keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Epigenetic modification

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637181/crosstalk-between-histone-modifications-indicates-that-inhibition-of-arginine-methyltransferase-carm1-activity-reverses-hiv-latency
#1
Zheng Zhang, Bryan C Nikolai, Leah A Gates, Sung Yun Jung, Edward B Siwak, Bin He, Andrew P Rice, Bert W O'Malley, Qin Feng
In eukaryotic cells, the gene expression status is strictly controlled by epigenetic modifications on chromatin. The repressive status of chromatin largely contributes to HIV latency. Studies have shown that modification of histone H3K27 acts as a key molecular switch for activation or suppression of many cellular genes. In this study, we found that K27-acetylated histone H3 specifically recruited Super Elongation Complex (SEC), the transcriptional elongation complex essential for HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-mediated and general cellular transcription...
June 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635355/aberrant-wnt-signaling-a-special-focus-in-cns-diseases
#2
Mercedes Arnés, Sergio Casas Tintó
Wnt signals regulate cell proliferation, migration and differentiation during development, as well as synaptic transmission and plasticity in the adult brain. Abnormal Wnt signaling is central to a number of brain pathologies. We review here, the significance of this pathway focused in the contribution of the most frequent alterations in receptors, secretable modulators and downstream targets in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Glioblastoma (GBM). β-catenin and GSK3 levels are pivotal in the neurodegeneration associated to AD contributing to memory deficits, tau phosphorylation, increased β-amyloid production and modulation of Apolipoprotein E in the brain...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634396/epigenetic-silencing-of-downstream-genes-mediated-by-tandem-orientation-in-lung-cancer
#3
Steffen Kiehl, Tobias Zimmermann, Rajkumar Savai, Soni S Pullamsetti, Werner Seeger, Marek Bartkuhn, Reinhard H Dammann
Epigenetic deregulation is of importance in tumorigenesis. In particular CpG islands (CGI), are frequently hypermethylated. Here, genome-wide DNA-methylation profiles of 480,000 CpGs in lung cancer cells were generated. It was observed that intra- and intergenic CGI exhibited higher methylation compared to normal cells. The functional annotation of hypermethylated CGI revealed that the hypermethylation was associated with homeobox domain genes and targets marked by repressive histone modifications. The strongest methylation variation was observed in transitional areas of CGI, termed shores...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634230/similarity-in-gene-regulatory-networks-suggests-that-cancer-cells-share-characteristics-of-embryonic-neural-cells
#4
Zan Zhang, Anhua Lei, Liyang Xu, Lu Chen, Yonglong Chen, Xuena Zhang, Yan Gao, Xiaoli Yang, Min Zhang, Ying Cao
Cancer cells are immature cells resulting from cellular reprogramming by gene misregulation, and re-differentiation is expected to reduce malignancy. It is unclear, however, whether cancer cells can undergo terminal differentiation. Here, we show that, inhibition of the epigenetic modification enzymes enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1 and 3, lysine demethylase 1A (LSD1), or DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), which all promote cancer development and progression, leads to postmitotic neuron-like differentiation with loss of malignant features in distinct solid cancer cell lines...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632820/the-nexus-of-stem-cell-derived-beta-cells-and-genome-engineering
#5
Sara D Sackett, Aida Rodriguez, Jon S Odorico
Diabetes, type 1 and type 2 (T1D and T2D), are diseases of epidemic proportions, which are complicated and defined by genetics, epigenetics, environment, and lifestyle choices. Current therapies consist of whole pancreas or islet transplantation. However, these approaches require life-time immunosuppression, and are compounded by the paucity of available donors. Pluripotent stem cells have advanced research in the fields of stem cell biology, drug development, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine, and importantly allows for the interrogation of therapeutic interventions...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631291/folate-deficiency-disturbs-hsa-let-7-g-level-through-methylation-regulation-in-neural-tube-defects
#6
Li Wang, Shaofang Shangguan, Yu Xin, Shaoyan Chang, Zhen Wang, Xiaolin Lu, Lihua Wu, Bo Niu, Ting Zhang
Folic acid deficiency during pregnancy is believed to be a high-risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). Disturbed epigenetic modifications, including miRNA regulation, have been linked to the pathogenesis of NTDs in those with folate deficiency. However, the mechanism by which folic acid-regulated miRNA influences this pathogenesis remains unclear. It is believed that DNA methylation is associated with dysregulated miRNA expression. To clarify this issue, here we measured the methylation changes of 22 miRNAs in 57 human NTD cases to explore whether such changes are involved in miRNA regulation in NTD cases through folate metabolism...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629775/8-oxo-7-8-dihydroguanine-friend-and-foe-epigenetic-like-regulator-versus-initiator-of-mutagenesis
#7
REVIEW
Aaron M Fleming, Cynthia J Burrows
A high flux of reactive oxygen species during oxidative stress results in oxidative modification of cellular components including DNA. Oxidative DNA "damage" to the heterocyclic bases is considered deleterious because polymerases may incorrectly read the modifications causing mutations. A prominent member in this class is the oxidized guanine base 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) that is moderately mutagenic effecting G→T transversion mutations. Recent reports have identified that formation of OG in G-rich regulatory elements in the promoters of the VEGF, TNFα, and SIRT1 genes can increase transcription via activation of the base excision repair (BER) pathway...
June 9, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629307/tumor-reversion-mesenchymal-epithelial-transition-as-a-critical-step-in-managing-the-tumor-microenvironment-cross-talk
#8
Mariano Bizzarri, Alessandra Cucina, Sara Proietti
Tumour reversion represents a promising field of investigation. The occurrence of cancer reversion both in vitro and in vivo has been ascertained by an increasing number of reports. The reverting process may be triggered in a wide range of different cancer types by both molecular and physical cues. This process encompasses mandatorily a change in the cell-stroma interactions, leading to profound modification in tissue architecture. Indeed, cancer reversion may be obtained by only resetting the overall burden of biophysical cues acting on the cell-stroma system, thus indicating that conformational changes induced by cell shape and cytoskeleton remodelling trigger downstream the cascade of molecular events required for phenotypic reversion...
June 8, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628672/low-dose-exposure-to-bisphenols-a-f-and-s-of-human-primary-adipocyte-impacts-coding-and-non-coding-rna-profiles
#9
Marie Verbanck, Mickaël Canouil, Audrey Leloire, Véronique Dhennin, Xavier Coumoul, Loïc Yengo, Philippe Froguel, Odile Poulain-Godefroy
Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been suspected to be associated with deleterious effects on health including obesity and metabolically-linked diseases. Although bisphenols F (BPF) and S (BPS) are BPA structural analogs commonly used in many marketed products as a replacement for BPA, only sparse toxicological data are available yet. Our objective was to comprehensively characterize bisphenols gene targets in a human primary adipocyte model, in order to determine whether they may induce cellular dysfunction, using chronic exposure at two concentrations: a "low-dose" similar to the dose usually encountered in human biological fluids and a higher dose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628013/modulation-of-antitumor-immune-response-in-mouse-prostate-cancer-model
#10
N Mitskevich, T Tsertsvadze, K Mchedlishvili, K Matchavariani, G Guruli
Aim of study - prostate cancer is second most common cancer in men worldwide, and fifth leading cause of death from cancer in men (6.6% of the total men deaths). Unfortunately, once cancer spreads outside of prostate, it becomes incurable. Androgen deprivation can provide some relief, but resistance will develop eventually, and at that time no effective treatment options are left to the patient. Therefore, the search of alternative treatment modalities is paramount. In this article we evaluated the role of epigenetic modifier 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) and immunomodulator - Lenalidomide and their possible impact on the immune response in the murine prostate cancer model...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626565/site-specific-azide-acetyllysine-photochemistry-on-epigenetic-readers-for-interactome-profiling
#11
Babu Sudhamalla, Debasis Dey, Megan Breski, Tiffany Nguyen, Kabirul Islam
Chemical modifications on DNA, RNA and histones are recognized by an array of 'reader' modules to regulate transcriptional programming and cell fate. However, identification of reader-specific interacting partners in a dynamic cellular environment remains a significant challenge. Herein, we report a chemoproteomic approach termed 'interaction-based protein profiling' (IBPP) to characterize novel interacting partners of potentially any reader protein. IBPP harnesses a photosensitive amino acid introduced into the hydrophobic pocket of a reader module to crosslink and enrich transient interacting partners that are inaccessible to traditional methods...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626222/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-renal-ageing
#12
REVIEW
Paul G Shiels, Dagmara McGuinness, Maria Eriksson, Jeroen P Kooman, Peter Stenvinkel
An ability to separate natural ageing processes from processes specific to morbidities is required to understand the heterogeneity of age-related organ dysfunction. Mechanistic insight into how epigenetic factors regulate ageing throughout the life course, linked to a decline in renal function with ageing, is already proving to be of value in the analyses of clinical and epidemiological cohorts. Noncoding RNAs provide epigenetic regulatory circuits within the kidney, which reciprocally interact with DNA methylation processes, histone modification and chromatin...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625020/methylation-of-the-ribosomal-rna-gene-promoter-is-associated-with-aging-and-age-related-decline
#13
Patrizia D'Aquila, Alberto Montesanto, Maurizio Mandalà, Sabrina Garasto, Vincenzo Mari, Andrea Corsonello, Dina Bellizzi, Giuseppe Passarino
The transcription of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) is subject to epigenetic regulation, as it is abrogated by the methylation of CpG dinucleotides within their promoter region. Here, we investigated, through Sequenom platform, the age-related methylation status of the CpG island falling into the rDNA promoter in 472 blood samples from 20- to 105-year-old humans and in different tissues (blood, heart, liver, kidney, and testis) of 15 rats 3-96 weeks old. In humans, we did not find a consistently significant correlation between CpG site methylation and chronological age...
June 17, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624514/bromodomain-containing-proteins-in-prostate-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Alfonso Urbanucci, Ian G Mills
Several oncogenic factors have been involved in prostate cancer progression. However, therapeutic approaches still focus on suppression of androgen receptor (AR) signaling. In fact, whereas the full-length AR incorporates a ligand-binding domain, which has become a drug target for competitive inhibitors, other transcription factors often do not have tractable binding pockets that aid drug development. Consequently drug development efforts have turned to transcription co-regulators, often chromatin-modifying enzymes or factors that bind to epigenetic modifications to chromatin...
June 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624296/a-refined-dna-methylation-detection-method-using-mspji-coupled-quantitative-pcr
#15
Christopher J Petell, Gilbert Loiseau, Ryan Gandy, Sriharsa Pradhan, Humaira Gowher
DNA methylation is a highly conserved epigenetic modification with critical roles ranging from protection against phage infection in bacteria to the regulation of gene expression in mammals. DNA methylation at specific sequences can be measured by using methylation dependent or sensitive restriction enzymes coupled to semi- or quantitative PCR (MD-qPCR). This study reports a refined MD-qPCR method for detecting gain or loss of DNA methylation at specific sites through the specific use of MspJI or HpaII, respectively...
June 14, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623912/role-of-epigenetics-microrna-axis-in-drug-resistance-of-multiple-myeloma
#16
REVIEW
Nasrin Rastgoo, Jahangir Abdi, Jian Hou, Hong Chang
Despite administration of novel therapies, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable with resistance to drugs leading to relapse in most patients. Thus, it is critical to understand the detailed mechanisms underlying the drug resistance of MM and develop more effective therapeutic strategies. Genetic abnormalities are well known to play a central role in MM pathogenesis and therapy resistance; however, epigenetic aberrations mainly affecting the patterns of DNA methylation/histone modifications of genes (especially tumor suppressors) and miRNAs have also been shown to be involved...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623160/basic-concepts-in-molecular-biology-related-to-genetics-and-epigenetics
#17
Dolores Corella, Jose M Ordovas
The observation that "one size does not fit all" for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, among other diseases, has driven the concept of precision medicine. The goal of precision medicine is to provide the best-targeted interventions tailored to an individual's genome. The human genome is composed of billions of sequence arrangements containing a code that controls how genes are expressed. This code depends on other nonstatic regulators that surround the DNA and constitute the epigenome...
June 13, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623138/hp1%C3%AE-is-highly-expressed-in-glioma-cells-and-facilitates-cell-proliferation-and-survival
#18
Xianliang Lai, Zhifeng Deng, Hua Guo, Xingen Zhu, Wei Tu
Epigenetic alteration plays critical roles in gliomagenesis by regulating gene expression through modifications of Histones and DNA. Trimethylation of H3K9, an essential repressed transcription mark, and one of its methyltransferase, SUV39H1, are implicated in glioma pathogenesis and progression. We find that the protein level of HP1α, a reader of H3K9me3 is elevated in cultured glioma cell lines and glioma tissues. H3K9me3 is also upregulated. Depletion of HP1α and SUV39H1 weakens glioma cell proliferation capacity and results in apoptosis of cells...
June 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622973/maternal-programming-of-sex-specific-responses-to-predator-odor-stress-in-adult-rats
#19
Sophie St-Cyr, Sameera Abuaish, Shathveekan Sivanathan, Patrick O McGowan
Prenatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term adaptations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. This study tested the long-lasting effect of prenatal exposure to predator odor, an ethologically relevant and psychogenic stressor, in the second half of pregnancy. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anxiety-like behaviors in commonly used laboratory tasks assessing novelty-induced anxiety, increased defensive behavior in males and increased ACTH stress reactivity in females in response to predator odor...
June 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621576/tethering-of-lsh-at-the-oct4-locus-promotes-gene-repression-associated-with-epigenetic-changes
#20
Jianke Ren, Nathaniel A Hathaway, Gerald R Crabtree, Kathrin Muegge
Lsh is a chromatin remodeling factor that regulates DNA methylation and chromatin function in mammals. The dynamics of these chromatin changes and whether they are directly controlled by Lsh remain unclear. To understand the molecular mechanisms of Lsh chromatin controlled regulation of gene expression, we established a tethering system that recruits a Gal4-Lsh fusion protein to an engineered Oct4 locus through Gal4 binding sites in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. We examined the molecular epigenetic events induced by Lsh binding including: histone modification, DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility to determine nucleosome occupancy before and after embryonic stem cell differentiation...
June 16, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
keyword
keyword
32456
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"