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Pyae Phyo, Tuo Wang, Yu Yang, Hugh M O'Neill, Mei Hong
In contrast to the well-studied crystalline cellulose of microbial and animal origins, cellulose in plant cell walls is disordered due to its interactions with matrix polysaccharides. Plant cell wall (PCW) is an undisputed source of sustainable global energy, therefore it is important to determine the molecular structure of PCW cellulose. The most reactive component of cellulose is the exocyclic hydroxymethyl group: when it adopts the tg conformation, it stabilizes intra-chain and inter-chain hydrogen bonding, while gt and gg conformations destabilize the hydrogen-bonding network...
March 21, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Wenshuai Chen, Haipeng Yu, Sang-Young Lee, Tong Wei, Jian Li, Zhuangjun Fan
Nanocellulose has emerged as a sustainable and promising nanomaterial owing to its unique structures, superb properties, and natural abundance. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the current research activities that center on the development of nanocellulose for advanced electrochemical energy storage. We begin with a brief introduction of the structural features of cellulose nanofibers within the cell walls of cellulose resources. We then focus on a variety of processes that have been explored to fabricate nanocellulose with various structures and surface chemical properties...
March 21, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Chengmei Shi, Furong Tao, Yuezhi Cui
Succinic anhydride (SAD) modified microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) films was prepared and used for the controlled release of the drug domperidone (dom). The morphology and chemical structure of the modified materials were characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD and TG/DSC techniques. The physical properties, such as water uptake and swelling, light barrier properties, mechanical testing, in vitro degradation behavior, have been investigated. Results showed that the modified cellulose membranes exhibited good anti-UV properties, higher water uptake values, improved mechanical capacity and anti-biodegradability...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Ayyappa Kumar Sista Kameshwar, Wensheng Qin
To understand the common gene expression patterns employed by P. placenta during lignocellulose degradation, we have retrieved genome wide transcriptome datasets from NCBI GEO database and analyzed using customized analysis pipeline. We have retrieved the top differentially expressed genes and compared the common significant genes among two different growth conditions. Genes encoding for cellulolytic (GH1, GH3, GH5, GH12, GH16, GH45) and hemicellulolytic (GH10, GH27, GH31, GH35, GH47, GH51, GH55, GH78, GH95) glycoside hydrolase classes were commonly up regulated among all the datasets...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Basel Arafat, Magdalena Wojsz, Abdullah Isreb, Robert T Forbes, Mohammad Isreb, Waqar Ahmed, Tawfiq Arafat, Mohamed A Alhnan
Fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing has shown the most immediate potential for on-demand dose personalisation to suit particular patient's needs. However, FDM 3D printing often involves employing a relatively large molecular weight thermoplastic polymer and results in extended release pattern. It is therefore essential to fast-track drug release from the 3D printed objects. This work employed an innovative design approach of tablets with unique built-in gaps (Gaplets) with the aim of accelerating drug release...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Chidi E Efika, Jude A Onwudili, Paul T Williams
The effect of heating rates ranging from 5 °C min-1 to 350 °C min-1 on the yields of pyrolysis products of wood and its main pseudo-components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) have been investigated at a temperature of 800 °C in a horizontal fixed bed reactor. Results showed a successive dramatic increase and decrease in gas and liquid yields, respectively, while the yields of solid products showed a gradual decrease as heating rates increased. Increased gas formation and an increasingly aromatic oil/tar support the theory of rapid devolatilization of degradation products with increasing heating rate, leading to extensive cracking of primary pyrolysis vapours...
March 17, 2018: Waste Management
Ahasan Habib, Venkatachalem Sathish, Sanku Mallik, Bashir Khoda
Three-dimensional (3D) bio-printing is a revolutionary technology to reproduce a 3D functional living tissue scaffold in-vitro through controlled layer-by-layer deposition of biomaterials along with high precision positioning of cells. Due to its bio-compatibility, natural hydrogels are commonly considered as the scaffold material. However, the mechanical integrity of a hydrogel material, especially in 3D scaffold architecture, is an issue. In this research, a novel hybrid hydrogel, that is, sodium alginate with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is developed and systematic quantitative characterization tests are conducted to validate its printability, shape fidelity and cell viability...
March 20, 2018: Materials
Baixue Yang, Chen Wei, Yang Yang, Qifang Wang, Sanming Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate parameters about wettability, water absorption or swelling of excipients in forms of powders or dosage through various methods systematically and explore its correlation with tablet disintegration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The water penetration and swelling of powders with different proportions of excipients including microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), mannitol, low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC), crospolyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP), carboxymethyl starch sodium (CMS-Na), croscarmellose sodium (CCMC-Na) and magnesium stearate (MgSt) were determined by Washburn capillary rise...
March 20, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Lijuan Huo, Daoyou Huang, Xibai Zeng, Shiming Su, Yanan Wang, Lingyu Bai, Cuixia Wu
This study investigated arsenic (As) availability and uptake by rape (Brassica campestris L.) during two harvest periods of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized ferrihydrite (HFO) nanoparticles for in situ treatment As-contaminated soil. Application of modified HFO nanoparticles in soils not only provided a larger specific surface area but also markedly improved stability against aggregation and recrystallization. For 90-day incubation, bare HFO particles were gradually converted to the crystalline Fe(III) oxide form, although this was not observed for the 0...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Caroline Magnani Spagnol, Ana Melero Zaera, Vera Lucia Borges Isaac, Marcos Antonio Corrêa, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado
Caffeic acid (CA), a phenolic compound found in plants with antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, induces collagen production and prevents premature aging of the skin. The objective of this study was to develop two types of chitosan microparticles (MP) containing CA and to relate the morphology with the release and permeation profiles. One type of MP was prepared from a hydroalcoholic solution (MPI) and the other from an aqueous solution (MPII). Their morphology and size was evaluated by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Hongdan Zhang, Meishan Fan, Xin Li, Aiping Zhang, Jun Xie
In this work, a FeCl3 -catalyzed organosolv pretreatment was employed at 160 °C to remove hemicellulose and lignin in sugarcane bagasse leaving the cellulose-enriched residue for enzymatic hydrolysis to sugars. The solubilized hemicellulose fractions consisted more monomer xylose than oligomer xylose. The FeCl3 -catalyzed organosolv pretreatment significantly improved the enzymatic hydrolysis, nearly 100% of cellulose components were converted to glucose after pretreatment with 0.05 M FeCl3 . Structural analysis was employed to reveal how pretreatment affected the enzymatic hydrolysis...
March 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Sara Esteghlal, Mehrdad Niakousari, Seyed Mohammad Hashem Hosseini
The objective of current study was to examine the electrostatic interactions between gelatin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a function of pH and mixing ratio (MR) and to observe how the physical and mechanical properties of gelatin-CMC composite films are affected by these interactions. The interaction between biopolymers was studied using turbidometric analysis at different gelatin: CMC MRs and pH values. A reduction in pH and MR enhanced the electrostatic interactions; while, decreased the relative viscosity of mixed system...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ruly Terán Hilares, Douglas Viana Kamoei, Muhammad Ajaz Ahmed, Silvio Silvério da Silva, Jong-In Han, Júlio César Dos Santos
Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was adopted to assist alkaline-hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB). In the following condition: 0.29 M of NaOH, 0.78% (v/v) of H2 O2 , 9.95 min of process time and 3 bar of inlet pressure, 95.4% of digestibility of cellulosic fraction was achieved. To take the best use of the pretreated biomass, the overall process was intensified by way of employing a packed bed flow-through column reactor and thus enabling to handle a high solid loading of 20%, thereby leading to cellulose and hemicellulose conversions to 74...
May 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Engie Safwat, Mohammad L Hassan, Sayed Saniour, Dalia Yehia Zaki, Mervat Eldeftar, Dalia Saba, Mohamed Zazou
Nanofibrillated cellulose, obtained from rice straw agricultural wastes was used as a substrate for the preparation of a new injectable and mineralized hydrogel for bone regeneration. Tetramethyl pyridine oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose, was mineralized through the incorporation of a prepared and characterized biphasic calcium phosphate at a fixed ratio of 50 wt%. The TEMPO-oxidized rice straw nanofibrillated cellulose was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and carboxylic content determination...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Yuuki Hata, Toshiki Sawada, Takamasa Sakai, Takeshi Serizawa
The dispersion stabilization of colloidal particles and subsequent construction of functional materials are of great interest in areas ranging from colloid chemistry to materials science. A promising strategy is the spatial immobilization of colloidal particles within gel scaffolds. However, conventional gels readily deform and even collapse when changes in environmental conditions occur. Herein, we describe the enzyme-catalyzed bottom-up synthesis of mechanically and physicochemically stable nanoribbon network hydrogels composed of crystalline cellulose oligomers in which cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as model colloidal particles are immobilized spatially...
March 19, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Xia Zhou, Dayong Ding, Tingting You, Xun Zhang, Keiji Takabe, Feng Xu
As the main hemicellulose of poplar, the interaction of xylan with lignin was expected to have profound effect on biomass recalcitrance. In this paper, the dynamic changes of xylan and lignin in poplar cell wall during a mild pretreatment using γ-valerolactone (GVL) was investigated using chemical and microscopic techniques. Synergetic dissolution of branched xylan and lignin from the secondary wall of fibre cell was found to play a major role in openning the cell wall structure for enzymatic attack. In the case of the removal of xylan and lignin reaching a certain level, β-O-4' cleavage of lignin which destroyed its interaction with hydrophobic cellulose face was found to make great contribution to the enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xin-Yao Su, Chun-Li Jiang, Ya-Chun Xu, Meng-Chu Sun, Chen-Hao Huang, Jian-Ping Xue, Cai-Xia Wang
Residue of Mori Cortex was studied to optimize its enzymatic hydrolysis process, and explore its potential as a carbon source for biochemistry and biofuel production. The cellulose content of diluted acid pretreated (DAP) and non-pretreated from Mori Cortex were measured in this study, and the results showed that the cellulose content of DAP and non-pretreated from Mori Cortex were 52.5% and 47%, respectively. This higher cellulose content indicated that residue of Mori Cortex had the potential to act as a carbon source for biochemistry and biofuel production...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Le Kang, Mingsan Miao, Ming Bai, Shuo Tian
Objective: To study the protective effect of total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens on BIT model by brain ischemic tolerance (hereinafter BIT) model of mice. Method: BIT model is used to block bilateral common carotid arteries and to copy BIT model of mice. After 10 min of transient ischemia for rats in preconditioning group, the mice in the nimodipine group and naoluotong capsule group were given the total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens (300 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg) for gavage, sham operation group, ischemia/reperfusion injury (hereinafter IRI) group and BIT group were fed with the same volume of 0...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Ling Li, Cong Huang, Fengguang Zhao, Tao Deng, Ying Lin, Suiping Zheng, Shuli Liang, Shuangyan Han
Endoglucanase 1 (EG1) isolated from the straw mushroom has great potential in the textile and paper industries. Improving EG1 expression level will add to its value for industrial applications. In this study, we employed two combined strategies to enhance the expression quantity of EG1, which are increase the copy number of EG1 and enhance the folding and secretion efficiency of EG1 in the endoplasmic reticulum by overexpress HAC1. Multiple plasmids, which contains four copies of EG1, were constructed by isocaudamers, resulted a recombinant strain with EG1 activity up to 39...
March 15, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Lau Kia Kian, Mohammad Jawaid, Hidayah Ariffin, Zoheb Karim
Roselle fiber is a renewable and sustainable agricultural waste enriched with cellulose polysaccharides. The isolation of Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from roselle-derived microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is an alternative approach to recover the agricultural roselle plant residue. In the present study, acid hydrolysis with different reaction time was carried out to degrade the roselle-derived MCC to form NCC. The characterizations of isolated NCC were conducted through Fourier Transform Infrared Ray (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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