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Hunki Kwon, Yong-Ho Choi, Sang Won Seo, Jong-Min Lee
The 'human connectome' concept has been proposed to significantly increase our understanding of how functional brain states emerge from their underlying structural substrates. Especially, the network hub has been considered one of the most important topological properties to interpret a network as a complex system. However, previous structural brain connectome studies have reported network hub regions based on various nodal resolutions. We hypothesized that brain network hubs should be determined considering various nodal scales in a certain range...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hui Lei, Yan Cui, Jie Fan, Xiaocui Zhang, Mingtian Zhong, Jinyao Yi, Lin Cai, Dezhong Yao, Xiongzhao Zhu
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on neurobiological correlates of poor insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study explored whether specific changes occur in small-world network (SWN) properties in the brain functional network of OCD patients with poor insight. METHOD: Resting-state electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded for 12 medication-free OCD patients with poor insight, 50 medication-free OCD patients with good insight, and 36 healthy controls...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Raghav Garg, Sahil Kumar Rastogi, Michael Lamparski, Sergio de la Barrera, Gordon T Pace, Noel T Nuhfer, Benjamin Matthew Hunt, Vincent Meunier, Tzahi Cohen-Karni
Graphene, a honeycomb sp(2) hybridized carbon lattice, is a promising building block for hybrid-nanomaterials due to its electrical, mechanical, and optical properties. Graphene can be readily obtained through mechanical exfoliation, solution-based deposition of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The resulting graphene films' topology is two-dimensional (2D) surface. Recently a three-dimensional (3D) graphene topology has been demonstrated by various approaches. However, the resulting graphene films are lying flat on the surface hence still exposing a 2D surface topology...
May 26, 2017: ACS Nano
Lindsay R Stolzenburg, Rui Yang, Jenny L Kerschner, Sara Fossum, Matthew Xu, Andrew Hoffmann, Kay-Marie Lamar, Sujana Ghosh, Sarah Wachtel, Shih-Hsing Leir, Ann Harris
Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), but are not good predictors of lung phenotype. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) previously identified additional genomic sites associated with CF lung disease severity. One of these, at chromosome 11p13, is an intergenic region between Ets homologous factor (EHF) and Apaf-1 interacting protein (APIP). Our goal was to determine the functional significance of this region, which being intergenic is probably regulatory...
May 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Zhaoju Yang, Fei Gao, Yahui Yang, Baile Zhang
The emerging field of topological acoustics that explores novel gauge-field-related phenomena for sound has drawn attention in recent years. However, previous approaches constructing a synthetic gauge field for sound predominantly relied on a periodic system, being unable to form a uniform effective magnetic field, thus lacking access to some typical magnetic-induced quantum phenomena such as Landau energy quantization. Here we introduce strain engineering, previously developed in graphene electronics and later transferred to photonics, into a two-dimensional acoustic structure in order to form a uniform effective magnetic field for airborne acoustic wave propagation...
May 12, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Matthias Puhr, P V Buividovich
We demonstrate the nonrenormalization of the chiral separation effect (CSE) in quenched finite-density QCD in both confinement and deconfinement phases using a recently developed numerical method which allows us, for the first time, to address the transport properties of exactly chiral, dense lattice fermions. This finding suggests that CSE can be used to fix renormalization constants for axial current density. Explaining the suppression of the CSE which we observe for topologically nontrivial gauge field configurations on small lattices, we also argue that CSE vanishes for self-dual non-Abelian fields inside instanton cores...
May 12, 2017: Physical Review Letters
G Engelhardt, M Benito, G Platero, T Brandes
The relationship of topological insulators and superconductors and the field of nonlinear dynamics is widely unexplored. To address this subject, we adopt the linear coupling geometry of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, a paradigmatic example for a topological insulator, and render it nonlinearly in the context of superconducting circuits. As a consequence, the system exhibits topologically enforced bifurcations as a function of the topological control parameter, which finally gives rise to chaotic dynamics, separating phases that exhibit clear topological features...
May 12, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Doinita Neiner, Yulia V Sevryugina, Larry S Harrower, David M Schubert
Millions of tons of sodium borates are used annually by global industries in diverse applications important to modern society. The Na2O-B2O3-H2O phase diagram in the 0-100 °C temperature range contains 13 unique hydrated crystalline sodium borates, including five important industrial products. Structures were previously reported for each of these except for that having the highest boron content, known as sodium enneaborate, Na4B18O29·11H2O or 2Na2O·9B2O3·11H2O (1). Here we report the single-crystal structure of 1, revealing the structural formula Na2[B8O11(OH)4]·B(OH)3·2H2O, and describe some of its properties and relationships to other sodium borates...
May 26, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Dong-Qing Wu, David Kempe, Yan Zhou, Lin-Dan Deng, Dong Shao, Xiao-Qin Wei, Le Shi, Kim R Dunbar, Xin-Yi Wang
Two cyanide-bridged compounds based on the Fe(II) cation and the anisotropic [Mo(III)(CN)7](4-) anion, namely, {Fe2(H2O)5[Mo(CN)7]·5H2O}n (1) and {[NH2(CH3)2]2Fe5(H2O)10[Mo(CN)7]3·8H2O}n (2), have been prepared. Single crystal X-ray analyses revealed that their structures exhibit different three-dimensional topologies as a result of the addition of [NH2(CH3)2](+) during the synthesis of 2. For both 1 and 2, the geometry of the [Mo(CN)7](4-) unit is a slightly distorted capped trigonal prism; all Fe(II) centers are hexacoordinate and adopt a distorted octahedral configuration...
May 26, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Lee Cronin, Jamie Purcell, Haralampos Miras, De-Liang Long, Panagiota Markopoulou
We report the preparation and characterization of a new family of four polyoxothiometalate (POTM) clusters, with varying size and complexity, based upon the dimeric [Mo2O2S2(H2O)6]2+ with the general formula (NMe4)aKb[(Mo2O2S2)c(TeO4)d(C4O4)e(OH)f] where a,b,c,d,e,f = {1,7,14,2,4,10} = 1, {Mo28Te2}; {2,26,36,4,10,48} = 2, {Mo72Te12}; {0,11,15,3,3,21} = 3, {Mo30Te3}; {2,6,12,2,4,16} = 4, {Mo24Te2}. The incorporation of tellurite anions allowed the fine tuning of the templation and bridging of the available building blocks leading to new topologies of increased complexity...
May 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
P V Sreenivasa Reddy, V Kanchana, G Vaitheeswaran, Andrei V Ruban, N E Christensen
A detailed study on the ternary Zr-based intermetallic compound Zr2TiAl has been carried out using first-principles electronic structure calculations. From the total energy calculations, we find an antiferromagnetic L11-like (AFM) phase with alternating (1 1 1) spin-up and spin-down layers to be a stable phase among some others with magnetic moment on Ti being 1.22 [Formula: see text]. The calculated magnetic exchange interaction parameters of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian and subsequent Heisenberg Monte Carlo simulations confirm that this phase is the magnetic ground structure with Néel temperature between 30 and 100 K...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Gerardo Salvato, Valeria Peviani, Elisa Scarano, Pina Scarpa, Alessandra Leo, Tiziana Redaelli, Michele Spinelli, Maurizio Sberna, Gabriella Bottini
In adult patients, Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) may influence the mental Body Representation (BR). Currently, there is no evidence on the modulation of SCI on BR during early stages of cognitive development. Here, we investigated BR in a 3-year-old child with complete SCI. The patient was administered with a specific battery assessing different BR components. We found evidence for putative classical neuropsychological dissociation between a preserved topological map with impaired semantic knowledge of the body...
May 26, 2017: Neurocase
Laura B Porro, Christopher T Richards
The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is one of the most widely used model organisms in biological research. However, the most recent anatomical description of X. laevis was produced nearly a century ago. Compared with other anurans, pipid frogs - including X. laevis - exhibit numerous unusual morphological features; thus, anatomical descriptions of more 'typical' frogs do not detail many aspects of X. laevis skeletal and soft-tissue morphology. The relatively new method of using iodine-based agents to stain soft tissues prior to high-resolution X-ray imaging has several advantages over gross dissection, such as enabling dissection of very small and fragile specimens, and preserving the three-dimensional topology of anatomical structures...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Laure Gallien, Niklaus E Zimmermann, Jonathan M Levine, Peter B Adler
Coexistence theory has been developed with an almost exclusive focus on interactions between two species, often ignoring more complex and indirect interactions, such as intransitive loops, that can emerge in competition networks. In fact, intransitive competition has typically been studied in isolation from other pairwise stabilising processes, and thus little is known about how intransitivity interacts with more traditional drivers of species coexistence such as niche partitioning. To integrate intransitivity into traditional coexistence theory, we developed a metric of growth rate when rare, Δri¯, to identify and quantify the impact of intransitive competition against a backdrop of pairwise stabilising niche differences...
May 26, 2017: Ecology Letters
Thomas M Jeitner, Eva Kristoferson, Juan A Azcona, John T Pinto, Clint Stalnecker, Jon W Erickson, Hank F Kung, Jianyong Li, Karl Ploessl, Arthur J L Cooper
Two 4-fluoro-L-glutamine diastereoisomers [(2S,4R)-4-FGln, (2S,4S)-4-FGln] were previously developed for positron emission tomography. Label uptake into two tumor cell types was greater with [(18)F](2S,4R)-4-FGln than with [(18)F](2S,4S)-4-FGln. In the present work we investigated the enzymology of two diastereoisomers of 4-FGln, two diastereoisomers of 4-fluoroglutamate (4-FGlu) (potential metabolites of the 4-FGln diastereoisomers) and another fluoro-derivative of L-glutamine [(2S,4S)-4-(3-fluoropropyl)glutamine (FP-Gln)]...
December 2016: Journal of Fluorine Chemistry
Shun-Yu Huang, Cheong-Wei Chong, Yi Tung, Tzu-Chin Chen, Ki-Chi Wu, Min-Kai Lee, Jung-Chun-Andrew Huang, Z Li, H Qiu
In this study, we investigate the proximity effect in topological insulator (TI) and magnetic insulator bilayer system. (Bi1-xSbx)2Se3/CoFe2O4 (CFO) heterostructure was fabricated using molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition system respectively. As revealed from the magnetoresistance measurement, the weak anti-localization (WAL) is strongly suppressed by proximity effect in (Bi1-xSbx)2Se3/CFO interface. Modified Hikama-Larkin-Nagaoka equation was used to fit the WAL results so that the size of surface state gap can be extracted successfully...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiaoying Zhao, Chenglin Zhou, Xiaodan Zhang, Wang Li, Xinyu Wan, Yan Wang, Yuming Zeng, Wen Zhang
A human parechovirus (HPeV), CH-ZXY1, was detected in feces from a child with diarrhea. Phylogenetic trees over three different genomic regions revealed discordant topological structures. Recombination analysis indicates that CH-ZXY1 is a recombinant resulting from recombination between HPeV5 and HPeV1, which was confirmed by PCR covering the recombination breakpoint.
May 25, 2017: Genome Announcements
Fereshte Ghahari, Daniel Walkup, Christopher Gutiérrez, Joaquin F Rodriguez-Nieva, Yue Zhao, Jonathan Wyrick, Fabian D Natterer, William G Cullen, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Leonid S Levitov, Nikolai B Zhitenev, Joseph A Stroscio
The phase of a quantum state may not return to its original value after the system's parameters cycle around a closed path; instead, the wave function may acquire a measurable phase difference called the Berry phase. Berry phases typically have been accessed through interference experiments. Here, we demonstrate an unusual Berry phase-induced spectroscopic feature: a sudden and large increase in the energy of angular-momentum states in circular graphene p-n junction resonators when a relatively small critical magnetic field is reached...
May 26, 2017: Science
Toru Hirahara, Sergey V Eremeev, Tetsuroh Shirasawa, Yuma Okuyama, Takayuki Kubo, Ryosuke Nakanishi, Ryota Akiyama, Akari Takayama, Tetsuya Hajiri, Shinichiro Ideta, Masaharu Matsunami, Kazuki Sumida, Koji Miyamoto, Yasumasa Takagi, Kiyohisa Tanaka, Taichi Okuda, Toshihiko Yokoyama, Shin-Ichi Kimura, Shuji Hasegawa, Evgueni V Chulkov
Inducing magnetism into topological insulators is intriguing for utilizing exotic phenomena such as the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) for technological applications. While most studies have focused on doping magnetic impurities to open a gap at the surface-state Dirac point, many undesirable effects have been reported to appear in some cases that makes it difficult to determine whether the gap opening is due to the time-reversal symmetry breaking or not. Furthermore, the realization of the QAHE has been limited to low temperatures...
May 26, 2017: Nano Letters
Chong Jin, Ruiying Li, Rui Kang
Resilience, the ability to withstand disruptions and recover quickly, must be considered during system design because any disruption of the system may cause considerable loss, including economic and societal. This work develops analytic maximum flow-based resilience models for series and parallel systems using Zobel's resilience measure. The two analytic models can be used to evaluate quantitatively and compare the resilience of the systems with the corresponding performance structures. For systems with identical components, the resilience of the parallel system increases with increasing number of components, while the resilience remains constant in the series system...
2017: PloS One
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