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Epigenetic modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212444/sumo-modification-of-a-heterochromatin-histone-demethylase-jmjd2a-enables-viral-gene-transactivation-and-viral-replication
#1
Wan-Shan Yang, Mel Campbell, Pei-Ching Chang
Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification of chromatin has profound effects on transcription regulation. By using Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) as a model, we recently demonstrated that epigenetic modification of viral chromatin by SUMO-2/3 is involved in regulating gene expression and viral reactivation. However, how this modification orchestrates transcription reprogramming through targeting histone modifying enzymes remains largely unknown. Here we show that JMJD2A, the first identified Jumonji C domain-containing histone demethylase, is the histone demethylase responsible for SUMO-2/3 enrichment on the KSHV genome during viral reactivation...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212305/epigenetic-landscape-during-coronavirus-infection
#2
Alexandra Schäfer, Ralph S Baric
Coronaviruses (CoV) comprise a large group of emerging human and animal pathogens, including the highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) strains. The molecular mechanisms regulating emerging coronavirus pathogenesis are complex and include virus-host interactions associated with entry, replication, egress and innate immune control. Epigenetics research investigates the genetic and non-genetic factors that regulate phenotypic variation, usually caused by external and environmental factors that alter host expression patterns and performance without any change in the underlying genotype...
February 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211918/myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-patient-derived-ipscs-for-the-investigation-of-ctg-repeat-instability
#3
Junko Ueki, Masayuki Nakamori, Masahiro Nakamura, Misato Nishikawa, Yoshinori Yoshida, Azusa Tanaka, Asuka Morizane, Masayoshi Kamon, Toshiyuki Araki, Masanori P Takahashi, Akira Watanabe, Nobuya Inagaki, Hidetoshi Sakurai
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal-dominant multi-system disease caused by expanded CTG repeats in dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK). The expanded CTG repeats are unstable and can increase the length of the gene with age, which worsens the symptoms. In order to establish a human stem cell system suitable for the investigation of repeat instability, DM1 patient-derived iPSCs were generated and differentiated into three cell types commonly affected in DM1, namely cardiomyocytes, neurons and myocytes...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211484/regulation-of-mrna-splicing-by-mecp2-via-epigenetic-modifications-in-the-brain
#4
Tian-Lin Cheng, Jingqi Chen, Huida Wan, Bin Tang, Weidong Tian, Lujian Liao, Zilong Qiu
Mutations of X-linked gene Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) are the major causes of Rett syndrome (RTT), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Duplications of MECP2-containing genomic segments lead to severe autistic symptoms in human. MECP2-coding protein methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is involved in transcription regulation, microRNA processing and mRNA splicing. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of MeCP2 in mRNA splicing in neurons remain largely elusive. In this work we found that the majority of MeCP2-associated proteins are involved in mRNA splicing using mass spectrometry analysis with multiple samples from Mecp2-null rat brain, mouse primary neuron and human cell lines...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210913/dietary-and-commercialized-fructose-sweet-or-sour
#5
REVIEW
Aslihan Yerlikaya, Tuncay Dagel, Christopher King, Masanari Kubawara, Miguel A Lanaspa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Adrian Covic, Jacek Manitius, Alan A Sag, Mehmet Kanbay
Metabolic syndrome and diabetes are main health problems of modern life in the twenty-first century. Alarming ratios of global prevalence lead to conduct more and more researches about etiological factors and pathogenesis. Disease mechanism is elementary for advancing more efficient and practicable treatment methods. Concurrent increase in both fructose consumption with Western diet and metabolic syndrome has revealed fructose hypothesis that suggests fructose as one of etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, etc...
February 16, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210782/toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-stages-of-addiction
#6
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman, Ryan P Vetreno
BACKGROUND: Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. AIM: This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e...
February 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209842/phosphorylation-of-sporocyteless-nozzle-by-the-mpk3-6-kinase-is-required-for-anther-development
#7
Feng Zhao, Ya-Feng Zheng, Ting Zeng, Rui Sun, Ji-Yuan Yang, Yuan Li, Dongtao Ren, Hong Ma, Zhi-Hong Xu, Shu-Nong Bai
Germ cells are indispensable carriers of genetic information from one generation to the next. In contrast to the well-understood process in animals, information on the mechanism of germ cell initiation in plants is very limited. SPOROCYTELESS/NOZZLE (SPL/NZZ) was previously identified as an essential regulator of diploid germ cell (archesporial cell) differentiation in the stamens and ovules of Arabidopsis thaliana. Although SPL transcription is activated by the floral organ identity regulator AGAMOUS (AG) and epigenetically regulated by SET DOMAIN GROUP2 (SDG2), little is known about the regulation of the SPL protein...
February 16, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209718/demethylation-of-h3k27-is-essential-for-the-induction-of-direct-cardiac-reprogramming-by-mir-combo
#8
Sophie Dal-Pra, Conrad P Hodgkinson, Maria Mirotsou, Imke Kirste, Victor J Dzau
Rationale: Direct reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts to cardac omyocytes has recently emerged as a novel and promising approach to regenerate the injured myocardium. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of this approach in vitro and in vivo using a combination of four microRNAs (miR-1, miR-133, miR-208 and miR-499) that we named miR combo. However, the mechanism of miR combo mediated direct cardiac reprogramming is currently unknown. Objective: Here we investigated the possibility that miR combo initiated direct cardiac reprogramming through an epigenetic mechanism...
February 16, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209164/rnf40-regulates-gene-expression-in-an-epigenetic-context-dependent-manner
#9
Wanhua Xie, Sankari Nagarajan, Simon J Baumgart, Robyn Laura Kosinsky, Zeynab Najafova, Vijayalakshmi Kari, Magali Hennion, Daniela Indenbirken, Stefan Bonn, Adam Grundhoff, Florian Wegwitz, Ahmed Mansouri, Steven A Johnsen
BACKGROUND: Monoubiquitination of H2B (H2Bub1) is a largely enigmatic histone modification that has been linked to transcriptional elongation. Because of this association, it has been commonly assumed that H2Bub1 is an exclusively positively acting histone modification and that increased H2Bub1 occupancy correlates with increased gene expression. In contrast, depletion of the H2B ubiquitin ligases RNF20 or RNF40 alters the expression of only a subset of genes. RESULTS: Using conditional Rnf40 knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts, we show that genes occupied by low to moderate amounts of H2Bub1 are selectively regulated in response to Rnf40 deletion, whereas genes marked by high levels of H2Bub1 are mostly unaffected by Rnf40 loss...
February 16, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208656/primetime-for-learning-genes
#10
REVIEW
Joyce Keifer
Learning genes in mature neurons are uniquely suited to respond rapidly to specific environmental stimuli. Expression of individual learning genes, therefore, requires regulatory mechanisms that have the flexibility to respond with transcriptional activation or repression to select appropriate physiological and behavioral responses. Among the mechanisms that equip genes to respond adaptively are bivalent domains. These are specific histone modifications localized to gene promoters that are characteristic of both gene activation and repression, and have been studied primarily for developmental genes in embryonic stem cells...
February 11, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203606/dna-methylation-in-oligodendroglial-cells-during-developmental-myelination-and-in-disease
#11
Sarah Moyon, Patrizia Casaccia
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS). During development, they differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes (OL) and ensheath axons, providing trophic and functional support to the neurons. This process is regulated by the dynamic expression of specific transcription factors, which, in turn, is controlled by epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation. Here we discuss recent findings showing that DNA methylation levels are differentially regulated in the oligodendrocyte lineage during developmental myelination, affecting both genes expression and alternative splicing events...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202850/hypermethylation-of-the-n-myc-downstream-regulated-gene-2-promoter-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-is-associated-with-liver-fibrosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#12
Xin-Yuan Liu, Yu-Chen Fan, Shuai Gao, Jing Zhao, Feng Li, Jun Zhang, Kai Wang
DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic modification to regulate gene expression. N-Myc downstream-regulated gene (NDRG) 2 is a cytoplasmic protein and participates in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. In this study, the mRNA expression and methylation status of NDRG2 was evaluated in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The study included 143 CHB patients and 65 normal controls (NC). The mRNA expression of NDRG2 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202678/stress-induced-o-glcnacylation-an-adaptive-process-of-injured-cells
#13
REVIEW
Marissa R Martinez, Thiago Braido Dias, Peter S Natov, Natasha E Zachara
In the 30 years, since the discovery of nucleocytoplasmic glycosylation, O-GlcNAc has been implicated in regulating cellular processes as diverse as protein folding, localization, degradation, activity, post-translational modifications, and interactions. The cell co-ordinates these molecular events, on thousands of cellular proteins, in concert with environmental and physiological cues to fine-tune epigenetics, transcription, translation, signal transduction, cell cycle, and metabolism. The cellular stress response is no exception: diverse forms of injury result in dynamic changes to the O-GlcNAc subproteome that promote survival...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202597/histone-lysine-to-methionine-mutations-reduce-histone-methylation-and-cause-developmental-pleiotropy
#14
Dean Sanders, Shuiming Qian, Rachael Fieweger, Li Lu, James A Dowell, John M Denu, Xuehua Zhong
Epigenetic modifications play critical roles in diverse biological processes. Histone lysine to methionine (K-to-M) mutations act as gain-of-function mutations to inhibit a wide range of histone methyltransferases and are thought to promote tumorigenesis. However, it is largely unknown whether K-to-M mutations impact development at the whole organismal level. Using Arabidopsis as a model system, we discovered that a transgene exogenously expressing histone 3 lysine 36 to methionine mutation (K36M) acts in a dominant negative manner to cause global reduction of H3K36 methylation...
February 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202544/cdc15-phosphorylates-carboxy-terminal-domain-of-rna-polymerase-ii-for-transcription-during-mitosis
#15
Amit Kumar Singh, Shivangi Rastogi, Harish Shukla, Mohd Asalam, Srikanta Kumar Rath, Md Sohail Akhtar
In eukaryotes, the basal transcription in interphase is orchestrated through the regulation by kinases (Kin28, Bur1 and Ctk1) and phosphatases (Ssu72, Rtr1 and Fcp1) which act through the post-translational modification of CTD (carboxy terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA Polymerase II). The CTD comprises of repeated Tyr1Ser2Pro3Thr4Ser5Pro6Ser7 motif with potential epigenetic modification sites. Despite the observation of transcription and periodic expression of genes during mitosis with entailing CTD phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, the associated CTD specific kinase/s and its role in transcription remains unknown...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202385/long-term-consequences-of-disrupting-adenosine-signaling-during-embryonic-development
#16
REVIEW
Scott A Rivkees, Christopher C Wendler
There is growing evidence that disruption in the prenatal environment can have long-lasting effects on an individual's health in adulthood. Research on the fetal programming of adult diseases, including cardiovascular disease, focuses on epi-mutations, which alter the normal pattern of epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation, miRNA expression, or chromatin modification, rather than traditional genetic alteration. Thus, understanding how in utero chemical exposures alter epigenetics and lead to adult disease is of considerable public health concern...
February 12, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199384/basic-studies-on-epigenetic-carcinogenesis-of-low-dose-exposure-to-1-trichloromethyl-1-2-3-4-tetrahydro-%C3%AE-carboline-taclo-in-vitro
#17
Renjie Wang, Yi Cui, Yi Xu, Joseph Irudayaraj
1-Trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline (TaClo) has been widely studied as a neurotoxic substance, however, only few reports have explored its effect on carcinogenicity. Since the aberrant modification of DNA methylation occurs very early in almost all human cancers, the focus of this study is to assess the carcinogenicity of TaClo by characterizing alterations of the epigenetic state, specifically, DNA methylation, upon exposure to TaClo in a HEK 293 model cell line. Our results suggest that TaClo could induce global DNA hypomethylation and transcriptional repression of critical tumor suppressor genes by increasing their promoter methylation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199203/neurogenetics-of-acute-and-chronic-opiate-opioid-abstinence-treating-symptoms-and-the-cause
#18
Kenneth Blum, Mark S Gold, William Jacobs, William Vaughn McCall, Marcelo Febo, David Baron, Kristina Dushaj, Zsolt Demetrovics, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
This review begins with a comprehensive history of opioid dependence and treatment in the United States. The focus is an evidence-based treatment model for opioid/opiate dependent individuals. The role of reward genetic polymorphisms and the epigenetic modifications that lead to vulnerability to use and misuse of opiates/opioid to treat pain are reviewed. The neurochemical mechanisms of acute opiate withdrawal and opiate/opioid reward mechanisms are explored with a goal of identifying specific treatment targets...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199194/regulation-of-mitochondrial-gene-expression-the-epigenetic-enigma
#19
Archibold Mposhi, Monique Gp Van der Wijst, Klaas Nico Faber, Marianne G Rots
Epigenetics provides an important layer of information on top of the DNA sequence and is essential for establishing gene expression profiles. Extensive studies have shown that nuclear DNA methylation and histone modifications influence nuclear gene expression. However, it remains unclear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) undergoes similar epigenetic changes to regulate mitochondrial gene expression. Recently, it has been shown that mtDNA is differentially methylated in various diseases such as diabetes and colorectal cancer...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198667/pan-cancer-analysis-of-frequent-dna-co-methylation-patterns-reveals-consistent-epigenetic-landscape-changes-in-multiple-cancers
#20
Jie Zhang, Kun Huang
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is the major form of epigenetic modifications through which the cell regulates the gene expression and silencing. There have been extensive studies on the roles of DNA methylation in cancers, and several cancer drugs were developed targeting this process. However, DNA co-methylation cluster has not been examined in depth, and co-methylation in multiple cancer types has never been studied previously. RESULTS: In this study, we applied newly developed lmQCM algorithm to mine co-methylation clusters using methylome data from 11 cancer types in TCGA database, and found frequent co-methylated gene clusters exist in these cancer types...
January 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
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