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Black fungi

Tchin Darré, Bayaki Saka, Abas Mouhari-Toure, Mazamaesso Tchaou, Améyo Monique Dorkenoo, Kwamé Doh, Atchi Walla, Koffi Amégbor, Vincent Palokinam Pitché, Gado Napo-Koura
BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a chronic inflammatory process caused either by fungi (eumycetoma) or bacteria (actinomycetoma). In this retrospective study, we report epidemiologic and histopathological data of mycetoma observed in the Lome Hospital, Togo in a 25-year period (1992-2016). METHODOLOGY: This is a retrospective study, over a period of 25 years, to analyze epidemiological and etiological findings of mycetomas seen in the single laboratory of pathological anatomy of the Lomé, Togo...
March 20, 2018: Mycopathologia
Leandro Ferreira Moreno, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Sybren de Hoog
Black yeasts (BY) comprise a group of polyextremotolerant fungi, mainly belonging to the order Chaetothyriales, which are capable of colonizing a wide range of extreme environments. The tolerance to hostile habitats can be explained by their intrinsic ability to survive under acidic, alkaline, and toxic conditions, high temperature, low nutrient availability, and osmotic and mechanical stress. Occasionally, some species can cause human chromoblastomycosis, a chronic subcutaneous infection, as well as disseminated or cerebral phaeohyphomycosis...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Marcelo Valle Garcia, Gilson Parussolo, Camila Brombilla Moro, Angélica Olivier Bernardi, Marina Venturini Copetti
The aim of this study was to identify fungal species present in 200 samples of rosemary, fennel, cinnamon, clove, pepperoni, black and white pepper and oregano and evaluate the mycotoxigenic potential of the some Aspergilli isolated. Clove, black and white peppers were analyzed by direct plating. For rosemary, cinnamon, fennel, pepperoni pepper and oregano samples were used spread plate. Mycotoxigenic capacity was verified by the agar plug method. With the exception of clove, all the spices showed high fungal contamination, especially by Aspergillus sp...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Cene Gostinčar, Nina Gunde-Cimerman
Exposure of microorganisms to stress, including to high concentrations of salt, can lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species in the cell. To limit the resulting damage, cells have evolved a variety of antioxidant defenses. The role of these defenses in halotolerance has been proposed before. Whole genome sequencing for some of the most halotolerant and halophilic fungal species has enabled us to investigate the possible links between oxidative and salt stress tolerance on the genomic level. We identified genes involved in oxidative stress response in the halophilic basidiomycete Wallemia ichthyophaga , and halotolerant ascomycetous black yeasts Hortaea werneckii and Aureobasidium pullulans , and compared them to genes from 16 other fungi, both asco- and basidiomycetes...
March 6, 2018: Genes
M J Najafzadeh, V A Vicente, Peiying Feng, A Naseri, Jiufeng Sun, A Rezaei-Matehkolaei, G S de Hoog
The black yeast genus Exophiala includes numerous potential opportunistic species that potentially cause systematic and disseminated infections in immunocompetent individuals. Species causing systemic disease have ability to grow at 37-40 °C, while others consistently lack thermotolerance and are involved in diseases of cold-blooded, waterborne vertebrates and occasionally invertebrates. We explain a fast and sensitive assay for recognition and identification of waterborne Exophiala species without sequencing...
March 5, 2018: Mycopathologia
M Mardones, T Trampe-Jaschik, S Oster, M Elliott, H Urbina, I Schmitt, M Piepenbring
The order Phyllachorales ( Pezizomycotina , Ascomycota ) is a group of biotrophic, obligate plant parasitic fungi with a tropical distribution and high host specificity. Traditionally two families are recognised within this order: Phyllachoraceae and Phaeochoraceae , based mostly on morphological and host characteristics. Currently, the position of the order within the class Sordariomycetes is inconclusive, as well as the monophyly of the order, and its internal phylogenetic structure. Here we present a phylogeny of the order Phyllachorales based on sequence data of 29 species with a broad host range resulting from a wide geographical sampling...
December 2017: Persoonia
A J B Andersen, C Fuchs, M Ardigo, M Haedersdal, M Mogensen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Malassezia Folliculitis (MaF) is an inflammatory condition of hair follicles caused by Malassezia yeast. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) are imaging technologies enabling in vivo visualization of superficial skin layers. This study explores morphology of pustules in MaF imaged by OCT and RCM. METHODS: Patients with microscopically verified MaF were included in this case series. Morphology was evaluated qualitatively with RCM and OCT, focusing on shape, border and content of selected pustules...
February 27, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
Liesje Mommer, T E Anne Cotton, Jos M Raaijmakers, Aad J Termorshuizen, Jasper van Ruijven, Marloes Hendriks, Sophia Q van Rijssel, Judith E van de Mortel, Jan Willem van der Paauw, Elio G W M Schijlen, Annemiek E Smit-Tiekstra, Frank Berendse, Hans de Kroon, Alex J Dumbrell
There is consensus that plant species richness enhances plant productivity within natural grasslands, but the underlying drivers remain debated. Recently, differential accumulation of soil-borne fungal pathogens across the plant diversity gradient has been proposed as a cause of this pattern. However, the below-ground environment has generally been treated as a 'black box' in biodiversity experiments, leaving these fungi unidentified. Using next generation sequencing and pathogenicity assays, we analysed the community composition of root-associated fungi from a biodiversity experiment to examine if evidence exists for host specificity and negative density dependence in the interplay between soil-borne fungi, plant diversity and productivity...
February 22, 2018: New Phytologist
Wei Yang, Siyu Gu, Ying Xin, Ayodeji Bello, Wenpeng Sun, Xiuhong Xu
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most crop plant species in agricultural ecosystems, and are conspicuously influenced by various agricultural practices. To understand the impact of compost addition on AM fungi, we examined effect of four compost rates (0, 11.25, 22.5, and 45 Mg/ha) on the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in seedling, flowering, and mature stage of soybean in a 1-year compost addition experiment system in Northeast China. Soybean [ Glycine max (L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Subramanium Thiyageshwari, Pandurangan Gayathri, Ramasamy Krishnamoorthy, Rangasamy Anandham, Diby Paul
The present study was aimed at using cellulolytic bacterium Enhydrobacter and fungi Aspergillus sp. for preparing compost from rice husk (RH). Further, the prepared compost was tested for their effect on blackgram growth promotion along with different levels of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) in black soil (typic Haplustalf) and red soil (typic Rhodustalf) soil. The results revealed that, inoculation with lignocellulolytic fungus (LCF) Aspergillus sp. @ 2% was considered as the most efficient method of composting within a short period...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Federica Carraturo, Olga De Castro, Jacopo Troisi, Adriana De Luca, Armando Masucci, Paola Cennamo, Marco Trifuoggi, Francesco Aliberti, Marco Guida
BACKGROUND: Drinking tea constitutes a tradition which is deeply rooted in the culture of several countries. Moreover, in recent years, tea consumption is growing all over the world. Improper herbal tea storage (long periods, humid environments) represents a relevant health hazard for consumers because of the growth of bacteria and molds. RESULTS: This study analyzed 32 samples of commercially available black and green teas - purchased from southern Italy markets and online-shops - and the monitoring of microbiological quality of the tea bag content was performed...
January 5, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Shalini Singh, Ankita Shrivastav, Manisha Agarwal, Arpan Gandhi, Rahul Mayor, Lagan Paul
BACKGROUND: Scleral buckling is an established modality of treating retinal detachment. Being an external implant the buckle may be prone to infections. We report such a case with a delayed presentation and a rare etiology. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45 year old male presented with redness, foreign body sensation and discharge for one month in his right eye. The patient had undergone a retinal detachment surgery elsewhere 14 years back without any visual gain. Right eye demonstrated no perception of light and the best corrected visual acuity in the left eye was 6/6, N6...
February 9, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Hulya Nalcacioglu, Y Kamil Yakupoglu, Gurkan Genc, Nursen Belet, Sema Gulnar Sensoy, Asuman Birinci, Ozan Ozkaya
Renal transplant recipients are on long-term potent immunosuppressive therapy, which makes them highly vulnerable to opportunistic fungal infections. Dematiaceous, or dark-pigmented saprophytic fungi, are being increasingly seen as opportunistic pathogens of mycoses in immunosuppressed patients. One of these is Aureobasidium pullulans, which is a black yeast-like dematiaceous fungus found ubiquitously in the environment that can cause various opportunistic human infections. Most infections occur by traumatic inoculation, such as keratitis and cutaneous lesions; disseminated mycoses are very rare and occur only in severely immunocompromised patients...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Ignacio Durruty, Jorge Froilán González, Erika Alejandra Wolski
This research was undertaken to develop tools that facilitate the industrial application of an immobilized loofah-fungi system to degrade Direct Black 22 (DB22) azo dye. In laboratory-scale tests, the DB22, and loofah as support, were used. Assays without loofah were used as a free-cells control. The use of natural carriers to facilitate adhesion and growth of the fungi has shown favorable results. The degradation rate of immobilized cells increased twice as compared to free-cells control. At day 5 the decolorization was almost complete, while without loofah the total decolorization took more than 10 days...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Koushik Manna, Manik Chandra Kundu, Biplab Saha, Goutam Kumar Ghosh
A field experiment was conducted in winter season of 2015-2016 in the dry lateritic soil of Eastern India to study the effect of different thicknesses of nonwoven jute agrotextile mulches (NJATM) along with other mulches on soil health, growth and productivity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.). The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six treatments viz., T1 (control, i.e. no mulching), T2 (300 gsm NJATM), T3 (350 gsm NJATM), T4 (400 gsm NJATM), T5 (rice straw) and T6 (black polythene mulch), each of which was replicated four times...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Frank J J Segers, Han A B Wösten, Jan Dijksterhuis
Aspergillus niger forms conidia that contain melanin in their cell wall. This black pigment has been shown to protect fungi against UV-radiation and experimental evidence has indicated that it also protects against drought and high salt concentrations. In this study, growth of A. niger was evaluated at low water activity (aw ) and after changes in relative humidity (RH). In addition, deletion strains of A. niger affected in the melanin synthesis pathway were compared. Germination of conidia of the wild-type and deletion strains was observed at 0...
January 8, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Romy Breitenbach, Dorothee Silbernagl, Jörg Toepel, Heinz Sturm, William J Broughton, Guilherme L Sassaki, Anna A Gorbushina
Melanised cell walls and extracellular polymeric matrices protect rock-inhabiting microcolonial fungi from hostile environmental conditions. How extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) perform this protective role was investigated by following development of the model microcolonial black fungus Knufia petricola A95 grown as a sub-aerial biofilm. Extracellular substances were extracted with NaOH/formaldehyde and the structures of two excreted polymers studied by methylation as well as NMR analyses. The main polysaccharide (~ 80%) was pullulan, also known as α-1,4-; α-1,6-glucan, with different degrees of polymerisation...
December 23, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Palaniyandi Umadevi, Muthuswamy Anandaraj, Vivek Srivastav, Sailas Benjamin
Employing Illumina Hiseq whole genome metagenome sequencing approach, we studied the impact of Trichoderma harzianum on altering the microbial community and its functional dynamics in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). The metagenomic datasets from the rhizosphere with (treatment) and without (control) T. harzianum inoculation were annotated using dual approach, i.e., stand alone and MG-RAST. The probiotic application of T. harzianum in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper impacted the population dynamics of rhizosphere bacteria, archae, eukaryote as reflected through the selective recruitment of bacteria [Acidobacteriaceae bacterium (p=1...
November 29, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
André Vicente, Fátima Pedrosa Domellöf, Berit Byström
PURPOSE: To report a case of Exophiala phaeomuriformis mycotic keratitis in a patient from a subarctic climate region. Dematiaceous fungi (black yeasts) have been gaining importance as corneal keratitis and ulcer causative agents in certain regions, but no cases have been described in Scandinavia. METHODS: Case report of a patient with a persistent corneal erosion that eventually presented a brown-pigmented infiltrate. The patient had a history of several months of topical therapy comprising medication for glaucoma, corticosteroids and antibiotics...
November 29, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
Taruna A Schuelke, Guangxi Wu, Anthony Westbrook, Keith Woeste, David C Plachetzki, Kirk Broders, Matthew D MacManes
Geosmithia morbida is an emerging fungal pathogen which serves as a model for examining the evolutionary processes behind pathogenicity because it is one of two known pathogens within a genus of mostly saprophytic, beetle-associated, fungi. This pathogen causes thousand cankers disease in black walnut trees and is vectored into the host via the walnut twig beetle. Geosmithia morbida was first detected in western United States and currently threatens the timber industry concentrated in eastern United States...
December 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
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