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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319774/kinetics-and-mechanism-of-hemicelluloses-removal-from-cellulosic-fibers-during-the-cold-caustic-extraction-process
#1
Jianguo Li, Huichao Hu, Hailong Li, Liulian Huang, Lihui Chen, Yonghao Ni
The effective separation of hemicelluloses and cellulose is desirable for the production of high-purity cellulose, which is a sustainable raw material for many value-added applications. For this purpose, the kinetics and mechanism of hemicelluloses removal from the cold caustic extraction (CCE) were investigated in the present study. The hemicelluloses removal process consists of: 1) the bulk phase, characteristic of significant hemicelluloses removal; 2) the transition phase, hemicelluloses transferring from the inner to the outer region of the fiber wall, with negligible overall hemicelluloses removal; 3) the residual phase, presenting a weak but continuing hemicelluloses removal...
March 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319765/performance-assessment-of-improved-composting-system-for-food-waste-with-varying-aeration-and-use-of-microbial-inoculum
#2
M K Manu, Rakesh Kumar, Anurag Garg
Wet waste recycling at generation point will alleviate burden on the overflowing waste dumpsites in developing nations. Drum composting is a potential treatment option for such waste at individual or community level. The present study was aimed to produce compost from wet waste (primarily comprising food waste) in composting drums modified for improved natural air circulation. Effect of microbial inoculum and waste turning on composting process was also studied. The final results showed the production of matured and stable compost in the modified drums...
March 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319763/quantitative-analysis-of-adsorption-and-desorption-behavior-of-individual-cellulase-components-during-the-hydrolysis-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-with-the-addition-of-lysozyme
#3
Yoshiko Toyosawa, Makoto Ikeo, Daisuke Taneda, Shohei Okino
The effect of non-catalytic protein addition on the adsorption/desorption behavior of individual cellulase components on/from substrates during the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose and steam exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB) were investigated. The addition of non-catalytic protein enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of SEB, but did not enhance the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose. During the hydrolysis of SEB, adsorption of beta-glucosidase (BGL) was prevented in the presence of non-catalytic protein...
March 16, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319163/hopanoid-free-methylobacterium-extorquens-dm4-overproduces-carotenoids-and-has-widespread-growth-impairment
#4
Alexander S Bradley, Paige K Swanson, Emilie E L Muller, Françoise Bringel, Sean M Caroll, Ann Pearson, Stéphane Vuilleumier, Christopher J Marx
Hopanoids are sterol-like membrane lipids widely used as geochemical proxies for bacteria. Currently, the physiological role of hopanoids is not well understood, and this represents one of the major limitations in interpreting the significance of their presence in ancient or contemporary sediments. Previous analyses of mutants lacking hopanoids in a range of bacteria have revealed a range of phenotypes under normal growth conditions, but with most having at least an increased sensitivity to toxins and osmotic stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318962/effects-of-an-acid-alkaline-treatment-on-the-release-of-antioxidants-and-cellulose-from-different-agro-food-wastes
#5
Vellingiri Vadivel, Alessandro Moncalvo, Roberta Dordoni, Giorgia Spigno
The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the release of both antioxidants and cellulosic fibre from different agro-food wastes. Cost-effective and easily available agro-food residues (brewers' spent grains, hazelnut shells, orange peels and wheat straw) were selected and submitted to a double-step acid/alkaline fractionation process. The obtained acid and alkaline liquors were analysed for total phenols content and antioxidant capacity. The final fibre residue was analysed for the cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose content...
March 15, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318564/comparing-the-selectivity-and-chiral-separation-of-d-and-l-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-chloride-fmoc-protected-amino-acids-in-analytical-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-and-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-evaluating-throughput-economic-and-environmental
#6
C M Vera, D Shock, G R Dennis, W Farrell, R A Shalliker
The chiral separation of d- and l- FMOC amino acids was undertaken using the Lux Cellulose-1 polysaccharide based chiral column in HPLC (normal phase and reverse phase) and SFC conditions. This was done to compare the relative selectivity and separation between the three separation modes and to evaluate the potential benefits of SFC separations with regards to resolution, throughput, economic and environmental impact. It was established that the separation of d- and l- FMOC amino acids in SFC displayed behaviours that were similar to both normal phase and reversed phase, rather than distinctly one or the other...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317732/mechanism-of-cassava-tuber-cell-wall-weakening-by-dilute-sodium-hydroxide-steeping
#7
Martin Odoch, Elna M Buys, John R N Taylor
Steeping of cassava root pieces in 0.75% NaOH in combination with wet milling was investigated to determine whether and how dilute NaOH modifies cassava cell walls. Gas chromatography data of cell wall constituent sugar composition and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data showed that NaOH steeping reduced the level of pectin in cassava cell walls. FTIR and wide-angle X-ray scattering spectroscopy also indicated that NaOH steeping combined with fine milling slightly reduced cellulose crystallinity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that NaOH steeping produced micropores in the cell walls and light microscopy revealed that NaOH steeping increased disaggregation of parenchyma cells...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317122/an-anthropomorphic-abdominal-phantom-for-deformable-image-registration-accuracy-validation-in-adaptive-radiation-therapy
#8
Yuliang Liao, Linjing Wang, Xiangdong Xu, Haibin Chen, Jiawei Chen, Guoqian Zhang, Huaiyu Lei, Ruihao Wang, Shuxu Zhang, Xuejun Gu, Xin Zhen, Linghong Zhou
PURPOSE: To design and construct a three-dimensional (3D) anthropomorphic abdominal phantom for geometric accuracy and dose summation accuracy evaluations of deformable image registration (DIR) algorithms for adaptive radiation therapy (ART). METHOD: Organ molds, including liver, kidney, spleen, stomach, vertebra and two metastasis tumors, were 3D printed using contours from an ovarian cancer patient. The organ molds were molded with deformable gels made of different mixtures of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the softener dioctyl terephthalate...
March 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317073/effect-of-8-weeks-prebiotics-probiotics-supplementation-on-alcohol-metabolism-and-blood-biomarkers-of-healthy-adults-a-pilot-study
#9
Christopher Irwin, Saman Khalesi, Amanda J Cox, Gary Grant, Andrew K Davey, Andrew C Bulmer, Ben Desbrow
PURPOSE: Modulating gut bacteria via regular prebiotics/probiotics consumption may improve the metabolism of acute alcohol ingestion. This study investigated the impact of 8-weeks prebiotics/probiotics supplementation on microbiome changes and responses to acute alcohol consumption. METHODS: 38 participants (21 females, 23.6 ± 3.4 kg m(-2), mean ± SD) attended the laboratory on two occasions separated by an 8-week intervention period. On each of these visits, a dose of alcohol (0...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316950/the-effect-of-casting-ring-liner-length-and-prewetting-on-the-marginal-adaptation-and-dimensional-accuracy-of-full-crown-castings
#10
Satheesh B Haralur, Osama A Hamdi, Abdulaziz A Al-Shahrani, Sultan Alhasaniah
AIM: To evaluate the effect of varying cellulose casting ring liner length and its prewetting on the marginal adaptation and dimensional accuracy of full veneer metal castings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The master die was milled in stainless steel to fabricate the wax pattern. Sixty wax patterns were fabricated with a uniform thickness of 1.5 mm at an occlusal surface and 1 mm axial surface, cervical width at 13.5 mm, and 10 mm cuspal height. The samples were divided into six groups (n = 10)...
January 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315762/bionanocomposite-films-based-on-polysaccharides-from-banana-peels
#11
Túlio Ítalo S Oliveira, Morsyleide F Rosa, Michael J Ridout, Kathryn Cross, Edy S Brito, Lorena M A Silva, Selma E Mazzetto, Keith W Waldron, Henriette M C Azeredo
Pectin and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) isolated from banana peels were used to prepare films. The effects of a reinforcing phase (CNCs) and a crosslinker (citric acid, CA) on properties of pectin films were studied. Glycerol-plasticized films were prepared by casting, with different CNC contents (0-10wt%), with or without CA. Overall tensile properties were improved by intermediate CNC contents (around 5wt%). The water resistance and water vapor barrier properties were also enhanced by CNC. Evidences were found from Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra supporting the occurrence of crosslinking by CA...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315605/green-synthesis-of-bacterial-cellulose-via-acetic-acid-pre-hydrolysis-liquor-of-agricultural-corn-stalk-used-as-carbon-source
#12
Zheng Cheng, Rendang Yang, Xu Liu, Xiao Liu, Hua Chen
Herein, bacterial cellulose (BC) was synthesized by acetobacter xylinum via organic acid pre-hydrolysis liquor of agricultural corn stalk used as carbon source. Acetic acid was applied to pretreat the corn stalk, then, the prehydrolysate was detoxified by sequential steps of activated carbon and ion exchange resin treatment prior to use as carbon source to cultivate acetobacter xylinum. Moreover, the recovery of acetic acid was achieved for facilitating the reduction of cost. The results revealed that the combination method of detoxification treatment was very effective for synthesis of BC, yield could be up to 2...
March 2, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315372/soybean-hull-induced-production-of-carbohydrases-and-protease-among-aspergillus-and-their-effectiveness-in-soy-flour-carbohydrate-and-protein-separation
#13
Qian Li, Abdullah Al Loman, Anthony M Coffman, Lu-Kwang Ju
Soybean hull consists mainly of three major plant carbohydrates, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. It is inexpensive and a good potential substrate for carbohydrase production because it is capable of inducing a complete spectrum of activities to hydrolyze complex biomass. Aspergillus is known for carbohydrase production but no studies have evaluated and compared, among Aspergillus species and strains, the soybean hull induced production of various carbohydrases. In this study, A. aculeatus, A. cinnamomeus, A...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306221/construction-of-small-diameter-vascular-graft-by-shape-memory-and-self-rolling-bacterial-cellulose-membrane
#14
Ying Li, Kai Jiang, Jian Feng, Jinzhe Liu, Rong Huang, Zhaojun Chen, Junchuan Yang, Zhaohe Dai, Yong Chen, Nuoxin Wang, Wenjin Zhang, Wenfu Zheng, Guang Yang, Xingyu Jiang
Bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes with shape-memory properties allow the rapid preparation of artificial small-diameter blood vessels when combined with microfluidics-based patterning with multiple types of cells. Lyophilization of a wet multilayered rolled BC tube endows it with memory to recover its tubular shape after unrolling. The unrolling of the BC tube yields a flat membrane, and subsequent patterning with endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblast cells is carried out by microfluidics...
March 17, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304245/kineothrix-alysoides-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-saccharolytic-butyrate-producer-within-the-family-lachnospiraceae
#15
Kelly Nicole Haas, Jeffrey L Blanchard
An anaerobic, saccharolytic, spore-forming, butyrate-producing bacterium, strain KNHs209T, was isolated from a switchgrass microcosm seeded with forest soil. Cells were highly motile rods, often forming long filamentous chains which were easily observed moving under the microscope. Its closest phylogenetic relative was Eisenbergiella tayi (16S rRNA gene sequence identity 94.2 %), although it was easily distinguishable based on its morphology and physiology. Whole-genome sequencing enabled development of a minimal medium, and also suggested that the organism is capable of fixing nitrogen...
February 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304051/bacterial-cellulose-based-sheet-like-carbon-aerogels-for-the-in-situ-growth-of-nickel-sulfide-as-high-performance-electrode-materials-for-asymmetric-supercapacitors
#16
Lizeng Zuo, Wei Fan, Youfang Zhang, Yunpeng Huang, Wei Gao, Tianxi Liu
Electroactive materials, such as nickel sulfide (NiS), with high theoretical capacities have attracted broad interest to fabricate highly efficient supercapacitors. Preventing aggregation and increasing the conductivity of NiS particles are key challenging tasks to fully achieve excellent electrochemical properties of NiS. One effective approach to solve these problems is to combine NiS with highly porous and conductive carbon materials such as carbon aerogels. In this study, a green and facile method for the in situ growth of NiS particles on bacterial cellulose (BC)-derived sheet-like carbon aerogels (CAs) has been reported...
March 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302998/distribution-and-diversity-of-enzymes-for-polysaccharide-degradation-in-fungi
#17
Renaud Berlemont
Fungi are important polysaccharide degraders in the environment and for biotechnology. Here, the increasing number of sequenced fungal genomes allowed for systematic identification of genes and proteins involved in polysaccharide degradation in 218 fungi. Globally, 9,003 sequences for glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases targeting cellulose, xylan, and chitin, were identified. Although abundant in most lineages, the distribution of these enzymes is variable even between organisms from the same genus...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302396/supercritical-antisolvent-co-precipitation-of-rifampicin-and-ethyl-cellulose
#18
Rania Djerafi, Andri Swanepoel, Christelle Crampon, Lonji Kalombo, Philip Labuschagne, Elisabeth Badens, Yasmine Masmoudi
Rifampicin-loaded submicron-sized particles were prepared through supercritical anti-solvent process using ethyl cellulose as polymeric encapsulating excipient. Ethyl acetate and a mixture of ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (70/30 and 85/15) were used as solvents for both drug and polymeric excipient. When ethyl acetate was used, rifampicin was crystallized separately without being embedded within the ethyl cellulose matrix while by using the ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide mixture, reduced crystallinity of the active ingredient was observed and a simultaneous precipitation of ethyl cellulose and drug was achieved...
March 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302276/rp-uhplc-uv-esi-ms-ms-analysis-of-lpmo-generated-c4-oxidized-gluco-oligosaccharides-after-non-reductive-labeling-with-2-aminobenzamide
#19
Matthias Frommhagen, Gijs van Erven, Mark Sanders, Willem J H van Berkel, Mirjam A Kabel, Harry Gruppen
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are able to cleave recalcitrant polysaccharides, such as cellulose, by oxidizing the C1 and/or C4 atoms. The analysis of the resulting products requires a variety of analytical techniques. Up to now, these techniques mainly focused on the identification of non-oxidized and C1-oxidized oligosaccharides. The analysis of C4-oxidized gluco-oligosaccharides is mostly performed by using high pressure anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC). However, the alkaline conditions used during HPAEC analysis lead to tautomerization of C4-oxidized gluco-oligosaccharides, which limits the use of this technique...
March 6, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302049/increased-enzymatic-hydrolysis-of-sugarcane-bagasse-by-a-novel-glucose-and-xylose-stimulated-%C3%AE-glucosidase-from-anoxybacillus-flavithermus-subsp-yunnanensis-e13-t
#20
Yang Liu, Rui Li, Jing Wang, Xiaohan Zhang, Rong Jia, Yi Gao, Hui Peng
BACKGROUND: β-Glucosidase is claimed as a key enzyme in cellulose hydrolysis. The cellulosic fibers are usually entrapped with hemicelluloses containing xylose. So there is ongoing interest in searching for glucose- and xylose-stimulated β-glucosidases to increase the efficiency of hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. RESULTS: A thermostable β-glucosidase gene (Bglp) was cloned from Anoxybacillus flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis E13(T) and characterized. Optimal enzyme activity was observed at 60 °C and pH 7...
March 16, 2017: BMC Biochemistry
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