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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730743/inulin-type-fructans-and-whey-protein-both-modulate-appetite-but-only-fructans-alter-gut-microbiota-in-adults-with-overweight-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Raylene A Reimer, Holly J Willis, Jasmine M Tunnicliffe, Heekuk Park, Karen L Madsen, Adriana Soto-Vaca
SCOPE: Independently, prebiotics and dietary protein have been shown to improve weight loss and/or alter appetite. Our objective was to determine the effect of combined prebiotic and whey protein on appetite, body composition and gut microbiota in adults with overweight/obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a 12 week, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, 125 adults with overweight/obesity were randomly assigned to receive isocaloric snack bars of: 1) Control; 2) Inulin-type fructans (ITF); 3) Whey protein; 4) ITF + Whey protein...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729200/additive-effects-of-sensory-enhanced-satiety-and-memory-for-recent-eating-on-appetite
#2
Martin R Yeomans, Millie Ruder Milton, Lucy Chambers
The sensory characteristics of a product have been shown to interact with actual nutrient content to generate satiety. Separately, cued recall of recent eating has also been shown to reduce food intake. Here we explore for the first time how these two effects interact, with the hypothesis that sensory enhancement of satiety might be mediated by more vivid memory of the earlier consumed item. On each of two test sessions, 119 women volunteers consumed a control drink (lemonade) on one morning and then one of two test drinks on the next day 30 min before an ad libitum lunch...
July 17, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725100/does-women-s-empowerment-in-agriculture-matter-for-children-s-health-status-insights-from-northern-ghana
#3
Yacob A Zereyesus, Vincent Amanor-Boadu, Kara L Ross, Aleksan Shanoyan
Given that women in rural communities in developing countries are responsible for the nutrition and health-related decisions affecting children in their care, their empowerment may influence the health status of their children. The association between women's empowerment, measured by using a recently developed Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index, and children's health status is examined for a sample of households in Northern Ghana applying a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model. The MIMIC approach is used to link multiple indicator variables with multiple independent variables through a "single underlying" latent variable...
2017: Social Indicators Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715141/walnut-consumption-increases-activation-of-the-insula-to-highly-desirable-food-cues-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-fmri-study
#4
Olivia M Farr, Dario Tuccinardi, Jagriti Upadhyay, Sabrina M Oussaada, Christos S Mantzoros
AIMS: The use of walnuts is recommended for obesity and type 2 diabetes, although the mechanisms through which walnuts may improve appetite and/or glycemic control remain largely unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine whether short-term walnut consumption could alter the neural control of appetite using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial of 10 patients who received, while living in the controlled environment of a clinical research center, either walnuts or placebo (using a validated smoothie delivery system) for 5 days each, separated by a wash-out period of one month...
July 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714768/macronutrient-composition-of-a-morning-meal-and-the-maintenance-of-attention-throughout-the-morning
#5
Tommy J Wilson, Michael J Gray, Jan-Willem Van Klinken, Melissa Kaczmarczyk, John J Foxe
BACKGROUND: At present, the impact of macronutrient composition and nutrient intake on sustained attention in adults is unclear, although some prior work suggests that nutritive interventions that engender slow, steady glucose availability support sustained attention after consumption. A separate line of evidence suggests that nutrient consumption may alter electroencephalographic markers of neurophysiological activity, including neural oscillations in the alpha-band (8-14 Hz), which are known to be richly interconnected with the allocation of attention...
July 17, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700946/sifamide-translates-hunger-signals-into-appetitive-and-feeding-behavior-in-drosophila
#6
Carlotta Martelli, Ulrike Pech, Simon Kobbenbring, Dennis Pauls, Britta Bahl, Mirjam Vanessa Sommer, Atefeh Pooryasin, Jonas Barth, Carmina Warth Perez Arias, Chrystalleni Vassiliou, Abud Jose Farca Luna, Haiko Poppinga, Florian Gerhard Richter, Christian Wegener, André Fiala, Thomas Riemensperger
Animal behavior is, on the one hand, controlled by neuronal circuits that integrate external sensory stimuli and induce appropriate motor responses. On the other hand, stimulus-evoked or internally generated behavior can be influenced by motivational conditions, e.g., the metabolic state. Motivational states are determined by physiological parameters whose homeostatic imbalances are signaled to and processed within the brain, often mediated by modulatory peptides. Here, we investigate the regulation of appetitive and feeding behavior in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692632/high-habitual-physical-activity-improves-acute-energy-compensation-in-nonobese-adults
#7
Kristine Beaulieu, Mark Hopkins, Cecilia Long, John Blundell, Graham Finlayson
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that homeostatic satiety signalling is enhanced with higher levels of physical activity (PA), with active individuals demonstrating an improved ability to compensate for previous energy intake (EI). However, prior studies lacked objective assessment of both PA level and EI. This study examined the effect of objectively-measured PA level on homeostatic (energy compensation) and hedonic (liking and wanting) responses to high-energy (HEP), low-energy (LEP) and control preloads...
July 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691842/response-in-taste-circuitry-is-not-modulated-by-hunger-and-satiety-in-women-remitted-from-bulimia-nervosa
#8
Alice V Ely, Christina E Wierenga, Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Ursula F Bailer, Laura A Berner, Julie L Fudge, Martin P Paulus, Walter H Kaye
Individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) engage in episodes of binge eating, marked by loss of control and eating despite fullness. Does altered reward and metabolic state contribute to BN pathophysiology? Normally, hunger increases (and satiety decreases) reward salience to regulate eating. We investigated whether BN is associated with an abnormal response in a neural circuit involved in translating taste signals into motivated behavior, when hungry and fed. Twenty-six women remitted from BN (RBN) and 22 control women (CW) were administered water and sucrose during 2 counterbalanced fMRI visits, following a 16-hr fast or a standardized breakfast...
July 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682225/-involvement-of-gut-bacteria-in-appetite-control
#9
Sergueï O Fetissov
Animals perceive alternating feelings of hunger and satiety, which constitute their daily rhythms of appetite and drive their feeding behavior. In humans, these rhythms include the onset of satiety about 20 min after meal ingestion and a duration of satiety of about 5 h followed by hunger, triggering food seeking and intake. Molecular mechanisms underlying such appetite cycles involve secretion of intestinal satiety hormones and corresponding activation of the brain anorexigenic and feeding reward pathways...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671857/neurocognitive-functioning-of-children-treated-for-high-risk-b-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-randomly-assigned-to-different-methotrexate-and-corticosteroid-treatment-strategies-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group
#10
Kristina K Hardy, Leanne Embry, John A Kairalla, Shanjun Helian, Meenakshi Devidas, Daniel Armstrong, Stephen Hunger, William L Carroll, Eric Larsen, Elizabeth A Raetz, Mignon L Loh, Wenjian Yang, Mary V Relling, Robert B Noll, Naomi Winick
Purpose Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk for neurocognitive deficits that are associated with treatment, individual, and environmental factors. This study examined the impact of different methotrexate (MTX) and corticosteroid treatment strategies on neurocognitive functioning in children with high-risk B-lineage ALL. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to receive high-dose MTX with leucovorin rescue or escalating dose MTX with PEG asparaginase without leucovorin rescue...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662906/reducing-consumption-of-confectionery-foods-a-post-hoc-segmentation-analysis-using-a-social-cognition-approach
#11
Paul Naughton, Mary McCarthy, Sinéad McCarthy
Considering confectionary consumption behaviour this cross-sectional study used social cognition variables to identify distinct segments in terms of their motivation and efforts to decrease their consumption of such foods with the aim of informing targeted social marketing campaigns. Using Latent Class analysis on a sample of 500 adults four segments were identified: unmotivated, triers, successful actors, and thrivers. The unmotivated and triers segments reported low levels of perceived need and perceived behavioural control (PBC) in addition to high levels of habit and hedonic hunger with regards their consumption of confectionery foods...
June 27, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657250/hearing-voices-lessons-from-the-history-of-psychiatry-in-ireland
#12
B D Kelly
The history of psychiatry is a history of therapeutic enthusiasm, with all of the triumph and tragedy, hubris and humility that such enthusiasm brings. During the 1800s and early 1900s, Ireland-s public asylums were routinely overcrowded, unhygienic and, quite commonly, fatal. The asylums became all-too-convenient options for a society with an apparently insatiable hunger for institutions, incarceration and control. The emergence of clinical professionals, both medical and nursing, was inevitably a factor in this complex mix, but the effects of any search for professional prestige were dwarfed by asylum doctors' clear outrage at what the asylum system became...
March 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657111/changing-me-changing-us-relationship-quality-and-collective-efficacy-as-major-outcomes-in-systemic-couple-therapy
#13
Corina Aguilar-Raab, Dennis Grevenstein, Linda Gotthardt, Marc N Jarczok, Christina Hunger, Beate Ditzen, Jochen Schweitzer
We examine the sensitivity to change in the Evaluation of Social Systems (EVOS) scale, which assesses relationship quality and collective efficacy. In Study 1 we conducted a waitlist-control, short-term couple therapy RCT study (N = 43 couples) with five systemic therapy sessions treating communication and partnership problems; our intent was to provide high external validity. Construct validity of EVOS was assessed by comparison with additionally applied scales (Family Scales; Outcome Questionnaire, OQ-45...
June 28, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647385/hunger-and-disinhibition-but-not-cognitive-restraint-are-associated-with-central-norepinephrine-transporter-availability
#14
A Bresch, M Rullmann, J Luthardt, G A Becker, M Patt, Y-S Ding, A Hilbert, O Sabri, S Hesse
The relationship between food-intake related behaviours measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and in vivo norepinephrine transporter (NET) availability has not been explored yet. We investigated ten obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 42.4 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) and ten normal-weight healthy controls (HC, BMI 23.9 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)) with (S,S)-[(11)C]-O-methylreboxetine ([(11)C]MRB) positron emission tomography (PET). All participants completed the TFEQ, which measures cognitive restraint, disinhibition and hunger...
June 21, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642689/integrating-neural-circuits-controlling-female-sexual-behavior
#15
REVIEW
Paul E Micevych, Robert L Meisel
The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639441/effect-of-periodized-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-on-body-composition-and-attitudes-towards-hunger-in-active-men-and-women
#16
Todd A Astorino, Brendyn Heath, Jason Bandong, Gina M Ordille, Ramon Contreras, Matthew Montell, Matthew M Schubert
BACKGROUND: High intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake similar to aerobic exercise. However, changes in body composition are equivocal in response to HIIT. AIM: We examined changes in body composition and dietary restraint in response to 20 sessions of HIIT varying in structure. METHODS: Thirty nine active men and women (age and VO2max = 22.5 ± 4.4 yr and 40.1 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) were randomized to one of three periodized HIIT regimes performed on a cycle ergometer...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632394/changes-in-eating-behaviors-of-children-with-obesity-in-response-to-carbohydrate-modified-and-portion-controlled-diets
#17
Shelley Kirk, Jessica G Woo, Bonnie Brehm, Stephen R Daniels, Brian E Saelens
OBJECTIVE: This study's objective was to determine whether two distinct carbohydrate (CHO)-modified diets and a standard portion-controlled (PC) diet differentially impacted children's eating behaviors and whether eating behavior scores predicted lower BMI among children with obesity. METHODS: Children (n = 102) aged 7-12 years with obesity were randomly assigned to a 12-month intervention of a low-carbohydrate (LC), reduced glycemic load (RGL), or standard PC diet...
June 20, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632132/antagonistic-modulation-of-npy-agrp-and-pomc-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-by-noradrenalin
#18
Lars Paeger, Ismene Karakasilioti, Janine Altmüller, Peter Frommolt, Jens Brüning, Peter Kloppenburg
In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) satiety signaling (anorexigenic) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing and hunger signaling (orexigenic) agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons are key components of the neuronal circuits that control food intake and energy homeostasis. Here, we assessed whether the catecholamine noradrenalin directly modulates the activity of these neurons in mice. Perforated patch clamp recordings showed that noradrenalin changes the activity of these functionally antagonistic neurons in opposite ways, increasing the activity of the orexigenic NPY/AgRP neurons and decreasing the activity of the anorexigenic POMC neurons...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625709/review-and-analysis-of-physical-exercise-at-hormonal-and-brain-level-and-its-influence-on-appetite
#19
Laura Gómez Escribano, Arancha Gálvez Casas, Antonio R Escribá Fernández-Marcote, Pedro Tárraga López, Loreto Tárraga Marcos
Due to the currently growing rate of obesity, it is important to maintain good control of food intake. The main purpose of the present study is to determine the influence of physical exercise on appetite, changes in hormone concentrations, and changes in certain neuronal regions. To achieve this, a literature search was conducted using different data bases. The results show how exercise produces changes in the appetite perception, in the amount of energy intake, and in different weight-control related hormones, as well as in specific neuronal responses...
June 15, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625043/pre-and-postprandial-acylated-ghrelin-in-obese-and-normal-weight-men
#20
Sri Andarini, Ferdy Bangun Kangsaputra, Dian Handayani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of obesity in Indonesia has increasing. We have assessed the relationship between plasma acylated ghrelin hormone and self-reported appetite ratings (hunger and desire to eat) in obese and normal weight men. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-two men participated in an experimental study, where acylated ghrelin and self-reported appetite ratings were compared between a test group of 16 obese men and a control group of 16 men with normal body mass indices...
June 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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