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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542092/approach-to-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-non-hiv-immunocompromised-hosts
#1
Victoria E Burke, Fred A Lopez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections are frequent contributors to morbidity and mortality in the immunocompromised host. This article reviews the changing epidemiology and clinical manifestations of the most common cutaneous pathogens in non-HIV immunocompromised hosts, including patients with solid organ transplants, stem cell transplants, solid tumors, hematologic malignancies, and receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy for inflammatory disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Defects in the innate or adaptive immune response can predispose the immunocompromised host to certain cutaneous infections in a predictive fashion...
May 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508147/identification-of-beta-lactamases-and-beta-lactam-related-proteins-in-human-pathogenic-bacteria-using-a-computational-search-approach
#2
Aniel Jessica Leticia Brambila-Tapia, Ernesto Perez-Rueda, Humberto Barrios, Nory Omayra Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid Patricia Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ernesto Germán Cardona-Muñoz, Mario Salazar-Páramo
A systematic analysis of beta-lactamases based on comparative proteomics has not been performed thus far. In this report, we searched for the presence of beta-lactam-related proteins in 591 bacterial proteomes belonging to 52 species that are pathogenic to humans. The amino acid sequences for 19 different types of beta-lactamases (ACT, CARB, CifA, CMY, CTX, FOX, GES, GOB, IMP, IND, KPC, LEN, OKP, OXA, OXY, SHV, TEM, NDM, and VIM) were obtained from the ARG-ANNOT database and were used to construct 19 HMM profiles, which were used to identify potential beta-lactamases in the completely sequenced bacterial proteomes...
May 16, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507832/disseminated-nocardia-farcinica-pneumonia-with-left-adrenal-gland-abscess
#3
Christopher Jackson, Brennan McCullar, Kiran Joglekar, Ankur Seth, Hiren Pokharna
Adrenal masses pose a diagnostic challenge. The differential diagnosis includes functional adrenal tumors, incidentally found adrenal masses, metastases from an unknown primary cancer, and abscesses. Infrequently, adrenal gland abscesses have been reported in disseminated nocardiosis affecting immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. We report a case of disseminated Nocardia farcinica pneumonia with an adrenal gland abscess in an immunocompetent patient with no identified risk factors for nocardiosis...
April 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500545/nocardia-tengchongensis-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-soil-sample
#4
Shuai Li, Hong Ming, Yan-Yan Duan, Jian-Rong Huang, Zhuo-Li Zhao, Ling-Yu Zhang, Wei-Li Ji, Xiao-Lin Meng, Wen-Jun Li, Guo-Xing Nie
The taxonomic status was determined of two actinomycetes, designated CFH S0057(T) and CFH S0065, that were isolated from soil samples collected from an extinct volcano in Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-west China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains CFH S0057(T) and CFH S0065 belong to the genus Nocardia and formed a single clade within this genus. The two isolates were able to grow at 4-45 °C, pH 5.0-7.0 and with a NaCl tolerance up to 5.0% (w/v). The whole-cell hydrolysates were rich in meso-diaminopimelic acid, galactose, arabinose and fructose...
May 12, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484706/endophytic-actinobacteria-associated-with-dracaena-cochinchinensis-lour-isolation-diversity-and-their-cytotoxic-activities
#5
Nimaichand Salam, Thi-Nhan Khieu, Min-Jiao Liu, Thu-Trang Vu, Son Chu-Ky, Ngoc-Tung Quach, Quyet-Tien Phi, Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao, Angélique Fontana, Samira Sarter, Wen-Jun Li
Dracaena cochinchinensis Lour. is an ethnomedicinally important plant used in traditional Chinese medicine known as dragon's blood. Excessive utilization of the plant for extraction of dragon's blood had resulted in the destruction of the important niche. During a study to provide a sustainable way of utilizing the resources, the endophytic Actinobacteria associated with the plant were explored for potential utilization of their medicinal properties. Three hundred and four endophytic Actinobacteria belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Brevibacterium, Microbacterium, Tsukamurella, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Kocuria, Nocardioides, and Pseudonocardia were isolated from different tissues of D...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483856/tlr2-and-mincle-cooperatively-sense-corynebacterial-cell-wall-glycolipids
#6
Judith Schick, Philipp Etschel, Rebeca Bailo, Lisa Ott, Apoorva Bhatt, Bernd Lepenies, Carsten Kirschning, Andreas Burkovski, Roland Lang
Non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae and C. ulcerans cause invasive disease in humans and animals. Host sensing of corynebacteria is largely uncharacterized, albeit recognition of lipoglycans by TLR2 appears to be important for macrophage activation by corynebacteria. The members of the order Corynebacterinae (e.g. mycobacteria, nocardia, rhodococci) share a glycolipid-rich cell wall dominated by mycolic acids (termed corynomycolic acids in corynebacteria). The mycolic acid-containing cord factor of mycobacteria, trehalose dimycolate, activates the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) Mincle...
May 8, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480288/culture-proven-thorn-associated-infections-in-arizona-10-year-experience-at-mayo-clinic
#7
Sierra C Simmons, Adriane I Budavari, Shimon Kusne, Nan Zhang, Holenarasipur R Vikram, Janis E Blair
BACKGROUND: Thorn injuries are common in the desert Southwest; however, the frequency and microbiology of thorn-associated infections have not been systematically described. Most information comes from case reports describing infections from atypical or environmental microorganisms. Our aim was to summarize the spectrum of thorn-associated infections. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of electronic health records for patients presenting to our institution from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2014 for treatment of thorn-associated injuries and then focused on the patients with cultures...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469708/integrated-systems-for-biopolymers-and-bioenergy-production-from-organic-waste-and-by-products-a-review-of-microbial-processes
#8
REVIEW
Giorgia Pagliano, Valeria Ventorino, Antonio Panico, Olimpia Pepe
Recently, issues concerning the sustainable and harmless disposal of organic solid waste have generated interest in microbial biotechnologies aimed at converting waste materials into bioenergy and biomaterials, thus contributing to a reduction in economic dependence on fossil fuels. To valorize biomass, waste materials derived from agriculture, food processing factories, and municipal organic waste can be used to produce biopolymers, such as biohydrogen and biogas, through different microbial processes. In fact, different bacterial strains can synthesize biopolymers to convert waste materials into valuable intracellular (e...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407752/detection-of-high-serum-levels-of-%C3%AE-d-glucan-in-disseminated-nocardial-infection-a-case-report
#9
Toyomitsu Sawai, Takumi Nakao, Shota Yamaguchi, Sumako Yoshioka, Nobuko Matsuo, Naofumi Suyama, Katsunori Yanagihara, Hiroshi Mukae
BACKGROUND: β-D-glucan (BDG) is a helpful diagnostic marker for many invasive fungal infections, but not for nocardiosis. Here, we reported the first case of nocardial infection with high serum level of BDG. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old man was hospitalized because of fever, headache, and appetite loss after 10 months of steroid and immunosuppressive therapy for cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. With a diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia, treatment with ampicillin/sulbactam was initiated...
April 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399124/dual-color-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-fish-assays-for-detecting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-mycobacterium-avium-complexes-and-related-pathogens-in-cultures
#10
Jyotsna Shah, Helena Weltman, Patricia Narciso, Christina Murphy, Akhila Poruri, Shrikala Baliga, Leesha Sharon, Mary York, Gail Cunningham, Steve Miller, Luz Caviedes, Robert Gilman, Edward Desmond, Ranjan Ramasamy
Two rapid dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays were evaluated for detecting M. tuberculosis and related pathogens in cultures. The MN Genus-MTBC FISH assay uses an orange fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and a green fluorescent probe specific for the Mycobacterium and Nocardia genera (MN Genus) to detect and distinguish MTBC from other Mycobacteria and Nocardia. A complementary MTBC-MAC FISH assay uses green and orange fluorescent probes specific for the MTBC and M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397286/primary-cutaneous-nocardiosis-caused-by-nocardia-brasiliensis-following-a-wasp-sting
#11
L Chu, X Xu, Y Ran
We report a case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with painful erythema of her right forearm 10 days after she had been stung by a wasp on her right hand. The lesion had rapidly deteriorated during the week before presentation, and treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids did not improve the condition. After careful evaluation, we performed cultures from the lesion aspiration, and morphological and genetic analysis of bacteria cultures confirmed a bacterial infection with Nocardia brasiliensis. The patient recovered after 3 weeks...
April 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387128/surgery-of-a-nocardia-lung-abscess-presenting-as-a-tension-pyopneumothorax
#12
Ryo Fujimoto, Mitsugu Omasa, Hiroyuki Ishikawa, Minoru Aoki
While some cases of nocardial pneumonia develop secondary empyema, tension pyopneumothorax is a very rare and lethal complication. A 74-year-old man who exhibited thrombocytopenia during steroid therapy for autoimmune hepatitis, presented to our department with a nocardial tension pyopneumothorax. He underwent a left lower lobectomy after chest drainage, and was discharged without any complication other than reoperation to remove a postoperative hematoma.
January 1, 2017: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381755/meningitis-and-ventriculitis-due-to-nocardia-araoensis-infection
#13
Fumio Yamamoto, Satoshi Yamashita, Hiroyuki Kawano, Tomio Tanigawa, Yosuke Mihara, Toru Gonoi, Yukio Ando
A 73-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with disturbance of consciousness, fever and headache. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed pleocytosis with neutrophil predominance, increased protein and low glucose. CSF and blood cultures yielded negative results. Antibiotics and antituberculous drugs were started for meningitis. An antimycotic was also added. The patient died from transtentorial hernia 99 days after admission. Autopsy revealed meningitis, ventriculitis and brain abscess, and Nocardia araoensis was detected in pus from the left lateral ventricle...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381207/microbial-composition-of-spiny-ants-hymenoptera-formicidae-polyrhachis-across-their-geographic-range
#14
Manuela Oliveira Ramalho, Odair Correa Bueno, Corrie Saux Moreau
BACKGROUND: Symbiotic relationships between insects and bacteria are found across almost all insect orders, including Hymenoptera. However there are still many remaining questions about these associations including what factors drive host-associated bacterial composition. To better understand the evolutionary significance of this association in nature, further studies addressing a diversity of hosts across locations and evolutionary history are necessary. Ants of the genus Polyrhachis (spiny ants) are distributed across the Old World and exhibit generalist diets and habits...
April 5, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372487/nocardiosis-in-freshwater-reared-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#15
C L Brosnahan, S Humphrey, G Knowles, H J Ha, A Pande, J B Jones
CASE HISTORY: An investigation was conducted to identify the cause of mortalities in freshwater reared Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Mortalities occurred in juvenile salmon, at a salmon rearing facility in the South Island of New Zealand. The affected fish were from a pen inside the facility with no surrounding pens or other year classes affected. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Clinically affected fish presented with skin lesions. The majority of skin lesions were unruptured, boil-like, raised circular masses up to 4 cm in diameter, particularly on the dorsolateral aspects and the flank...
April 26, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363588/effects-of-synbiotics-on-immunity-and-disease-resistance-of-narrow-clawed-crayfish-astacus-leptodactylus-leptodactylus-eschscholtz-1823
#16
Omid Safari, Marina Paolucci, Hamidreza Ahmadnia Motlagh
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prebiotics (mannanoligosaccharide and xylooligosaccharide), probiotics (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) and synbiotics for 126 days on the immune responses, hemolymph indices, antioxidant enzymes, and biological responses after a 48-hour Aeromonas hydrophila exposure of sub-adult crayfish (11.45 ± 1.87 g). Most antibacterial activities were observed in the shell mucus of crayfish fed a diet containing xylooligosaccharide + E. faecalis and mannanoligosaccharide + Pediococcus acidilactici against Nocardia brasilience and Vibrio harveyi (p < 0...
May 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353613/severe-pneumonia-due-to-nocardia-otitidiscaviarum-identified-by-mass-spectroscopy-in-a-cotton-farmer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
REVIEW
Chen Liu, Mei Feng, Jing Zhu, Ye Tao, Mei Kang, Lei Chen
RATIONALE: Nocardia species are aerobic saprophytic bacilli. Among Nocardia species, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (N otitidiscaviarum) is rarely reported in pulmonary infection. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported a case of N otitidiscaviarum pneumonia in a cotton farmer. DIAGNOSES: N otitidiscaviarum pneumonia was identified by mass spectroscopy. INTERVENTIONS: Combined treatments (amikacin, imipenem and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) were administered after identification of N otitidiscaviarum...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353001/de-novo-biosynthesis-of-trans-cinnamic-acid-derivatives-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#18
Manuela Gottardi, Jan Dines Knudsen, Lydie Prado, Mislav Oreb, Paola Branduardi, Eckhard Boles
The production of natural aroma compounds is an expanding field within the branch of white biotechnology. Three aromatic compounds of interest are cinnamaldehyde, the typical cinnamon aroma that has applications in agriculture and medical sciences, as well as cinnamyl alcohol and hydrocinnamyl alcohol, which have applications in the cosmetic industry. Current production methods, which rely on extraction from plant materials or chemical synthesis, are associated with drawbacks regarding scalability, production time, and environmental impact...
March 29, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352469/successful-treatment-of-pulmonary-nocardiosis-with-fluoroquinolone-in-bronchial-asthma-and-bronchiectasis
#19
Hironori Sadamatsu, Koichiro Takahashi, Hiroki Tashiro, Kazutoshi Komiya, Tomomi Nakamura, Naoko Sueoka-Aragane
A 72-year-old Japanese woman was admitted at Saga University Hospital for fever, malaise, and productive cough. Six years ago, she had been diagnosed with bronchial asthma and was treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Chest radiograph and computed tomography on admission showed infiltrates in the right middle lobe, a mass lesion in the left lower lobe, and bronchiectasis in both lower lobes. Sputum examination showed Gram-positive rods with phagocytosis by neutrophils. These bacilli were identified as Nocardia otitidiscaviarum by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing...
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348912/nocardia-brasiliensis-infection-complicating-cryptogenic-organizing-pneumonia
#20
Alison M Fernandes, Jason C Sluzevich, Isabel Mira-Avendano
Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions...
2017: Case Reports in Pulmonology
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