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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315588/neuromedin-an-insight-into-its-types-receptors-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#1
REVIEW
Saumitra Gajjar, Bhoomika M Patel
Neuropeptides are small protein used by neurons in signal communications. Neuromedin U was the first neuropeptide discovered from the porcine spinal and showed its potent constricting activities on uterus hence was entitled with neuromedin U. Following neuromedin U another of its isoform was discovered neuromedin S which was observed in suprachiasmatic nucleus hence was entitled neuromedin S. Neuromedin K and neuromedin L are of kanassin class which belong to tachykinin family. Bombesin family consists of neuromedin B and neuromedin C...
January 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301916/a-role-of-central-nell2-in-the-regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-rats
#2
Jin Kwon Jeong, Jae Geun Kim, Han Rae Kim, Tae Hwan Lee, Jeong Woo Park, Byung Ju Lee
A brain-enriched secreting signal peptide, NELL2, has been suggested to play multiple roles in the development, survival, and activity of neurons in mammal. We investigated here a possible involvement of central NELL2 in regulating feeding behavior and metabolism. In situ hybridization and an immunohistochemical approach were used to determine expression of NELL2 as well as its colocalization with proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the rat hypothalamus. To investigate the effect of NELL2 on feeding behavior, 2 nmole of antisense NELL2 oligodeoxynucleotide was administered into the lateral ventricle of adult male rat brains for 6 consecutive days, and changes in daily body weight, food, and water intake were monitored...
March 15, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294985/effects-of-a-diet-based-weight-reducing-program-with-probiotic-supplementation-on-satiety-efficiency-eating-behaviour-traits-and-psychosocial-behaviours-in-obese-individuals
#3
Marina Sanchez, Christian Darimont, Shirin Panahi, Vicky Drapeau, André Marette, Valerie H Taylor, Jean Doré, Angelo Tremblay
This study evaluated the impact of probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR)) on appetite sensations and eating behaviors in the context of a weight-reducing program. Obese men (n = 45) and women (n = 60) participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that included a 12-week weight loss period (Phase 1) based on moderate energy restriction, followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance (Phase 2). During the two phases of the program, each subject consumed two capsules per day of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (10 mg of LPR equivalent to 1...
March 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294700/food-intake-and-appetite-following-school-based-high-intensity-interval-training-in-9-11-year-old-children
#4
Anna Morris, Robert Cramb, Caroline J Dodd-Reynolds
Using a randomised cross-over design, free-living lunch intake and subjective appetite were examined in 10 children (9.8 ± 0.6 years) following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus a control sedentary (SED) period, within a school setting. The 22-min HIIT took place during a regular PE lesson and consisted of two rounds of 4 × 30 s sprints. Foods were offered at a regular school lunch immediately following HIIT and SED and were matched between conditions. All food was covertly weighed before and after the meal...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286674/the-effect-of-exercise-intensity-on-total-pyy-and-glp-1-in-healthy-females-a-pilot-study
#5
Jillian R Hallworth, Jennifer L Copeland, Jon Doan, Tom J Hazell
We compared the acute response of anorexigenic signals (total PYY and GLP-1) in response to submaximal and supramaximal exercise. Nine females completed three sessions: (1) moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; 30 min; 65%  VO2max); (2) sprint interval training (SIT; 6 × 30 sec "all-out" cycling sprints with 4 min recovery); or (3) control (CTRL; no exercise). PYY and GLP-1 were measured via blood samples drawn before, immediately after, and 90 min after exercise. Perceptions of hunger were rated using a visual analogue scale at all blood sampling time points...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281136/ecological-momentary-assessment-of-dietary-lapses-across-behavioral-weight-loss-treatment-characteristics-predictors-and-relationships-with-weight-change
#6
Evan M Forman, Leah M Schumacher, Ross Crosby, Stephanie M Manasse, Stephanie P Goldstein, Meghan L Butryn, Emily P Wyckoff, J Graham Thomas
BACKGROUND: Adherence to dietary prescriptions is critical for successful weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, research on specific instances of inadherence (lapses) is limited, and findings regarding the frequency, nature, and causes of lapses are mixed. Additionally, no studies have examined lapses over the course of a weight loss program. PURPOSE: In the context of a reduced calorie diet prescribed as part of a behavioral treatment, we aimed to characterize lapse occurrence, examine lapse frequency across treatment, examine predictors of lapses, and assess the relationship between lapses and weight loss...
March 9, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273120/further-investigation-of-phenotypes-and-confounding-factors-of-progressive-ratio-performance-and-feeding-behavior-in-the-bachd-rat-model-of-huntington-disease
#7
Erik Karl Håkan Clemensson, Laura Emily Clemensson, Benedikt Fabry, Olaf Riess, Huu Phuc Nguyen
Huntington disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, psychiatric and metabolic symptoms. We recently published a study describing that the BACHD rat model of HD shows an obesity phenotype, which might affect their motivation to perform food-based behavioral tests. Further, we argued that using a food restriction protocol based on matching BACHD and wild type rats' food consumption rates might resolve these motivational differences. In the current study, we followed up on these ideas in a longitudinal study of the rats' performance in a progressive ratio test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266779/effects-of-once-weekly-semaglutide-on-appetite-energy-intake-control-of-eating-food-preference-and-body-weight-in-subjects-with-obesity
#8
John Blundell, Graham Finlayson, Mads Buhl Axelsen, Anne Flint, Catherine Gibbons, Trine Kvist, Julie Hjerpsted
AIM: To investigate the mechanism of action for body weight loss with semaglutide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial investigated the effects of 12 weeks treatment with once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide, dose-escalated to 1.0 mg, in 30 subjects with obesity. Ad libitum energy intake, ratings of appetite, thirst, nausea and well-being, control of eating, food preference, resting metabolic rate, body weight and body composition were assessed...
March 7, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231304/a-four-day-western-style-dietary-intervention-causes-reductions-in-hippocampal-dependent-learning-and-memory-and-interoceptive-sensitivity
#9
Tuki Attuquayefio, Richard J Stevenson, Megan J Oaten, Heather M Francis
In animals, a Western style diet-high in saturated fat and added sugar-causes impairments in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory (HDLM) and perception of internal bodily state (interoception). In humans, while there is correlational support for a link between Western-style diet, HDLM, and interoception, there is as yet no causal data. Here, healthy individuals were randomly assigned to consume either a breakfast high in saturated fat and added sugar (Experimental condition) or a healthier breakfast (Control condition), over four consecutive days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229540/introduction-to-special-issue-self-regulation-of-appetite-it-s-complicated
#10
Deborah Young-Hyman
OBJECTIVE: A meeting of multidisciplinary biobehavioral scientists and National Institutes of Health (NIH) program staff was convened by the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives, Office of the Director, NIH to examine mechanisms associated with humans' ability to self-regulate appetite and appetitive behavior. METHODS: Based upon prior discussions of the NIH Obesity Research Task Force Behavioral Phenotyping Work Group, the premise was adopted that, in modern society, multiple factors on multiple levels interact to create circumstances wherein self-control of appetite is difficult, leading to overconsumption of unhealthy foods versus healthy eating patterns, contributing to our current levels of obesity...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228348/carbon-dioxide-in-carbonated-beverages-induces-ghrelin-release-and-increased-food-consumption-in-male-rats-implications-on-the-onset-of-obesity
#11
Dureen Samandar Eweis, Fida Abed, Johnny Stiban
BACKGROUND: The dangerous health risks associated with obesity makes it a very serious public health issue. Numerous studies verified a correlation between the increase in obesity and the parallel increase in soft drink consumption among world populations. The effects of one main component in soft drinks namely the carbon dioxide gas has not been studied thoroughly in any previous research. METHODS: Male rats were subjected to different categories of drinks and evaluated for over a year...
February 19, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224319/fine-morphological-evaluation-of-hypothalamus-in-patients-with-hyperphagia
#12
Yoshikazu Ogawa, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Teiji Tominaga
BACKGROUND: Various metabolic diseases induced by eating disorders are some of the most serious and difficult problems for modern public healthcare. However, little is known about hyperphagia, partly because of the lack of a clear definition. Several basic studies have analyzed eating habits using endocrinological or neurophysiological approaches, which have suggested a controlled balance between the hunger and satiety centers in the central nervous system. However, more detailed neuro-radiologic evaluations have not been achieved for the hypothalamus, and evaluations were limited only to the floor of the third ventricles...
February 21, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222625/shortened-preoperative-fasting-for-prevention-of-complications-associated-with-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-a-meta-analysis
#13
Duo Xu, Xuejiao Zhu, Yuan Xu, Liqing Zhang
Objective Routine fasting (12 h) is always applied before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but prolonged preoperative fasting causes thirst, hunger, and irritability as well as dehydration, low blood glucose, insulin resistance and other adverse reactions. We assessed the safety and efficacy of a shortened preoperative fasting period in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to 20 November 2015 and selected controlled trials with a shortened fasting time before laparoscopic cholecystectomy...
February 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215543/the-mediating-role-of-child-self-regulation-of-eating-in-the-relationship-between-parental-use-of-food-as-a-reward-and-child-emotional-overeating
#14
Elisabeth M Powell, Leslie A Frankel, Daphne C Hernandez
Emotional eating, or eating in response to negative emotions rather than internal hunger cues, has been related to many maladaptive eating patterns that contribute to weight gain and obesity. The parent feeding practice of use of food as a reward is positively associated with children emotionally overeating, yet, little is known as to the potential behavioral mechanism linking these behaviors. The current study examined the mediating role of child self-regulation of eating in the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating...
February 16, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197123/altered-regional-gray-matter-volume-in-obese-men-a-structural-mri-study
#15
Bin Zhang, Xiao Tian, Derun Tian, Jinhong Wang, Qiming Wang, Chunshui Yu, Chunbo Li, Jijun Wang
Obesity is associated with a number of health problems, especial insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Our previous study showed that obese males had decreased neural activity in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and increased activity in the left putamen (Zhang et al., 2015b), which could indicate altered eating behaviors in obesity related to a hyper-functioning striatum and hypo-functioning inhibitory control. Accordingly, our goal of the current study was to determine whether there are alterations in the brain structures within these two neural systems in obese individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176035/the-relationship-between-intuitive-eating-and-postpartum-weight-loss
#16
Katie Leahy, Kristoffer S Berlin, Gabrielle G Banks, Jessica Bachman
Objective Postpartum weight loss is challenging for new mothers who report limited time and difficulties following traditional weight loss methods. Intuitive eating (IE) is a behavior that includes eating based on physical hunger and fullness and may have a role in encouraging weight loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IE and postpartum weight loss. Methods Women 12-18 months postpartum completed a questionnaire regarding weight changes surrounding pregnancy, exercise, breastfeeding and intuitive eating using the Intuitive Eating Scale...
February 7, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154977/sex-differences-in-the-response-of-total-pyy-and-glp-1-to-moderate-intensity-continuous-and-sprint-interval-cycling-exercise
#17
Tom J Hazell, Logan K Townsend, Jillian R Hallworth, Jon Doan, Jennifer L Copeland
BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions are often less effective at improving body composition for females than males, potentially due to post-exercise hormonal responses that increase energy intake in females. Recently, sprint interval training was shown to effectively reduce body fat in females despite being relatively low during exercise energy expenditure. PURPOSE: To determine whether any sex difference in total PYY, GLP-1 or perceived hunger exists following moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICT) and sprint interval exercise (SIT) METHODS: Twenty-one active participants (11 females) participated in three sessions in a randomized crossover design: (1) MICT, 30-min cycling at 65% VO2max; (2) SIT, 6 × 30 s "all-out" sprints with 4-min recovery periods; (3) control (CTRL; no exercise)...
March 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148682/dietary-protein-modifies-the-effect-of-the-mc4r-genotype-on-2-year-changes-in-appetite-and-food-craving-the-pounds-lost-trial
#18
Tao Huang, Yan Zheng, Adela Hruby, Donald A Williamson, George A Bray, Yiru Shen, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
BACKGROUND: The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of appetite and eating behavior. Variants in the MC4R gene have been related to appetite and obesity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine whether weight-loss diets modified the effect of the "obesity-predisposing" MC4R genotype on appetite-related measures in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 811 overweight and obese subjects [25 ≤ body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) ≤ 40] aged 30-70 y were included in the 2-y POUNDS Lost (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies) trial...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139153/effects-of-puddings-containing-whey-protein-and-polydextrose-on-subjective-feelings-of-appetite-and-short-term-energy-intake-in-healthy-adults
#19
Marcela Martinelli, Florencia Walz, Eva Goñi, Giovanna Passutti, Carlos Osella, Silvina R Drago
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of puddings with whey protein (WP) and polidextrose (PX) on appetite feelings and energy intake. A single-blind randomized, crossover study was carried out in 25 healthy adults. Participants consumed two different puddings, including control or test pudding (12.9 g WP and 6 g PX). Two testing days were completed, including satiety questionnaires and ad libitum lunch. For all participants, energy intake at lunch was similar after consumption of control or test pudding...
January 31, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134508/synthetic-triterpenoid-inhibition-of-human-ghrelin-o-acyltransferase-the-involvement-of-a-functionally-required-cysteine-provides-mechanistic-insight-into-ghrelin-acylation
#20
Kayleigh R McGovern-Gooch, Nivedita S Mahajani, Ariana Garagozzo, Anthony J Schramm, Lauren G Hannah, Michelle A Sieburg, John D Chisholm, James L Hougland
The peptide hormone ghrelin plays a key role in regulating hunger and energy balance within the body. Ghrelin signaling presents a promising and unexploited target for development of small molecule therapeutics for treatment of obesity, diabetes, and other health conditions. Inhibition of ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), which catalyzes an essential octanoylation step in ghrelin maturation, offers a potential avenue for controlling ghrelin signaling. Through screening a small molecule library, we have identified a class of synthetic triterpenoids that efficiently inhibit ghrelin acylation by the human isoform of GOAT (hGOAT)...
February 21, 2017: Biochemistry
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