, the activity of TQ against anaerobic bacteria is not well demonstrated. Anaerobic bacteria can cause severe infections, including diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and brain abscess, particularly in immunodeficient individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TQ against some anaerobic pathogens in comparison to metronidazole...
January 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154571/a-review-of-perennial-ryegrass-endophytes-and-their-potential-use-in-the-management-of-african-black-beetle-in-perennial-grazing-systems-in-australia
#16
REVIEW
Mijail Karpyn Esqueda, Alan L Yen, Simone Rochfort, Kathryn M Guthridge, Kevin S Powell, Jacqueline Edwards, German C Spangenberg
The major insect pest of Australian cool temperate pastures is the root-feeding insect Heteronychus arator (African black beetle, ABB). Significant pasture damage can occur even at low ABB densities (11 individuals per square meter), and often re-sowing of the whole paddock is required. Mitigation of the effects of pasture pests, and in particular subterranean species such as the larval form of ABB, can be challenging. Early detection is limited by the ability to visualize above-ground symptoms, and chemical control of insects in soil is often ineffective...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144871/activity-of-the-endophytic-fungi-phlebia-sp-and-paecilomyces-formosus-in-decolourisation-and-the-reduction-of-reactive-dyes-cytotoxicity-in-fish-erythrocytes
#17
Lígia Maria Crubelati Bulla, Julio Cesar Polonio, Ana Luiza de Brito Portela-Castro, Vanessa Kava, João Lúcio Azevedo, João Alencar Pamphile
The current study investigates the potential for discolouration and degradation of Reactive Blue 19 and Reactive Black 5 textile dyes by endophytic fungi Phlebia sp. and Paecilomyces formosus as well as the potential cytotoxicity of products or by-products generated by the treatments in fish erythrocytes. It was observed at 30 days that both endophytes showed biodegradation activity with 0.1 g mL(-1) of dyes. P. formosus showed highest extracellular and intracellular protein content levels after the 15th day, and Phlebia sp...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139861/species-diversity-antifungal-susceptibility-and-phenotypic-and-genotypic-characterisation-of-exophiala-spp-infecting-patients-in-different-medical-centres-in-brazil
#18
Wendy C Silva, Sarah S Gonçalves, Daniel W C L Santos, Ana Carolina B Padovan, Fernando C Bizerra, Analy S A Melo
The Exophiala genus is responsible for many superficial and invasive infections resulting from black fungi. Identification of Exophiala at the species level is based on morphological observations complemented by molecular tests. The aim of this study was to identify 23 clinical isolates of Exophiala spp. and evaluate the antifungal susceptibility to seven different agents. Molecular identification was based on an analysis of ITS region of rDNA using genomic databases. The micromorphology was evaluated by microculture and scanning electron microscopy...
January 31, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100598/molecular-and-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-characterization-of-clinically-significant-melanized-fungi-in-india
#19
Ashutosh Singh, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Anil Kumar, Jagdish Chander, Geetika Khanna, Pradip Roy, Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary
Melanized or black fungi are a heterogeneous group of fungi causing cutaneous to systemic diseases with high mortality. These fungi are rarely reported as agent of human infections primarily due to difficulties in their classical identification. In this study we examined using molecular methods and MALDI-TOF MS the diversity of melanized fungi (MF) isolated from patients in 19 medical centers in India. Overall, during a 4-year period, 718 (5.3%) clinical specimens yielded MF. Of these, 72 (10%) isolates had clinical significance and were identified primarily by sequencing the ITS and LSU regions...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024529/fungicidal-effect-of-thymoquinone-involves-generation-of-oxidative-stress-in-candida-glabrata
#20
Hala Almshawit, Ian Macreadie
The antifungal effect of thymoquinone, a component of black seed essential oil, has been studied on different types of fungi. Its mechanism of action as an antifungal has not been described yet. This study demonstrates the fungicidal effect of thymoquinone on different Candida species with particular emphasis on C. glabrata planktonic cells and biofilms. Since cell death was induced via the generation of oxidative stress as evidenced by the abrogation of thymoquinone toxicity in cells incubated with antioxidants, a part of thymoquinone's mechanism of action includes a direct involvement as a pro-oxidant...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
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