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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918563/development-and-validation-of-immortalized-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cell-line-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-the-study-of-mammary-gland-functions
#1
Ji-Xia Li, Abdelrahman Said, Xiu-Guo Ge, Wenxiu Wang, Yong Zhang, Tianming Jin
This study aimed to develop a bovine mammary epithelial (BME) cell line model, which provides a possibility to determine functional properties of the bovine mammary gland. The primary cell culture was derived from bovine mammary gland tissues and processed enzymatically to obtain cell colonies with epithelial-like morphology. The cultures of BME cells were purified and optimally cultured at 37 °C in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The BME cells were identified as epithelial cell line by the evaluating the expression of keratin-18 using immunofluorescence staining...
September 16, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918392/cnvs-affecting-cancer-predisposing-genes-cpgs-detected-as-incidental-findings-in-routine-germline-diagnostic-chromosomal-microarray-cma-testing
#2
Josie Innes, Lisa Reali, Jill Clayton-Smith, Georgina Hall, Derek Hk Lim, George J Burghel, Kim French, Unzela Khan, Daniel Walker, Fiona Lalloo, D Gareth R Evans, Dominic McMullan, Eamonn R Maher, Emma R Woodward
BACKGROUND: Identification of CNVs through chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing is the first-line investigation in individuals with learning difficulties/congenital abnormalities. Although recognised that CMA testing may identify CNVs encompassing a cancer predisposition gene (CPG), limited information is available on the frequency and nature of such results. METHODS: We investigated CNV gains and losses affecting 39 CPGs in 3366 pilot index case individuals undergoing CMA testing, and then studied an extended cohort (n=10 454) for CNV losses at 105 CPGs and CNV gains at 9 proto-oncogenes implicated in inherited cancer susceptibility...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918043/mir-206-133b-cluster-a-weapon-against-lung-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Jing-Yu Pan, Cheng-Cao Sun, Zhuo-Yue Bi, Zhen-Long Chen, Shu-Jun Li, Qing-Qun Li, Yu-Xuan Wang, Yong-Yi Bi, De-Jia Li
Lung cancer is a deadly disease that ends numerous lives around the world. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs involved in a variety of biological processes, such as cell growth, organ development, and tumorigenesis. The miR-206/133b cluster is located on the human chromosome 6p12.2, which is essential for growth and rebuilding of skeletal muscle. The miR-206/133b cluster has been verified to be dysregulated and plays a crucial role in lung cancer. miR-206 and miR-133b participate in lung tumor cell apoptosis, proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, drug resistance, and cancer treatment...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918012/gene-editing-with-helper-dependent-adenovirus-can-efficiently-introduce-multiple-changes-simultaneously-over-a-large-genomic-region
#4
Donna J Palmer, Nathan C Grove, Dustin L Turner, Philip Ng
Helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAds) possess long homology arms that mediate high-efficiency gene editing. These long homology arms may permit simultaneous introduction of multiple modifications into a large genomic region or may permit a single HDAd to correct many different individual mutations spread widely across a gene. We investigated this important potential using an HDAd bearing 13 genetic markers in the region of homology to the target CFTR locus in human iPSCs and found that all markers can be simultaneously introduced into the target locus, with the two farthest markers being 22...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917590/karyotype-stability-and-unbiased-fractionation-in-the-paleo-allotetraploid-cucurbita-genomes
#5
Honghe Sun, Shan Wu, Guoyu Zhang, Chen Jiao, Shaogui Guo, Yi Ren, Jie Zhang, Haiying Zhang, Guoyi Gong, Zhangcai Jia, Fan Zhang, Jiaxing Tian, William J Lucas, Jeff J Doyle, Haizhen Li, Zhangjun Fei, Yong Xu
The Cucurbita genus contains several economically important species in the Cucurbitaceae family. Here we report high-quality genome sequences of C. maxima and C. moschata and provide evidence supporting an allotetraploidization event in Cucurbita. We are able to partition the genome into two homoeologous subgenomes based on different genetic distances to melon, cucumber and watermelon in the Benincaseae tribe. We estimate that the two diploid progenitors successively diverged from Benincaseae around 31 and 26 million years ago (Mya), and the allotetraploidization happened at some point between 26 Mya and 3 Mya, the estimated date when C...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917518/genome-stability-of-programmed-stem-cell-products
#6
REVIEW
Ulrich Martin
Inherited and acquired genomic abnormalities are known to cause genetic diseases and contribute to cancer formation. Recent studies demonstrated a substantial mutational load in mouse and human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs and iPSCs). Single nucleotide variants, copy number variations, and larger chromosomal abnormalities may influence the differentiation capacity of pluripotent stem cells and the functionality of their derivatives in disease modelling and drug screening, and are considered a serious risk for cellular therapies based on ESC or iPSC derivatives...
September 13, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917435/measurement-of-micronuclei-and-internal-dose-in-mice-demonstrates-that-3-monochloropropane-1-2-diol-3-mcpd-has-no-genotoxic-potency-in-vivo
#7
Jenny Aasa, Margareta Törnqvist, Lilianne Abramsson-Zetterberg
In this study 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), a compound that appears as contaminant in refined cooking oils, has been studied with regard to genotoxicity in vivo (mice) with simultaneous measurement of internal dose using state-of-the-art methodologies. Genotoxicity (chromosomal aberrations) was measured by flow cytometry with dual lasers as the frequency of micronuclei in erythrocytes in peripheral blood from BalbC mice intraperitoneally exposed to 3-MCPD (0, 50, 75, 100, 125 mg/kg). The internal doses of 3-MCPD in the mice were calculated from N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-valine adducts to hemoglobin (Hb), quantified at very low levels by high-resolution mass spectrometry...
September 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917158/quantitative-trait-locus-mapping-in-mice-identifies-phospholipase-pla2g12a-as-novel-atherosclerosis-modifier
#8
Alexandros Nicolaou, Bernd H Northoff, Kristina Sass, Jana Ernst, Alexander Kohlmaier, Knut Krohn, Christian Wolfrum, Daniel Teupser, Lesca M Holdt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In a previous work, a female-specific atherosclerosis risk locus on chromosome (Chr) 3 was identified in an intercross of atherosclerosis-resistant FVB and atherosclerosis-susceptible C57BL/6 (B6) mice on the LDL-receptor deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) background. It was the aim of the current study to identify causative genes at this locus. METHODS: We established a congenic mouse model, where FVB.Chr3(B6/B6) mice carried an 80 Mb interval of distal Chr3 on an otherwise FVB...
September 4, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916913/centromeric-enrichment-of-line-1-retrotransposons-and-its-significance-for-the-chromosome-evolution-of-phyllostomid-bats
#9
Cibele Gomes de Sotero-Caio, Diogo Cavalcanti Cabral-de-Mello, Merilane da Silva Calixto, Guilherme Targino Valente, Cesar Martins, Vilma Loreto, Maria José de Souza, Neide Santos
Despite their ubiquitous incidence, little is known about the chromosomal distribution of long interspersed elements (LINEs) in mammalian genomes. Phyllostomid bats, characterized by lineages with distinct trends of chromosomal evolution coupled with remarkable ecological and taxonomic diversity, represent good models to understand how these repetitive sequences contribute to the evolution of genome architecture and its link to lineage diversification. To test the hypothesis that LINE-1 sequences were important modifiers of bat genome architecture, we characterized the distribution of LINE-1-derived sequences on genomes of 13 phyllostomid species within a phylogenetic framework...
September 15, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916874/development-of-cacta-transposon-derived-scar-markers-and-their-use-in-population-structure-analysis-in-zea-mays
#10
Neha Samir Roy, Kyong-Cheul Park, Sung-Il Lee, Min-Ji Im, Rahul Vasudeo Ramekar, Nam-Soo Kim
Molecular marker technologies have proven to be an important breakthrough for genetic studies, construction of linkage maps and population genetics analysis. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute major fractions of repetitive sequences in plants and offer a wide range of possible areas to be explored as molecular markers. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker development provides us with a simple and time saving alternative approach for marker development. We employed the CACTA-TD to develop SCARs and then integrated them into linkage map and used them for population structure and genetic diversity analysis of corn inbred population...
September 15, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916873/effects-of-methotrexate-on-the-quality-of-oocyte-maturation-in-vitro
#11
N Tian, J Yu, Sh Zhang, W Y Ma, T Wang, Y M Wang
Methotrexate (MTX), an antifolate drug, is widely used for clinical treatment of malignancies and ectopic pregnancy. Many studies have documented that MTX has strong side-effects on rapidly dividing somatic cells. However, its side-effects on female reproductive cells have not been widely reported. Combined with in vitro culture, two-photon fluorescence imaging and three-dimensional reconstruction, this study analyzed the effects of MTX on oocyte maturation time, chromosome arrangement, karyotype, spindle morphology, and the localization of microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs)...
September 15, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916791/genomic-structure-and-evolution-of-the-mating-type-locus-in-the-green-seaweed-ulva-partita
#12
Tomokazu Yamazaki, Kensuke Ichihara, Ryogo Suzuki, Kenshiro Oshima, Shinichi Miyamura, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Atsushi Toyoda, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Masahira Hattori, Shigeyuki Kawano
The evolution of sex chromosomes and mating loci in organisms with UV systems of sex/mating type determination in haploid phases via genes on UV chromosomes is not well understood. We report the structure of the mating type (MT) locus and its evolutionary history in the green seaweed Ulva partita, which is a multicellular organism with an isomorphic haploid-diploid life cycle and mating type determination in the haploid phase. Comprehensive comparison of a total of 12.0 and 16.6 Gb of genomic next-generation sequencing data for mt(-) and mt(+) strains identified highly rearranged MT loci of 1...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916711/comparative-analysis-of-three-dimensional-chromosomal-architecture-identifies-a-novel-fetal-hemoglobin-regulatory-element
#13
Peng Huang, Cheryl A Keller, Belinda Giardine, Jeremy D Grevet, James O J Davies, Jim R Hughes, Ryo Kurita, Yukio Nakamura, Ross C Hardison, Gerd A Blobel
Chromatin structure is tightly intertwined with transcription regulation. Here we compared the chromosomal architectures of fetal and adult human erythroblasts and found that, globally, chromatin structures and compartments A/B are highly similar at both developmental stages. At a finer scale, we detected distinct folding patterns at the developmentally controlled β-globin locus. Specifically, new fetal stage-specific contacts were uncovered between a region separating the fetal (γ) and adult (δ and β) globin genes (encompassing the HBBP1 and BGLT3 noncoding genes) and two distal chromosomal sites (HS5 and 3'HS1) that flank the locus...
September 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916647/the-effect-of-common-inversion-polymorphisms-in-2l-t-and-in-3r-mo-on-patterns-of-transcriptional-variation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Erik Lavington, Andrew D Kern
Chromosomal inversions are an ubiquitous feature of genetic variation. Theoretical models describe several mechanisms by which inversions can drive adaptation and be maintained as polymorphisms. While inversions have been shown previously to be under selection, or contain genetic variation under selection, the specific phenotypic consequences of inversions leading to their maintenance remain unclear. Here we use genomic sequence and expression data from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel to explore the effects of two cosmopolitan inversions, In(2L)t and In(3R)Mo, on patterns of transcriptional variation...
September 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916533/sex-differences-in-the-prevalence-of-genetic-mutations-in-ftd-and-als-a-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Ashley F Curtis, Mario Masellis, Ging-Yuek Robin Hsiung, Rahim Moineddin, Kathy Zhang, Bonnie Au, Geneva Millett, Ian Mackenzie, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Mary C Tierney
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis that investigates sex differences in the prevalence of mutations in the 3 most common genes that cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72), progranulin (GRN), or microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT)-in patients clinically diagnosed with these conditions. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched (inception to June 30, 2016)...
September 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916321/analysis-of-resistance-genes-in-pan-resistant-myroides-odoratimimus-clinical-strain-pr63039-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#16
Desong Ming, Qing-Qing Chen, Xiao-Tin Chen
To clarify the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Myroides odoratimimus, pan-resistant M. odoratimimus strain PR63039 was isolated and its genome sequenced and analyzed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and the Phoenix-100 Automated Microbiology System with a NMIC/ID-4 panel including aminoglycosides, β-lactams, polypeptides, quinolones, sulfonamides, chloramphenicols, and tetracyclines. Single-molecule real-time whole genome sequencing was conducted using the PacBio RSII system, and genome annotation was performed using RAST and IMG ER...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915793/the-cacao-criollo-genome-v2-0-an-improved-version-of-the-genome-for-genetic-and-functional-genomic-studies
#17
X Argout, G Martin, G Droc, O Fouet, K Labadie, E Rivals, J M Aury, C Lanaud
BACKGROUND: Theobroma cacao L., native to the Amazonian basin of South America, is an economically important fruit tree crop for tropical countries as a source of chocolate. The first draft genome of the species, from a Criollo cultivar, was published in 2011. Although a useful resource, some improvements are possible, including identifying misassemblies, reducing the number of scaffolds and gaps, and anchoring un-anchored sequences to the 10 chromosomes. METHODS: We used a NGS-based approach to significantly improve the assembly of the Belizian Criollo B97-61/B2 genome...
September 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915715/epigenetic-regulation-during-the-differentiation-of-stem-cells-to-germ-cells
#18
REVIEW
Yuan-Chao Sun, Yong-Yong Wang, Wei Ge, Shun-Feng Cheng, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen
Gametogenesis is an essential process to ensure the transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next. It also provides a mechanism by which genetic evolution can take place. Although the genome of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is exactly the same with somatic cells within an organism, there are significant differences between their developments. For example, PGCs eventually undergo meiosis to become functional haploid gametes, and prior to that they undergo epigenetic imprinting which greatly alter their genetic regulation...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915660/mass-spectrometry-based-assay-for-the-molecular-diagnosis-of-glioma-concomitant-detection-of-chromosome-1p-19q-codeletion-and-idh1-idh2-and-tert-mutation-status
#19
Chiara Pesenti, Leda Paganini, Laura Fontana, Emanuela Veniani, Letterio Runza, Stefano Ferrero, Silvano Bosari, Maura Menghi, Giovanni Marfia, Manuela Caroli, Rosamaria Silipigni, Silvana Guerneri, Silvia Tabano, Monica Miozzo
The World Health Organization recently revised the diagnosis of glioma, to integrate molecular parameters, including IDH mutations and codeletion (loss of heterozygosity; LOH) of chromosome arms 1p/19q, into the definitions of adult glioma histological subtypes. Mutations in the TERT promoter may also be useful for glioma diagnosis and prognosis. The integration of molecular markers into routine diagnosis requires their rapid and reliable assessment. We propose a MassARRAY (MS)-based test that can identify 1p/19q codeletion using quantitative SNP genotyping and, simultaneously, characterize hotspot mutations in the IDH1, IDH2, and TERT genes in tumor DNA...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915648/synergistic-suppression-of-t-8-21-positive-leukemia-cell-growth-by-combining-oridonin-and-mapk1-erk2-inhibitors
#20
Pavel Spirin, Timofey Lebedev, Natalia Orlova, Alexey Morozov, Nadezhda Poymenova, Sergey E Dmitriev, Anton Buzdin, Carol Stocking, Olga Kovalchuk, Vladimir Prassolov
One of the most common chromosomal translocations in acute myeloid leukemia is t(8;21)(q22;q22), which results in the appearance of abnormal transcripts encoding for the fusion protein RUNX1-ETO. Therefore, this oncoprotein is considered to be a pertinent and promising target for treating t(8;21) leukemia. Previously, we have shown that downregulation of RUNX1-ETO leads to activation of intracellular signaling pathways enhancing cell survival and determined that the protein ERK2 can mediate activation of most of these pathways...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
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