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Hunger control

Sarah K Tasian, David T Teachey, Yong Li, Feng Shen, Richard C Harvey, I-Ming Chen, Theresa Ryan, Tiffaney L Vincent, Cheryl L Willman, Alexander E Perl, Stephen P Hunger, Mignon L Loh, Martin Carroll, Stephan A Grupp
Philadelphia chromosome-like B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (BCR-ABL1-like or Ph-like ALL) is associated with activated JAK/STAT, SRC/ABL, and/or PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and poor clinical outcomes. Inhibitors of PI3K pathway signaling (PI3Ki) have been minimally investigated in Ph-like ALL to date. We hypothesized that targeted inhibition of PI3Kα, PI3Kδ, PI3K/mTOR, or TORC1/TORC2 would decrease leukemia proliferation and abrogate aberrant kinase signaling. We further hypothesized that combined PI3K pathway and JAK inhibition or PI3K pathway and SRC/ABL inhibition would have superior efficacy compared to inhibitor monotherapy...
October 24, 2016: Blood
Thomas Maran, Pierre Sachse, Markus Martini, Marco Furtner
Hunger is an everyday motivational state, which biases cognition to detect food. Although evidence exists on how hunger affects basic attentional and mnemonic processes, less is known about how motivational drive for food modulates higher cognition. We aimed to investigate the effects of food deprivation on proactive interference resolution, in the presence and absence of food. Normal-weight participants performed a recency probes paradigm providing an experimental block with food and object stimuli as well as a control block with object stimuli only, in a fasted and a sated state...
October 18, 2016: Appetite
Marlene D Kristensen, Nathalie T Bendsen, Sheena M Christensen, Arne Astrup, Anne Raben
BACKGROUND: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Christina Hunger, Lena Krause, Rebecca Hilzinger, Beate Ditzen, Jochen Schweitzer
There is a need of an economical, reliable, and valid instrument in the German-speaking countries to measure the burden of relatives who care for mentally ill persons. We translated the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS) and conducted a study investigating factor structure, psychometric quality and predictive validity. We used confirmative factor analyses (CFA, maximum-likelihood method) to examine the dimensionality of the German BAS in a sample of 215 relatives (72% women; M = 32 years, SD = 14, range: 18 to 77; 39% employed) of mentally ill persons (50% (ex-)partner or (best) friend; M = 32 years, SD = 13, range 8 to 64; main complaints were depression and/or anxiety)...
2016: PloS One
Gisella Orsini
This article aims to shed light on the self-perceptions of people with eating disorders in Malta and Italy through a deep understanding of their narratives. In contrast to the biomedical perception of the phenomenon and in opposition with the prevalent feminist theories on the subject, I consider eating disorders as the result of self-transformative processes. I suggest that anorexics, bulimics and binge eaters are actively and deliberately engaged in a project of moral self-transformation that is culturally defined...
October 19, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Hayley A Young, Heather Watkins
Reducing the glycemic load (GL) of the diet may benefit appetite control but its utility is complicated by psychological influences on eating. Disinhibited behaviour, a risk factor for overconsumption, is characterized by reduced prefrontal cortex activity, which in turn modulates vagal tone; a phenomenon associated with glucoregulation. This double blind randomised controlled trial explored for the first time the influence of disinhibited eating and vagal tone (heart rate variability (HRV)) on hunger and the postprandial response to GL...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sara Boucher, Olivia Edwards, Andrew Gray, Shyamala Nada-Raja, Jason Lillis, Tracy L Tylka, Caroline C Horwath
BACKGROUND: Middle-aged women are at risk of weight gain and associated comorbidities. Deliberate restriction of food intake (dieting) produces short-term weight loss but is largely unsuccessful for long-term weight management. Two promising approaches for the prevention of weight gain are intuitive eating (ie, eating in accordance with hunger and satiety signals) and the development of greater psychological flexibility (ie, the aim of acceptance and commitment therapy [ACT]). OBJECTIVES: This pilot study investigated the usage, acceptability, and feasibility of "Mind, Body, Food," a Web-based weight gain prevention intervention prototype that teaches intuitive eating and psychological flexibility skills...
October 14, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Tom J Hazell, Hashim Islam, Jillian R Hallworth, Jennifer L Copeland
Exercise-induced changes in appetite-regulating hormones may be intensity-dependent, however a clear dose-response relationship has not been established. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in anorexigenic markers (total PYY and GLP-1) in response to rest or exercise at submaximal and supramaximal intensities. Ten active males completed four experimental sessions in randomized order: 1) Moderate intensity continuous training (MICT; 30 min cycling at 65% VO2max); 2) High intensity continuous training (HICT; 30 min cycling at 85% VO2max); 3) Sprint interval training (SIT; 6 × 30 s "all-out" cycling bouts with 4 min recovery periods); 4) Control (CTRL; no exercise)...
October 6, 2016: Appetite
Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa, Ursula Ferreira Julio, Felipe Hardt, Carolina Kurashima, Fábio Santos Lira, Monica Yuri Takito, Emerson Franchini
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of exercise intensity on appetite control: relative energy intake (energy intake minus the energy expenditure of exercise; REI), hunger scores, and appetite-regulating hormones in men and women. Eleven men and 9 women were submitted to 4 experimental sessions: high-intensity intermittent all-out exercise (HIIE-A) for 60 × 8 s interspersed by 12 s of passive recovery; high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) at 100% of maximal load attained in incremental test; steady-state exercise at 60% of maximal load, matched by work done; and a control session...
July 7, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Andrea Figura, Matthias Rose, Jürgen Ordemann, Burghard F Klapp, Anne Ahnis
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe obesity need to adapt to surgically induced changes in their eating behaviors to maintain treatment success. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on weight loss and on 3 dimensions of eating behavior, namely, cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger. Outcomes of the LSG group were compared with a group of conservatively treated (CT) patients, who underwent a 1-year multimodal weight-reduction group program that included dietary advice, physical exercise, psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapy, training in Jacobson's progressive muscle relaxation, and social group support...
August 5, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Christopher D Morrison, Zheng Hao, Michael B Mumphrey, R Leigh Townsend, Heike Münzberg, Jianping Ye, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms by which bariatric surgeries so effectively and lastingly reduce body weight and normalize metabolic dysfunction are not well understood. Fibroblast growth fator-21 (FGF21) is a key regulator of metabolism and is currently considered for treatment of obesity. Although elevated by acute food deprivation, it is downregulated after weight loss induced by chronic calorie restriction but not after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to assess the role of FGF21-signaling in the beneficial effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB)...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Marta Bueno, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Ramon Novell, Olga Giménez-Palop, Ramon Coronas, Elisabeth Gabau, Raquel Corripio, Neus Baena, Marina Viñas-Jornet, Míriam Guitart, David Torrents-Rodas, Joan Deus, Jesús Pujol, Mercedes Rigla, Assumpta Caixàs
CONTEXT: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hyperphagia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and leptin are reciprocally involved in energy homeostasis. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the role of BDNF and leptin in satiety in genetic subtypes of PWS. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: University hospital. SUBJECTS: 90 adults: 30 PWS patients; 30 age-sex-BMI-matched obese controls; and 30 age-sex-matched lean controls...
2016: PloS One
Joanna J Gan, Andrew Lin, Mersal S Samimi, Mario F Mendez
BACKGROUND: Semantic dementia (SD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of semantic knowledge. SD may be associated with somatic symptom disorder due to excessive preoccupation with unidentified somatic sensations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of somatic symptom disorder among patients with SD in comparison to comparably demented patients with Alzheimer׳s disease. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using clinical data from a referral-based behavioral neurology program...
August 4, 2016: Psychosomatics
Narayanan Kandasamy, Sarah N Garfinkel, Lionel Page, Ben Hardy, Hugo D Critchley, Mark Gurnell, John M Coates
Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sheri D Weiser, Abigail M Hatcher, Lee L Hufstedler, Elly Weke, Shari L Dworkin, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Rachel L Burger, Stephen Kodish, Nils Grede, Lisa M Butler, Craig R Cohen
This longitudinal qualitative study sought to understand how and why a livelihood intervention affected the health and health behaviors of HIV-infected Kenyan adults. The intervention included a microfinance loan, agricultural and financial training, and a human-powered water pump. In-depth interviews were conducted at two time points with intervention and control participants and program staff. We double coded interviews (n = 117) and used thematic content analysis of transcripts following an integrative inductive-deductive approach...
September 16, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Megan E Piper, Sara A Vasilenko, Jessica W Cook, Stephanie T Lanza
AIMS: To 1) identify distinct classes of smokers based on quit day withdrawal symptoms and 2) explore the relations between withdrawal classes and demographics, tobacco dependence, treatment, and smoking outcomes. DESIGN: Secondary data analysis of participants (N = 1504) in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multi-site smoking cessation trial who provided ecological momentary assessments of withdrawal symptoms on their quit day. Participants received smoking cessation counseling and were randomized to receive placebo or one of five active pharmacotherapies...
September 15, 2016: Addiction
Savani Bartholdy, Jiumu Cheng, Ulrike Schmidt, Iain C Campbell, Owen G O'Daly
Adaptive eating behaviors are dependent on an interaction between motivational states (e.g., hunger) and the ability to control one's own behavior (inhibitory control). Indeed, behavioral paradigms are emerging that seek to train inhibitory control to improve eating behavior. However, inhibitory control is a multifaceted concept, and it is not yet clear how different types (e.g., reactive motor inhibition, proactive motor inhibition, reward-related inhibition) are affected by hunger. Such knowledge will provide insight into the contexts in which behavioral training paradigms would be most effective...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Joost Overduin, Tinh-Hai Collet, Nenad Medic, Elana Henning, Julia M Keogh, Faye Forsyth, Cheryl Stephenson, Marja W Kanning, Rianne M A J Ruijschop, I Sadaf Farooqi, Agatha A van der Klaauw
There is considerable interest in the effect of foods containing high intensity sweeteners on satiation. However, less is known about low-calorie bulk sweeteners such as erythritol. In this randomized three-way crossover study, we studied 10 lean and 10 obese volunteers who consumed three test meals on separate occasions: (a) control sucrose meal; (b) isovolumic meal with partial replacement of sucrose by erythritol; (c) isocaloric meal which contained more erythritol but equivalent calories to the control meal...
September 9, 2016: Appetite
Sergueï O Fetissov
The life of all animals is dominated by alternating feelings of hunger and satiety - the main involuntary motivations for feeding-related behaviour. Gut bacteria depend fully on their host for providing the nutrients necessary for their growth. The intrinsic ability of bacteria to regulate their growth and to maintain their population within the gut suggests that gut bacteria can interfere with molecular pathways controlling energy balance in the host. The current model of appetite control is based mainly on gut-brain signalling and the animal's own needs to maintain energy homeostasis; an alternative model might also involve bacteria-host communications...
September 12, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Mario Morgenstern, Christian von Rüden, Hauke Callsen, Jan Friederichs, Sven Hungerer, Volker Bühren, Alexander Woltmann, Christian Hierholzer
INTRODUCTION: The thoracic cage is an anatomical entity composed of the upper thoracic spine, the ribs and the sternum. The aims of this study were primarily to analyse the combined injury pattern of thoracic cage injuries and secondarily to evaluate associated injuries, trauma mechanism, and clinical outcome. We hypothesized that the sternal fracture is frequently associated with an unstable fracture of the thoracic spine and that it may be an indicator for unstable thoracic cage injuries...
August 29, 2016: Injury
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