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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215025/analysis-of-the-genetic-architecture-of-maize-ear-and-grain-morphological-traits-by-combined-linkage-and-association-mapping
#1
Chaoshu Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Hongjun Yong, Xiaochong Zhang, Zhuanfang Hao, Fangjun Zhang, Mingshun Li, Degui Zhang, Xinhai Li, Zhenhua Wang, Jianfeng Weng
Using combined linkage and association mapping, 26 stable QTL and six stable SNPs were detected across multiple environments for eight ear and grain morphological traits in maize. One QTL, PKS2, might play an important role in maize yield improvement. In the present study, one bi-parental population and an association panel were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for eight ear and grain morphological traits. A total of 108 QTL related to these traits were detected across four environments using an ultra-high density bin map constructed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Ye478 and Qi319, and 26 QTL were identified in more than two environments...
February 18, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214878/mirna-26a-contributes-to-the-acquisition-of-malignant-behaviors-of-doctaxel-resistant-lung-adenocarcinoma-cells-through-targeting-ezh2
#2
Jing Chen, Yuejuan Xu, Leilei Tao, Yan Pan, Kai Zhang, Rui Wang, Long-Bang Chen, Xiaoyuan Chu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Accumulating evidence revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated as critical molecules in tumor development and progression. MiR-26a, located in a fragile chromosomal region associated with various human cancer, has been reported to be involved in regulating various cellular process, such as proliferation, apoptosis and invasion through targeting multiple oncogene. Docetaxel-mediated chemotherapy has been applied in improving the survival and prognosis of patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma (LAD)...
February 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214866/levosimendan-pretreatment-inhibits-myocardial-apoptosis-in-swine-after-coronary-microembolization
#3
Lang Li, Jiangyou Wang, Han Chen, You Zhou, Qiang Su, Tao Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In addition to its cardiotonic effect, levosimendan has been thought to have multiple cardiovascular benefits, including anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) has been revealed to be up-regulated in circumstances of coronary microembolization (CME), and the PTEN signaling pathway mediates myocardial apoptosis in swine after CME. However, whether this functional protein could be modified by pretreatment of levosimendan in models of CME has not been disclosed yet...
January 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214852/the-clinical-manifestation-and-genetic-evaluation-in-patients-with-45-x-46-xy-mosaicism
#4
Qinghua Wu, Cong Wang, Huirong Shi, Xiangdong Kong, Shumin Ren, Miao Jiang
45,X/46,XY mosaicism is a rare chromosomal abnormality and probably underdiagnosed. Although clinical and genetic analyses have been performed in some disorders of sexual development, there have been few studies focusing on the phenotype and genetic details of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, especially in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of our service in relation to 16 cases with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. The age at the first evaluation of the patients ranged from 43 days to 30 years...
February 18, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214660/enhancer-of-zeste-homologue-2-plays-an-important-role-in-neuroblastoma-cell-survival-independent-of-its-histone-methyltransferase-activity
#5
Laurel T Bate-Eya, Hinco J Gierman, Marli E Ebus, Jan Koster, Huib N Caron, Rogier Versteeg, M Emmy M Dolman, Jan J Molenaar
Neuroblastoma is predominantly characterised by chromosomal rearrangements. Next to V-Myc Avian Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Neuroblastoma Derived Homolog (MYCN) amplification, chromosome 7 and 17q gains are frequently observed. We identified a neuroblastoma patient with a regional 7q36 gain, encompassing the enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) gene. EZH2 is the histone methyltransferase of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) that forms the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2. H3K27me3 is commonly associated with the silencing of genes involved in cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation and cancer...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214612/dynamic-organization-of-mitotic-chromosomes
#6
REVIEW
Kazuhisa Kinoshita, Tatsuya Hirano
The assembly of rod-shaped chromosomes during mitosis is an essential prerequisite for faithful segregation of genetic information into daughter cells. Despite the long history of chromosome research, it is only recently that we have acquired powerful approaches and crucial tools that help to unlock the secret of this seemingly complex process. In particular, in vitro assays, mammalian genetics, Hi-C analyses and computer simulations have provided valuable information during the past two years. These studies are now beginning to elucidate how the core components of mitotic chromosomes, namely, histones, topoisomerase IIα and condensins, cooperate with each other to convert very long stretches of DNA into rod-shaped chromosomes...
February 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214601/the-inhibition-of-mating-in-phycomyces-blakesleeanus-by-light-is-dependent-on-the-mada-madb-complex-that-acts-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#7
Viplendra P S Shakya, Alexander Idnurm
Light is an environmental signal that influences reproduction in the Mucoromycotina fungi, as it does in many other species of fungi. Mating in Phycomyces blakesleeanus is inhibited by light, but the molecular mechanisms for this inhibition are uncharacterized. In this analysis, the role of the light-sensing MadA-MadB complex in mating was tested. The MadA-MadB complex is homologous to the Neurospora crassa White Collar complex. Three genes required for cell type determination in the sex locus or pheromone biosynthesis are transcriptionally-regulated by light and are controlled by MadA and MadB...
February 15, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214367/population-genetic-structure-and-adaptation-of-malaria-parasites-on-the-edge-of-endemic-distribution
#8
Craig W Duffy, Hampate Ba, Samuel Assefa, Ambroise D Ahouidi, Yacine B Deh, Abderahmane Tandia, Freja C M Kirsebom, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, David J Conway
To determine whether the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exhibits fragmented population structure or local adaptation at the northern limit of its African distribution where the dry Sahel zone meets the Sahara, samples were collected from diverse locations within Mauritania over a range of ~ 1000 kilometres. Microsatellite genotypes were obtained for 203 clinical infection samples from eight locations, and Illumina paired-end sequences were obtained to yield high coverage genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 65 clinical infection samples from four locations...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213897/laryngo-onycho-cutaneous-like-syndrome-due-to-mutated-plectin
#9
Christine Prodinger, Alfred Klausegger, Anja Diem, Johann W Bauer, Martin Laimer
Laryngo-onycho-cutaneous syndrome (LOC) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis that has been mainly described in the offspring of consanguineous families with origin in the Punjabi region of Pakistan and India [1]. Founder mutations affecting the LAMA3A gene on chromosome 18q11.2 have been implicated to underlie this syndrome [1,2]. Based on its molecular and clinical features, LOC was recently classified as a subtype of junctional Epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) [1]. This article is protected by copyright...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213736/6-phosphofructokinase-and-ribulose-5-phosphate-3-epimerase-in-methylotrophic-bacillus-methanolicus-ribulose-monophosphate-cycle
#10
Simone Balzer Le, Tonje Marita Bjerkan Heggeset, Tone Haugen, Ingemar Nærdal, Trygve Brautaset
D-Ribulose-5-phosphate-3-epimerase (RPE) and 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK) catalyse two reactions in the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) cycle in Bacillus methanolicus. The B. methanolicus wild-type strain MGA3 possesses two putative rpe and pfk genes encoded on plasmid pBM19 (rpe1-MGA3 and pfk1-MGA3) and on the chromosome (rpe2-MGA3 and pfk2-MGA3). The wild-type strain PB1 also encodes putative rpe and pfk genes on plasmid pBM20 (rpe1-PB1 and pfk1-PB1*); however, it only harbours a chromosomal pfk gene (pfk2-PB1)...
February 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213707/hydropower-reservoirs-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-assessment-using-the-allium-cepa-root-model
#11
Cassiano Lazarotto Rambo, Patrícia Zanotelli, Daniela Dalegrave, Dinara De Nez, Jozimar Szczepanik, Fábio Carazek, Francini Franscescon, Denis Broock Rosemberg, Anna Maria Siebel, Jacir Dal Magro
Hydropower offers a reliable source of electricity in several countries, and Brazil supplies its energy needs almost entirely through hydropower plants. Nevertheless, hydropower plants comprise large buildings and water reservoirs and dams, resulting in huge ecological disruptions. Here, we analyzed the impact of four hydropower reservoirs construction in metals and pesticides incidence and the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of sediment elutriate of rivers from southern Brazil. Our analyses have evidenced the elevated incidence of different metals (lead, iron, cadmium, and chrome) and pesticides (methyl parathion, atrazine, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213671/exome-analysis-of-smith-magenis-like-syndrome-cohort-identifies-de-novo-likely-pathogenic-variants
#12
Seth I Berger, Carla Ciccone, Karen L Simon, May Christine Malicdan, Thierry Vilboux, Charles Billington, Roxanne Fischer, Wendy J Introne, Andrea Gropman, Jan K Blancato, James C Mullikin, William A Gahl, Marjan Huizing, Ann C M Smith
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, intellectual disability (ID), and sleep disturbances, results from a 17p11.2 microdeletion or a mutation in the RAI1 gene. We performed exome sequencing on 6 patients with SMS-like phenotypes but without chromosomal abnormalities or RAI1 variants. We identified pathogenic de novo variants in two cases, a nonsense variant in IQSEC2 and a missense variant in the SAND domain of DEAF1, and candidate de novo missense variants in an additional two cases...
February 17, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213571/mir-146a-b-a-family-with-shared-seeds-and-different-roots
#13
Mark Paterson, Alison J Kriegel
MicroRNAs are small, non-coding, RNAs known for their powerful modulation of molecular processes, making them a major focus for studying pathological mechanisms. The human miR-146 family of microRNAs consists of two member genes - MIR146A and MIR146B These two miRNAs are located on different chromosomes and exhibit differential regulation in many cases. However, they are nearly identical in sequence and share a seed sequence, thus they are predicted to target the same set of genes. A large proportion of the miR-146 literature focuses on its role in regulating the innate immune response in the context of various pathologies by modulating two widely studied target genes in the toll-like receptor signaling cascade...
February 17, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213540/characterization-of-the-physical-and-functional-interplay-between-mazf1-bif-and-its-noncognate-antitoxins-from-bifidobacterium-longum
#14
Yanxia Wei, Yang Li, Fan Yang, Qiong Wu, Dianbin Liu, Xiangyang Li, Hui Hua, Xiaomei Liu, Yugang Wang, Kuiyang Zheng, Renxian Tang
Bifidobacterium longum strain JDM301, a widely used commercial strain in China, encodes at least two MazEF-like modules and one RelBE-like toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in its chromosome, designated as MazE1F1(Bif), MazE2F2(Bif) and RelBE(Bif), respectively. Bacterial TA systems play an important role in several stress responses, but the relationship between these TA systems is largely unknown. In this study, the interaction between MazF1(Bif) and MazE2(Bif) or RelB(Bif) was assessed in B. longum strain JDM301...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213501/immature-lymphocytes-inhibit-rag1-and-rag2-transcription-and-v-d-j-recombination-in-response-to-dna-double-strand-breaks
#15
Megan R Fisher, Adrian Rivera-Reyes, Noah B Bloch, David G Schatz, Craig H Bassing
Mammalian cells have evolved a common DNA damage response (DDR) that sustains cellular function, maintains genomic integrity, and suppresses malignant transformation. In pre-B cells, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced at Igκ loci by the Rag1/Rag2 (RAG) endonuclease engage this DDR to modulate transcription of genes that regulate lymphocyte-specific processes. We previously reported that RAG DSBs induced at one Igκ allele signal through the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase to feedback-inhibit RAG expression and RAG cleavage of the other Igκ allele...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213433/chromosomal-instability-as-a-driver-of-tumor-heterogeneity-and-evolution
#16
Samuel F Bakhoum, Dan Avi Landau
Large-scale, massively parallel sequencing of human cancer samples has revealed tremendous genetic heterogeneity within individual tumors. Indeed, tumors are composed of an admixture of diverse subpopulations-subclones-that vary in space and time. Here, we discuss a principal driver of clonal diversification in cancer known as chromosomal instability (CIN), which complements other modes of genetic diversification creating the multilayered genomic instability often seen in human cancer. Cancer cells have evolved to fine-tune chromosome missegregation rates to balance the acquisition of heterogeneity while preserving favorable genotypes, a dependence that can be exploited for a therapeutic benefit...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212810/chromosomal-instability-analysis-and-regional-tumor-heterogeneity-in-colon-cancer
#17
Vincenza Barresi, Sergio Castorina, Nicolò Musso, Carmela Capizzi, Tonia Luca, Giovanna Privitera, Daniele Filippo Condorelli
Chromosomal instability (CIN) is classically defined as an increase in the rate at which numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations are acquired in a cancer cell. The number of somatic copy number abnormalities (CNAs) revealed by high resolution genomic array can be considered as a surrogate marker for CIN, but several points, related to sample processing and data analysis, need to be standardized. In this work we analyzed 51 CRC samples and matched normal mucosae by whole genome SNP arrays and compared different bioinformatics tools in order to identify broad (>25% of a chromosomal arm) and focal somatic copy number abnormalities (BCNAs and FCNAs respectively)...
January 2017: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212808/next-generation-repeat-free-fish-probes-for-dna-amplification-in-glioblastoma-in-vivo-improving-patient-selection-to-mdm2-targeted-inhibitors
#18
Matteo Brunelli, Albino Eccher, Luca Cima, Tobia Trippini, Serena Pedron, Marco Chilosi, Mattia Barbareschi, Aldo Scarpa, Giampietro Pinna, Giulio Cabrini, Sara Pilotto, Luisa Carbognin, Emilio Bria, Giampaolo Tortora, Adele Fioravanzo, Nicola Schiavo, Mario Meglio, Teodoro Sava, Laura Belli, Guido Martignoni, Claudio Ghimenton
A next-generation FISH probe mapping to the MDM2 locus-specific region has recently been designed. The level of MDM2 gene amplification (high versus low) may allow selection of patients for cancer treatment with MDM2 inhibitors and may predict their responsiveness. We investigated the spectrum of MDM2 gene alterations using the new probes in vivo after visualizing single neoplastic cells in situ from a series of glioblastomas. Signals from next-generation repeat-free FISH interphase probes were identified in tissue microarrays that included 3 spots for each of the 48 cases...
January 2017: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212705/detection-of-dna-damage-by-space-radiation-in-human-fibroblasts-flown-on-the-international-space-station
#19
Tao Lu, Ye Zhang, Michael Wong, Alan Feiveson, Ramona Gaza, Nicholas Stoffle, Huichen Wang, Bobby Wilson, Larry Rohde, Louis Stodieck, Fathi Karouia, Honglu Wu
Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation is challenging due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and due to the difficulty in distinguishing the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, are attributed primarily to their exposure to space radiation...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212567/ribosomal-dna-status-inferred-from-dna-cloud-assays-and-mass-spectrometry-identification-of-agarose-squeezed-proteins-interacting-with-chromatin-aspic-ms
#20
Kamil Krol, Justyna Jendrysek, Janusz Debski, Marek Skoneczny, Anna Kurlandzka, Joanna Kaminska, Michal Dadlez, Adrianna Skoneczna
Ribosomal RNA-encoding genes (rDNA) are the most abundant genes in eukaryotic genomes. To meet the high demand for rRNA, rDNA genes are present in multiple tandem repeats clustered on a single or several chromosomes and are vastly transcribed. To facilitate intensive transcription and prevent rDNA destabilization, the rDNA-encoding portion of the chromosome is confined in the nucleolus. However, the rDNA region is susceptible to recombination and DNA damage, accumulating mutations, rearrangements and atypical DNA structures...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
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