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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342316/solvent-free-enzyme-activity-quick-high-yielding-mechano-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-cellulose-into-glucose
#1
Fabien Hammerer, Leigh Loots, Jean-Louis Do, J P Daniel Therien, Christopher W Nickels, Tomislav Friscic, Karine Auclair
Mechanochemistry enables enzymatic cleavage of cellulose into glucose without bulk solvents, acids, other aggressive reagents or substrate pre-treatment. This clean mechano-enzymatic process is also directly applicable to biomass, avoids many limitations associated with the use of cellulases, and produces glucose concentrations >3 times the highest obtained by conventional methods.
January 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341931/bioinspired-capsules-based-on-nanocellulose-xyloglucan-and-pectin-the-influence-of-capsule-wall-composition-on-permeability-properties
#2
T Paulraj, A V Riazanova, A J Svagan
Materials based on renewable biopolymers, selective permeability and stimuli-responsive release/loading properties play an important role in biomedical applications. Here, in order to mimic the plant primary cell-wall, microcapsules have been fabricated using cell wall polysaccharides, namely pectin, xyloglucan and cellulose nanofibers. For the first time, a large amount of xyloglucan was successfully included in such capsules. These capsules demonstrated stimuli-responsive (ON/OFF) permeability and biocompatibility...
January 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341922/sustained-release-timolol-maleate-loaded-ocusert-based-on-biopolymer-composite
#3
Revathy V Nair, Shefrin S, Akhil Suresh, Anoop K R, Sreeja C Nair
In the present investigation, the effect of timolol maleate loaded ocuserts was studied as an alternative for conventional anti-glaucoma formulation. Ocuserts were prepared using natural polymer sodium alginate and ethyl cellulose. Physico-chemical properties along with drug entrapment efficiency (94-98%), content uniformity (93.1% ± 0.264-98.00% ± 0.321), in vitro drug release (83.42% ± 0.35 at end of 12 hours), ex vivo permeation all showed satisfactory results, which was found to follow zero order kinetics...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341264/a-facile-method-to-fabricate-anisotropic-hydrogels-with-perfectly-aligned-hierarchical-fibrous-structures
#4
Md Tariful Islam Mredha, Yun Zhou Guo, Takayuki Nonoyama, Tasuku Nakajima, Takayuki Kurokawa, Jian Ping Gong
Natural structural materials (such as tendons and ligaments) are comprised of multiscale hierarchical architectures, with dimensions ranging from nano- to macroscale, which are difficult to mimic synthetically. Here a bioinspired, facile method to fabricate anisotropic hydrogels with perfectly aligned multiscale hierarchical fibrous structures similar to those of tendons and ligaments is reported. The method includes drying a diluted physical hydrogel in air by confining its length direction. During this process, sufficiently high tensile stress is built along the length direction to align the polymer chains and multiscale fibrous structures (from nano- to submicro- to microscale) are spontaneously formed in the bulk material, which are well-retained in the reswollen gel...
January 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340401/a-nanopaper-based-artificial-tongue-a-ratiometric-fluorescent-sensor-array-on-bacterial-nanocellulose-for-chemical-discrimination-applications
#5
Samira Abbasi-Moayed, Hamed Golmohammadi, M Reza Hormozi-Nezhad
In the present study, a ratiometric fluorescent sensor array as an artificial tongue has been developed on a nanopaper platform for chemical discrimination applications. The bacterial cellulose (BC) nanopaper was utilized for the first time as a novel, flexible, and transparent substrate in the optical sensor arrays for developing high-performance artificial tongues. To fabricate this platform, the hydrophobic walls on the BC nanopaper substrates were successfully created using a laser printing technology. In addition, we have used the interesting photoluminescence (PL) properties of an immobilized ratiometric probe (carbon dot-Rhodamine B (CD-RhB) nanohybrids) on the nanopaper platform to improve the visual discrimination analysis...
January 17, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339554/synthetic-biology-strategies-for-improving-microbial-synthesis-of-green-biopolymers
#6
Lisa A Anderson, M Ahsanul Islam, Kristala L J Prather
Polysaccharide-based biopolymers have many material properties relevant to industrial and medical uses, including as drug delivery agents, wound healing adhesives, and food additives and stabilizers. Traditionally, polysaccharides are obtained from natural sources. Microbial synthesis offers an attractive alternative for sustainable production of tailored biopolymers. Here, we review synthetic biology strategies for select "green" biopolymers: cellulose, alginate, chitin, chitosan, and hyaluronan. Microbial production pathways, opportunities for pathway yield improvements, and advances in microbial engineering of biopolymers in various hosts are discussed...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339283/hydroxyethyl-cellulose-hydrogel-for-wound-dressing-fabrication-characterization-and-in-vitro-evaluation
#7
Gomaa F El Fawal, Marwa M Abu-Serie, Mohamed A Hassan, Mohamed S Elnouby
In this study, new hydrogel membranes were developed based on hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) supplemented with tungsten oxide for further implementing in wound treatment. HEC hydrogel membranes were fabricated and crosslinked using citric acid (CA). Various tests were carried out including FTIR, XRD, porosity measurements, swelling, mechanical properties, gel fraction, and thermal gravimetric analysis to evaluate the efficiency of the prepared membranes as wound dressing material. In addition, wound healing activity of the examined membranes for human dermal fibroblast cell line was investigated employing in vitro scratching model...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339118/aerobic-and-anaerobic-cellulose-utilization-by-paenibacillus-sp-caa11-and-enhancement-of-its-cellulolytic-ability-by-expressing-a-heterologous-endoglucanase
#8
Eun Sook Kim, Byeong-Soo Kim, Ki-Yeon Kim, Han-Min Woo, Sun-Mi Lee, Youngsoon Um
For cost-effective lignocellulosic biofuel/chemical production, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP)-enabling microorganisms utilizing cellulose as well as producing biofuel/chemical are required. A novel strain Paenibacillus sp. CAA11 isolated from sediment was found to be not only as a cellulose degrader under both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions but also as a producer of cellulosic biofuel/chemicals. Paenibacillus sp. CAA11 secreted cellulolytic enzymes by its own secretion system and produced ethanol as well as short-chain organic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid) from cellulose...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337342/polysaccharides-reduce-absorption-and-mutagenicity-of-3-amino-1-4-dimethyl-5h-pyrido-4-3-b-indole-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Lingying Luo, Yun Bai, Guanghong Zhou
3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) is a group 2B carcinogen characterized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and great efforts have been taken to reduce Trp-P-1 mutagenicity to humans. In this study, the effect of a reduction of Trp-P-1 on intestinal absorption as a promising strategy was investigated. The data showed that when 20 mM Trp-P-1 cotransported with 10 mM of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), xanthan gum, or carrageenan, the absorption rate of Trp-P-1 was reduced by 31...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337103/green-options-for-imparting-antibacterial-functionality-to-cotton-fabrics
#10
Nabil A Ibrahim, Nahed A Abd El-Ghany, Basma M Eid, Eman M Mabrouk
This study demonstrated that antibacterial cellulosic textiles can be fabricated in eco-friendly manner by grafting of monochlorotriazinyl β-cyclodextin (MCT-βCD) onto knitted and woven cotton fabrics followed by post-loading of any of the green active ingredients namely Rosemary oil, Lavender oil, Clove oil, Cinnamon oil, Aloe vera gel, Vanillin, Ag-ions, Natural Yellow 7 and Natural Red 25 dyes into the hydrophobic cavities of grafted β-CD moieties. Some of the grafted, post-loaded fabric samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, and EDS analysis...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337099/facile-preparation-and-characterization-of-ph-sensitive-mt-cmc-nanocomposite-hydrogel-beads-for-propranolol-controlled-release
#11
Hassan Farhadnejad, Seyed Alireza Mortazavi, Mohammad Erfan, Behzad Darbasizadeh, Hamidreza Motasadizadeh, Yousef Fatahi
The main aim of the present study was to design pH-sensitive nanocomposite hydrogel beads, based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and montmorillonite (Mt)-propranolol (PPN) nanohybrid, and evaluate whether the prepared nanocomposite beads could potentially be used as oral drug delivery systems. PPN-as a model drug-was intercalated into the interlayer space of Mt clay mineral via the ion exchange procedure. The resultant nanohybrid (Mt-PPN) was applied to fabricate nanocomposite hydrogel beads by association with carboxymethyl cellulose...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337097/physical-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-starch-carboxy-methyl-cellulose-film-containing-rosemary-essential-oils-encapsulated-in-chitosan-nanogel
#12
Nafiseh Mohsenabadi, Ahmad Rajaei, Meisam Tabatabaei, Afshin Mohsenifar
This study was set to prepare a new active film by using a biodegradable bio-based source, i.e., corn starch. To achieve that, benzoic acid (BA) and chitosan (CS) were covalently bound and CS-BA nanogel was then obtained using self-assembly method. Subsequently, rosemary essential oil (REO) was encapsulated in CS-BA nanogel. Finally, REO in both free and encapsulated forms were incorporated in starch-carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) films and their physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties were studied...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336569/paper-based-dna-reader-for-visualized-quantification-of-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections
#13
Alex Guan Wang, Tianyu Dong, Hayam Mansour, Gabriela Matamoros, Ana L Sanchez, Feng Li
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are a global health issue affecting nearly one-third of the world's population. As most endemic areas of STH are impoverished countries or regions with limited healthcare resources, the accurate diagnosis of STH requires analytical tools that are not only quantitative, but also portable, inexpensive, and with no or minimal demand for external instrument. Herein, we introduce a novel paper-based diagnostic device, termed quantitative paper-based DNA reader (qPDR), capable of quantifying STH at the molecular level by measuring distance as readout, thus eliminating the need for external readers...
January 16, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336527/sustainable-synthesis-of-oxalic-and-succinic-acid-via-aerobic-oxidation-of-c6-polyols-by-using-m-cnt-ncnt-m-fe-v-based-catalysts-in-mild-conditions
#14
Angela Dibenedetto, Maria Ventura, David Williamson, Francesco Lobefaro, Matthew D Jones, Davide Mattia, Francesco Nocito, Michele Aresta
Sustainable chemical industry encompasses the shift from fossil carbon to renewable carbon. The synthesis of chemicals from non-edible biomass (cellulosic or oily) represents one of the key steps for "greening" the chemical industry. In this paper we report the aerobic oxidation-cleavage of C6 polyols (5-HMF, glucose, fructose, sucrose) in water to oxalic acid-OA (and succinic acid-SA) under mild conditions using M@CNT/NCNT (M=Fe, V; CNT=carbon nanotubes; NCNT= N-doped CNT), which, under suitable conditions, are recoverable and reusable without any loss of efficiency...
January 16, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335590/direct-observation-of-the-effects-of-cellulose-synthesis-inhibitors-using-live-cell-imaging-of-cellulose-synthase-cesa-in-physcomitrella-patens
#15
Mai L Tran, Thomas W McCarthy, Hao Sun, Shu-Zon Wu, Joanna H Norris, Magdalena Bezanilla, Luis Vidali, Charles T Anderson, Alison W Roberts
Results from live cell imaging of fluorescently tagged Cellulose Synthase (CESA) proteins in Cellulose Synthesis Complexes (CSCs) have enhanced our understanding of cellulose biosynthesis, including the mechanisms of action of cellulose synthesis inhibitors. However, this method has been applied only in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon thus far. Results from freeze fracture electron microscopy of protonemal filaments of the moss Funaria hygrometrica indicate that a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB), fragments CSCs and clears them from the plasma membrane...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335216/a-new-screened-microbial-consortium-oem2-for-lignocellulosic-biomass-deconstruction-and-chlorophenols-detoxification
#16
Jiajin Liang, Xiuxiu Fang, Yunqin Lin, Dehan Wang
Recalcitrance limits biomass application in biorefinery. It is even more so when toxic chlorophenols are present. In this study, we screened a microbial consortium, OEM2, for lignocellulose deconstruction and chlorophenols detoxification through a short-term and efficient screening process. Microbial consortium OEM2 had a good buffer capability in the cultivation process and exhibited a high xylanase activity, with over 85% hemicellulose degradation within 12 days. Throughout the treatment process, 41.5% rice straw decomposition on day 12 and around 75% chlorophenols (MCP, 2,4-DCP, 2,4,6-TCP) removal on day 9, were recorded...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334612/tempo-oxidized-bacterial-cellulose-pellicle-with-silver-nanoparticles-for-wound-dressing
#17
Chun-Nan Wu, Shih-Chang Fuh, Shin-Ping Lin, Yen-Yi Lin, Hung-Yueh Chen, Jui-Ming Liu, Kuan-Chen Cheng
Biocompatible bacterial cellulose pellicle (BCP) is a candidate for biomedical material such as wound dressing. However, due to lack of antibacterial activity, to grant BCP with the property is crucial for its biomedical application. In the present study, BCP was modified by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation using TEMPO/NaClO/NaBr system at pH 10 to form TEMPO-oxidized BCP (TOBCP) with anionic C6 carboxylate groups. The TOBCP was subsequently ion-exchanged in AgNO3 solution and silver nanoparticles (AgNP) with diameter of ~16...
January 15, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334299/mucoadhesive-buccal-film-containing-ornidazole-and-dexamethasone-for-oral-ulcers-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#18
Chengliang Zhang, Yanan Liu, Wei Li, Ping Gao, Dong Xiang, Xiuhua Ren, Dong Liu
A bilayered mucoadhesive buccal film containing a combination of ornidazole (OD) and dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX) was prepared using solvent casting to treat oral ulcers. Films were systematically evaluated in vitro to obtain the optimum formulation. The therapeutic effects of these films were investigated in the rabbit oral ulcer model and the in vivo release of OD and DEX in the human oral cavity was also evaluated. The backing layer contained ethyl cellulose and an optimal mucoadhesive layer containing both OD and DEX was produced...
January 15, 2018: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334135/liquid-letters
#19
Shaowei Shi, Xubo Liu, Yanan Li, Xuefei Wu, Dong Wang, Joe Forth, Thomas P Russell
Using the interfacial jamming of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) surfactants, a new concept, termed all-liquid molding, is introduced to produce all-liquid objects that retain the shape and details of the mold with high fidelity, yet remain all liquid and are responsive to external stimuli. This simple process, where the viscosity of the CNC dispersion can range from that of water to a crosslinked gel, opens tremendous opportunities for encapsulation, delivery systems, and unique microfluidic devices. The process described is generally applicable to any functionalized nanoparticles dispersed in one liquid and polymer ligands having complementary functionality dissolved in a second immiscible liquid...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334102/ru-nanoparticles-dispersed-on-magnetic-yolk-shell-nanoarchitectures-with-fe3o4-core-and-sulfoacid-containing-periodic-mesoporous-organosilica-shell-as-bifunctional-catalysts-for-direct-conversion-of-cellulose-to-isosorbide
#20
Ying Yang, Wen Zhang, Feng Yang, Biao Zhou, Dehong Zeng, Na Zhang, Guoming Zhao, Shijie Hao, Xin Zhang
A green and sustainable approach for biorefining involves the development of bifunctional catalysts for the one-pot conversion of cellulosic biomass to isosorbide. This requires highly efficient, easily separated and versatile metal-acid catalysts for hydrolysis-hydrogenation-dehydration cascade reactions. Herein, we report a new type of metal-acid bifunctional catalyst by dispersing Ru nanoparticles (NPs) on magnetic yolk-shell nanoarchitectures comprising an Fe3O4 core and a sulfoacid (SO3H)-containing periodic mesoporous organosilica shell...
January 15, 2018: Nanoscale
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