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Hiroki Tashiro, Koichiro Takahashi, Koji Kusaba, Masahide Tanaka, Kazutoshi Komiya, Tomomi Nakamura, Yosuke Aoki, Shinya Kimura, Naoko Sueoka-Aragane
BACKGROUND: Despite treatment, pulmonary nocardiosis, which is a rare opportunistic disease caused by Nocardia species, has poor clinical outcomes including recurrence and death. Currently, the treatment regimen and duration for pulmonary nocardiosis are not fully understood. The present study aimed to clarify the factors related to the clinical outcome of pulmonary nocardiosis. METHODS: The medical records of 24 patients with pulmonary nocardiosis were retrospectively reviewed...
March 2018: Respiratory Investigation
D Raszka, S Popelka, J Heřt, D Jahoda, I Landor, P Vavřík
Nocardiosis is a rare infection caused by the aerobic actinomycete of the Nocardia genus. In most cases, nocardiosis manifests as a lung infection or a bone lesion. Due to the nonspecific and mild clinical manifestations of nocardiosis, the establishment of definite diagnosis can be difficult. When antibiotic therapy is incorrectly targeted, only the symptoms of the disease are suppressed. The mainstay in the treatment of Nocardia osteomyelitis has so far been the combined surgical debridement with long-term, initially intravenous, antibiotic administration...
March 5, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Masoud Keikha
Nocardia spp . are gram-positive, partially acid-fast bacteria which are lives in environmental sources and cause of various infection that called nocardiosis in animals and humans. Identification of this group of bacteria was important due to accurate diagnosis, patient management and prevention of antibiotic resistant among of bacteria. Molecular methods including PCR-RFLP and sequencing using housekeeping genes such as 16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and gyrB are recommended to accurate and reliable identification of nocardiosis...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
David N Holmes, Lara Armstrong, James Bennett, H Neil Simms
Nocardia farcinica and Enterococcus faecium are both rare causes of cerebral abscess. The former is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We describe a neurosurgical approach to the management of multiple intracranial abscesses of dual microbial pathology in an immunocompetent patient to achieve a good outcome.
February 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Ruiqi Yang, Guangxiu Liu, Tuo Chen, Shiweng Li, Lizhe An, Gaosen Zhang, Guoli Li, Sijing Chang, Wei Zhang, Ximing Chen, Xiukun Wu, Binlin Zhang
A strain of Nocardia isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau degrades nearly all components of crude oil. This strain was identified as Nocardia soli Y48, and its growth conditions were determined. Complete genome sequencing showed that N. soli Y48 has a 7.3 Mb genome and many genes responsible for hydrocarbon degradation, biosurfactant synthesis, emulsification and other hydrocarbon degradation-related metabolisms. Analysis of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) and genomic islands (GIs) revealed that Y48 has undergone significant gene transfer events to adapt to changing environmental conditions (crude oil contamination)...
February 20, 2018: Genomics
Neharika Sharma, Stephen O'Hagan
This article [1] was unintentionally published twice in this journal, by the same authors.
February 19, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Andreas Burkovski
Within the Actinobacteria, the genera Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia and Rhodococcus form the so-called CMNR group, also designated as mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes. Almost all members of this group are characterized by a mycolic acid layer, the mycomembrane, which covers the cell wall and is responsible for a high resistance of these bacteria against chemical and antibiotic stress. Furthermore, components of the mycomembrane are crucial for the interaction of bacteria with host cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mycolic acid synthesis and interaction with components of the immune system for the genus Corynebacterium with an emphasis on the pathogenic species Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Corynebacterium ulcerans as well as the biotechnology workhorse Corynebacterium glutamicum...
February 12, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Neeraj Purushotham, Eirian Jones, Jana Monk, Hayley Ridgway
The role of plant endophytic Actinobacteria remains poorly understood with no reports of these communities in New Zealand native plants. This first investigation of endophytic Actinobacteria in New Zealand targeted the culturally significant medicinal shrub Pseudowintera colorata (horopito) as a model plant. Community analysis in plant tissues collected from ten geographically distinct sites showed that tissue type had the strongest influence on diversity and richness of endophytic Actinobacteria. More denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) bands were obtained from stems (n = 18) compared to roots (n = 13)...
February 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Oliverio Welsh, Mario C Salinas-Carmona, Barbara A Brown-Elliott, Terry Smith, Jesus A Cardenas-De La Garza, Richard J Wallace
BACKGROUND: Actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia usually responds well to antibiotics. Emerging species of Nocardia, such as N. wallacei, can be a therapeutic challenge. AIMS: Confirm the therapeutic effectivity of linezolid in multidrug resistant Nocardia Wallacei actinomycetoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the medical management of an 18-year-old man with multidrug resistant actinomycetoma of the left leg caused by N. transvalensis complex treated 17 years ago with linezolid 1200 mg a day...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Olivia Senard, Stéphane Blanot, Gregory Jouvion, Véronica Rodriguez-Nava, Olivier Lortholary, Olivier Join-Lambert, Julie Toubiana
Nocardiosis is a rare cause of infection that usually affects immunocompromised adult patients and might not be recognized by pediatricians. We report a fatal case of disseminated nocardiosis in a previously healthy child initially admitted for an abdominal mass with suspicion of a renal malignant tumor. The patient, originating from Mali without any medical history, displayed abdominal pain with progressive altered general status. Laboratory and imaging findings revealed lymphocytic meningitis and disseminated abscesses in the brain and the cerebellum and a large number of cystic lesions of the kidney...
January 31, 2018: Pediatrics
Andres G Chiesa-Vottero
Seven cases of actinomycotic endometritis were identified among 28,906 endometrial biopsies performed in the last 10 yr. The patients' ages ranged from 44 to 85 yr old. An intrauterine device was in place from 7 to 44 yr. The reasons to perform the biopsies included abnormal uterine bleeding, malodor, prolapse, pelvic inflammatory disease, and suspicion of metastatic uterine sarcoma. Definitive identification of Actinomyces israelii by culture was obtained in 1 case only. Gram, Gomori methenamine silver, and Fite stains were useful in the differential diagnosis with pseudoactinomycotic granules, Nocardia, fungi, and other bacteria...
January 24, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Judy Park DeWitt, Cloyce L Stetson, Kleesy L Thomas, Bryan J Carroll
Botryomycosis is a rare, chronic granulomatous infection caused by a response to bacteria, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus. Cutaneous manifestations, such as subcutaneous nodules, nonhealing ulcers, or sinus tracks, typically occur following inoculation of bacteria after trauma. Drainage from the skin lesions may contain yellow grains resembling those seen in actinomycosis and nocardiosis. A 20-year-old Hispanic male presented over the course of several years with a chronic nonhealing left posterior scalp wound...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Andrew Wilhelm, Nicholas Romeo, Richard Trevino
Infection complicates approximately 5% of open trigger digit releases. Both superficial and deep infections may occur. We present a unique case of a cactus farmer who underwent an uneventful thumb trigger finger release and subsequently developed pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis and acute carpal tunnel syndrome resulting from Nocardia nova infection.
January 15, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Cherry O Onaiwu, Manasa Velagapudi, Luay Sarsam, Lindsay Utley, Lauren Bricker, Venkata Sunil Bendi, Renuga Vivekanandan
Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection in patients with depressed cell-mediated immunity. Inhalation is the primary route for exposure via dust particles. Patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at increased risk of disseminated disease. A challenge in the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is that it can mimic other pulmonary diseases. Nocardia farcinica tends to be a more virulent, multidrug-resistant strain with an increased tendency to disseminate. This report describes a 64-year-old man with AIDS found to have pulmonary nocardiosis that did not respond to standard antibiotic therapy...
November 11, 2017: Curēus
S Maekawa, T Yoshida, P-C Wang, S-C Chen
Nocardia sp. is the causative agent of nocardiosis, a lethal granulomatous disease of the skin, muscle, and various inner tissues affecting various teleost and shellfish. Four species of Nocardia have been isolated from diseased fish and shellfish, namely Nocardia asteroides, Nocardia seriolae, Nocardia salmonicida and Nocardia crassostreae. Therefore, in fish aquaculture, nocardiosis has caused severe economic losses, especially in the Asian region. Considerable research has been performed, since the first report of identified Nocardia sp...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Mara Reifenrath, Eckhard Boles
Mandelic acid (MA) and 4-hydroxymandelic acid (HMA) are valuable specialty chemicals used as precursors for flavors as well as for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. Today they are mainly synthesized chemically. Their synthesis through microbial fermentation would allow for environmentally sustainable production. In this work, we engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for high-level production of MA and HMA. Expressing the hydroxymandelate synthase from Amycolatopsis orientalis in a yeast wild type strain resulted in the production of 119mg/L HMA from glucose...
January 9, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Vivek Jayaschandran, Sandra Gjorgova-Gjeorgjievski, Haamid Siddique
Idiopathic CD4 T-lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare immunodeficiency characterized by low CD4 T-lymphocyte count, which usually manifests with opportunistic infections. Nocardia as an opportunistic pathogen infecting patients with this condition has rarely been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 46-year-old male who presented with lung mass and respiratory and systemic symptoms and was eventually diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis. A workup for predisposing immunodeficiencies suggested a picture of ICL...
February 2018: Respirology Case Reports
Muneeb Ilyas, Nishita Maganty, Zachary Ginsberg, Amit Sharma
Though there is an abundance of information on cutaneous malignancies in transplant recipients, cutaneous infections in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are underrepresented in the dermatological literature. Our paper provides a comprehensive review of bacterial cutaneous infections within the solid organ transplant population. Cutaneous bacterial infections may lead to significant morbidity and even mortality in this immunosuppressed population. Thus, it is to the benefit of both dermatologists and other transplant care providers to better understand and recognize the features of cutaneous bacterial infections in SOTRs...
January 10, 2018: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
Neharika Sharma, Stephen O'Hagan
This article [1] was unintentionally published twice in this journal, by the same authors.The following [1] should be considered the version of record and used for citation purposes: "Neharika Sharma and Stephen O'Hagan, The role of oral co-trimoxazole in treating Nocardia farcinica keratitis: a case report. Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection (2016) 6:21 DOI 10.1186/s12348-016-0087-y".The duplicate [2]: "Neharika Sharma and Stephen O'Hagan, The role of oral co-trimoxazole in treating Nocardia farcinica keratitis: a case report...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
Michael M Hadeed, J Ryan MacDonell, Ian J Dempsey, Christopher C Moore, James A Browne
CASE: We report the successful treatment of a Nocardia cyriacigeorgica periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) that occurred at the site of a total knee arthroplasty. To our knowledge, this organism has not previously been reported in the literature as a cause of PJI. Given the need for a prolonged duration of treatment for this organism (a minimum of 6 to 12 months), modifications to the standard 2-stage revision were made in consultation with infectious-disease specialists. CONCLUSION: PJI is a devastating complication that leads to substantial patient morbidity and utilization of health-care resources...
October 2017: JBJS Case Connector
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