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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235554/morning-and-afternoon-appetite-and-gut-hormone-responses-to-meal-and-stress-challenges-in-obese-individuals-with-and-without-binge-eating-disorder
#1
S Carnell, C Grillot, T Ungredda, S Ellis, N Mehta, J Holst, A Geliebter
BACKGROUND: Eating late in the day is common, and stress can induce eating. Little is understood about how time of day and stress interact to affect appetite and thereby body weight. These may be particularly important influences in binge eaters, who tend to binge in the evening, and in response to stress. METHOD: Obese participants with (n=16) and without (n=16) Binge Eating Disorder (BED) participated in two identical test protocols beginning either in the morning or the afternoon (AM condition/PM condition), each following an 8 h fast...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233719/a-randomized-study-of-dietary-composition-during-weight-loss-maintenance-rationale-study-design-intervention-and-assessment
#2
Cara B Ebbeling, Gloria L Klein, Patricia K Luoto, Julia M W Wong, Lisa Bielak, Ralph G Eddy, Sarah K Steltz, Courtenay Devlin, Megan Sandman, Bridget Hron, Kim Shimy, Steven B Heymsfield, Robert R Wolfe, William W Wong, Henry A Feldman, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: While many people with overweight or obesity can lose weight temporarily, most have difficulty maintaining weight loss over the long term. Studies of dietary composition typically focus on weight loss, rather than weight-loss maintenance, and rely on nutrition education and dietary counseling, rather than controlled feeding protocols. Variation in initial weight loss and insufficient differentiation among treatments confound interpretation of results and compromise conclusions regarding the weight-independent effects of dietary composition...
December 9, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230155/methodological-considerations-in-a-pilot-study-on-the-effects-of-a-berry-enriched-smoothie-on-children-s-performance-in-school
#3
Ulla Rosander, Kimmo Rumpunen, Viktoria Olsson, Mikael Åström, Pia Rosander, Karin Wendin
Berries contain bioactive compounds that may affect children's cognitive function positively, while hunger and thirst during lessons before lunch affect academic performance negatively. This pilot study addresses methodological challenges in studying if a berry smoothie, offered to schoolchildren as a mid-morning beverage, affects academic performance. The objective was to investigate if a cross-over design can be used to study these effects in a school setting. Therefore, in order to investigate assay sensitivity, 236 Swedish children aged 10-12 years were administered either a berry smoothie (active) or a fruit-based control beverage after their mid-morning break...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219202/disturbance-of-gut-satiety-peptide-in-purging-disorder
#4
Pamela K Keel, Lisa A Eckel, Britny A Hildebrandt, Alissa A Haedt-Matt, Jonathan Appelbaum, David C Jimerson
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about biological factors that contribute to purging after normal amounts of food-the central feature of purging disorder (PD). This study comes from a series of nested studies examining ingestive behaviors in bulimic syndromes and specifically evaluated the satiety peptide YY (PYY) and the hunger peptide ghrelin in women with PD (n = 25), bulimia nervosa-purging (BNp) (n = 26), and controls (n = 26). Based on distinct subjective responses to a fixed meal in PD (Keel, Wolfe, Liddle, DeYoung, & Jimerson, ), we tested whether postprandial PYY response was significantly greater and ghrelin levels significantly lower in women with PD compared to controls and women with BNp...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217499/severe-early-onset-obesity-due-to-a-novel-missense-mutation-in-exon-3-of-leptin-gene-in-an-infant-from-northwest-india
#5
Devi Dayal, Keerthivasan Seetharaman, Inusha Panigrahi, Muthuvel Balasubramaniyan, Ashish Agarwal
Monogenic obesity caused by mutations in one of the several genes involved in the control of hunger and satiety is a rare cause of early-onset obesity (EOO). The most common of the single gene alterations affect the LEP gene resulting in congenital leptin deficiency that manifests as intense hyperphagia, EOO and severe obesity associated hormonal and metabolic alterations. Only eight mutations of LEP gene associated with congenital leptin deficiency in humans have been described. In this study, we report a novel homozygous missense mutation in exon 3 of the LEP gene (chr7:127894610;c...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209779/central-regulation-of-brown-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-and-energy-homeostasis-dependent-on-food-availability
#6
REVIEW
Yoshiko Nakamura, Kazuhiro Nakamura
Energy homeostasis of mammals is maintained by balancing energy expenditure within the body and energy intake through feeding. Several lines of evidence indicate that brown adipose tissue (BAT), a sympathetically activated thermogenic organ, turns excess energy into heat to maintain the energy balance in rodents and humans, in addition to its thermoregulatory role for the defense of body core temperature in cold environments. Elucidating the central circuit mechanism controlling BAT thermogenesis dependent on nutritional conditions and food availability in relation to energy homeostasis is essential to understand the etiology of symptoms caused by energy imbalance, such as obesity...
December 5, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208688/the-impact-of-acute-bouts-of-interval-and-continuous-walking-on-energy-intake-and-appetite-regulation-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Ida A Müller, Anne-Sophie Wedell-Neergaard, Thomas P J Solomon, Kristian Karstoft
In healthy subjects, it has been suggested that exercise may acutely suppress energy-intake and appetite, with peak intensity being an important determinant for this effect. In subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the effect of exercise on appetite-related variables is, however, virtually unknown. We aimed to assess the effects of two exercise interventions, differing with regards to peak intensity, on energy-intake, satiety and appetite-related hormones in subjects with T2D. Thirteen subjects with T2D completed three 60-min interventions with continuous measurement of oxygen consumption in a randomized and counterbalanced order: (1) Control, (2) Continuous walking (CW; intended 73% of VO2peak), (3) Interval-walking (IW; repeated cycles of 3 min slow [54% of VO2peak] and 3 min fast walking [89% of VO2peak])...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202887/the-effects-of-gelled-konjac-glucomannan-fibre-on-appetite-and-energy-intake-in-healthy-individuals-a-randomised-cross-over-trial
#8
Fei Au-Yeung, Elena Jovanovski, Alexandra L Jenkins, Andreea Zurbau, Hoang V T Ho, Vladimir Vuksan
Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a viscous dietary fibre that can form a solid, low-energy gel when hydrated and is commonly consumed in a noodle form (KGM-gel). Increased meal viscosity from gel-forming fibres have been associated with prolonged satiety, but no studies to date have evaluated this effect with KGM-gel. Thus, our objective was to evaluate subsequent food intake and satiety of KGM-gel noodles when replacing a high-carbohydrate preload, in a dose-response manner. Utilising a randomised, controlled, cross-over design, sixteen healthy individuals (twelve females/four males; age: 26·0 (sd 11·8) years; BMI: 23·1 (sd 3·2) kg/m2) received 325 ml volume-matched preloads of three KGM-gel noodle substitution levels: (i) all pasta with no KGM-gel (1849 kJ (442 kcal), control), half pasta and half KGM-gel (1084 kJ (259 kcal), 50-KGM) or no pasta and all KGM-gel (322 kJ (77 kcal), 100-KGM)...
December 5, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185930/impact-of-sourdough-fermentation-on-appetite-and-postprandial-metabolic-responses-a-randomised-cross-over-trial-with-whole-grain-rye-crispbread
#9
Galia Zamaratskaia, Daniel P Johansson, Matheus Antunes Junqueira, Linda Deissler, Maud Langton, Per M Hellström, Rikard Landberg
Sourdough fermentation is considered to have beneficial effects on postprandial satiety and metabolic responses, but studies demonstrating effects at physiological conditions are lacking. The aim of this acute breakfast intervention study was to determine the effect of consumption of sourdough-fermented and unfermented rye crispbread on self-rated appetite, postprandial glucose and insulin response in healthy subjects. In all, twenty-four Swedish adults were included in a single-blinded, randomised cross-over trial...
November 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185929/impact-of-a-non-restrictive-satiating-diet-on-anthropometrics-satiety-responsiveness-and-eating-behaviour-traits-in-obese-men-displaying-a-high-or-a-low-satiety-phenotype
#10
Hélène Arguin, Angelo Tremblay, John E Blundell, Jean-Pierre Després, Denis Richard, Benoît Lamarche, Vicky Drapeau
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a non-restrictive satiating diet in men displaying various degrees of satiety efficiency. In all, sixty-nine obese men aged 41·5 (sd 5·7) years were randomly assigned to a control (10-15, 55-60 and 30 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 34) or satiating (20-25, 45-50 and 30-35 % energy as protein, carbohydrate and lipid, respectively; n 35) diet for 16 weeks, and were classified as having a low (LSP) or high (HSP) satiety phenotype...
November 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172246/obese-children-aged-4-6-displayed-decreased-fasting-and-postprandial-ghrelin-levels-in-response-to-a-test-meal
#11
Jenny Önnerfält, Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson, Caroline Montelius, Kristina Thorngren-Jerneck
AIM: Ghrelin is a hunger hormone that plays a role in glucose homeostasis and its levels increase before a meal and decrease during and after eating. This study compared the fasting ghrelin and insulin levels of obese children aged 4-6 with those of normal weight children and tested postprandial ghrelin levels in the obese children after a standard breakfast. METHODS: We recruited 67 children at Lund University Hospital from 2008-2011. They comprised 30 obese children from a weight study and 37 normal weight children receiving minor elective surgery...
November 24, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170486/effects-of-lipid-emulsion-particle-size-on-satiety-and-energy-intake-a-randomised-cross-over-trial
#12
Sally D Poppitt, Stephanie C Budgett, Alastair K MacGibbon, Siew-Young Quek, Sophie Kindleysides, Katy R Wiessing
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Emulsified lipids, with central lipid core surrounded by polar lipid 'protective coat', have been proposed to stimulate the ileal brake, alter appetite, food intake and aid weight control. In addition to lipid composition, emulsion particle size may contribute to efficacy with small droplets providing a larger surface area for gastrointestinal (GI) lipase action and larger droplets prolonging and delaying digestion in the GI tract. Tube feeding studies delivering emulsions directly into the small intestine show clear effects of smaller particle size on appetite and food intake, but evidence from oral feeding studies is sparse...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163315/does-short-term-hunger-increase-trust-and-trustworthiness-in-a-high-trust-society
#13
Elias Rantapuska, Riitta Freese, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Kaisa Hytönen
We build on the social heuristics hypothesis, the literature on the glucose model of self-control, and recent challenges on these hypotheses to investigate whether individuals exhibit a change in degree of trust and reciprocation after consumption of a meal. We induce short-term manipulation of hunger followed by the trust game and a decision on whether to leave personal belongings in an unlocked and unsupervised room. Our results are inconclusive. While, we report hungry individuals trusting and reciprocating more than those who have just consumed a meal in a high trust society, we fail to reject the null with small number of observations (N = 101) and experimental sessions (N = 8)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158116/is-intuitive-eating-related-to-resting-state-vagal-activity
#14
Stephanie K V Peschel, Tracy L Tylka, DeWayne P Williams, Michael Kaess, Julian F Thayer, Julian Koenig
Efferent and afferent fibers of the vagus nerve are involved in regulating hunger and satiety. Vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) reflects vagal activity. Previously no study addressed a potential association between resting state vagal activity and intuitive eating. Self-reports on intuitive eating and measures of resting state vmHRV were obtained in 39 students (16 female, mean age: 19.64±1.44years). Hierarchical multiple regression models showed that, after controlling for gender, age, and body mass index, resting vagal activity was inversely related to the Unconditional Permission to Eat subscale of the Intuitive Eating scale...
November 15, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157765/the-effect-of-preoperative-oral-carbohydrate-solution-intake-on-patient-comfort-a-randomized-controlled-study
#15
Emel Çakar, Emel Yilmaz, Ekrem Çakar, Hakan Baydur
PURPOSE: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate loading on the preoperative discomforts and postoperative complications of patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy. DESIGN: A randomized controlled clinical trial. METHODS: Ninety patients scheduled for thyroidectomy were divided into three groups: (1) those receiving a carbohydrate-rich drink (CHD), (2) those receiving an overnight 5% glucose intravenous infusion, and (3) those fasting from midnight...
December 2017: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154884/double-up-examining-the-effects-of-adding-inhibition-training-to-food-cue-exposure-in-chocolate-loving-female-students
#16
Peggy Bongers, Katrijn Houben, Anita Jansen
In the present we study investigated whether addition of a Go/No Go training enhanced the effects of food cue exposure. We assessed desire to eat, salivation, CS-US expectancies, and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) during and after cue exposure. Participants (N = 71) were chocolate-loving female students who tried to eat less chocolate in daily life. They received two sessions of either cue exposure with Go/No Go training (EXP + GNG), cue exposure with a sham training (EXP + shamGNG), or a control procedure with sham training (CON + shamGNG)...
November 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149038/adherence-to-hunger-training-over-6-months-and-the-effect-on-weight-and-eating-behaviour-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Michelle R Jospe, Rachael W Taylor, Josie Athens, Melyssa Roy, Rachel C Brown
Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to 'hunger training' influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of adherence to 'hunger training', chosen a priori, to examine which adherence measure best predicted weight loss over 6 months. We subsequently explored how the best measure of adherence influenced eating behavior in terms of intuitive and emotional eating...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143554/the-octanoylated-energy-regulating-hormone-ghrelin-an-expanded-view-of-ghrelin-s-biological-interactions-and-avenues-for-controlling-ghrelin-signaling
#18
Elizabeth R Cleverdon, Kayleigh R McGovern-Gooch, James L Hougland
Ghrelin is a small peptide hormone that requires a unique post-translational modification, serine octanoylation, to bind and activate the GHS-R1a receptor. Initially demonstrated to stimulate hunger and appetite, ghrelin-dependent signaling is implicated in a variety of neurological and physiological processes influencing diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and Prader-Willi syndrome. In addition to its cognate receptor, recent studies have revealed ghrelin interacts with a range of binding partners within the bloodstream...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143063/translating-aetiological-insight-into-sustainable-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Roy Taylor, Alison C Barnes
Using a low-energy diet as a tool, it has been possible to elucidate the sequence of pathophysiological changes that lead to the onset of type 2 diabetes. Negative energy balance in type 2 diabetes causes a profound fall in liver fat content resulting in normalisation of hepatic insulin sensitivity within 7 days. As the period of negative energy balance extends and liver fat levels fall to low normal, the rate of export of triacylglycerol from the liver falls. Consequent to this, the raised pancreas fat content falls and in early type 2 diabetes, normal first-phase insulin secretion becomes re-established with normal plasma glucose control...
November 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140262/influence-of-professional-affiliation-on-expert-s-view-on-welfare-measures
#20
Nina Dam Otten, Tine Rousing, Björn Forkman
The present study seeks to investigate the influence of expert affiliation in the weighing procedures within animal welfare assessments. Experts are often gathered with different backgrounds with differing approaches to animal welfare posing a potential pitfall if affiliation groups are not balanced in numbers of experts. At two time points (2012 and 2016), dairy cattle and swine experts from four different stakeholder groups, namely researchers (RES), production advisors (CONS), practicing veterinarians (VET) and animal welfare control officers (AWC) were asked to weigh eight different welfare criteria: Hunger, Thirst, Resting comfort, Ease of movement, Injuries, Disease, Human-animal bond and Emotional state...
November 15, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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