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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924813/taotie-neurons-regulate-appetite-in-drosophila
#1
Yin Peng Zhan, Li Liu, Yan Zhu
The brain has an essential role in maintaining a balance between energy intake and expenditure of the body. Deciphering the processes underlying the decision-making for timely feeding of appropriate amounts may improve our understanding of physiological and psychological disorders related to feeding control. Here, we identify a group of appetite-enhancing neurons in a behavioural screen for flies with increased appetite. Manipulating the activity of these neurons, which we name Taotie neurons, induces bidirectional changes in feeding motivation...
December 7, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923254/-influence-of-attachment-style-on-the-outcome-of-bariatric-surgery-a-pilot-study
#2
Johanna Elisabeth Appel, Franziska Ift, Hermann Kißler, Christof Kloos, Thomas Lehmann, Bernhard Strauß, Katharina Wick
Background: Bariatric surgery can lower body weight and comorbidities. Different factors might influence the outcome of this treatment. This pilot study examines whether patients' attachment style can influence surgical outcome. Methods: The sample consisted of 32 patients (f=24; m=8; BMI preoperative=47,8 kg/m(2)±5,2; age=53±9,84) who underwent a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. The following variables were assessed pre- and postoperatively via questionnaires: quality of life (BAROS), self esteem (SES), depression, anxiety, psychological distress (SCL-90R), feelings of hunger, cognitive control, irritated eating behaviour (FEV) and weight related variables (BMI, EWL%, EBL%, TBL)...
December 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919269/comparison-of-voluntary-food-intake-and-palatability-of-commercial-weight-loss-diets-in-healthy-dogs-and-cats
#3
Marie Anne Hours, Emmanuelle Sagols, Ariane Junien-Castagna, Alexandre Feugier, Delphine Moniot, Ingrid Daniel, Vincent Biourge, Serisier Samuel, Yann Queau, Alexander J German
BACKGROUND: Obesity in dogs and cats is usually managed by dietary energy restriction using a purpose-formulated weight loss diet, but signs of hunger and begging commonly occur causing poor owner compliance. Altering diet characteristics so as to reduce voluntary food intake (VFI) can improve the likelihood of success, although this should not be at the expense of palatability. The aim of the current study was to compare the VFI and palatibility of novel commercially available canine and feline weight loss diets...
December 5, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917799/effect-of-one-unit-blood-donation-on-appetite-related-biomarkers
#4
Husamettin Erdamar, Muzaffer Cakmak
PURPOSE: It is commonly reported that blood donation (BD) leads to an increase in appetite. To investigate this claim, a questionnaire was offered to 306 people who had a history of BD at least once in their life. Following a positive outcome from the questionnaire, we further investigated the impact of BD on appetite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire study consists of a 5-question survey with VAS was performed on 399 volunteers. Later, 108 volunteers were enrolled in a laboratory study...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916475/effects-of-polydextrose-with-breakfast-or-with-a-midmorning-preload-on-food-intake-and-other-appetite-related-parameters-in-healthy-normal-weight-and-overweight-females-an-acute-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-and-crossover-study
#5
Alvin Ibarra, Kaisa Olli, Wilrike Pasman, Henk Hendriks, Esa Alhoniemi, Ghulam Shere Raza, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Kirsti Tiihonen
Polydextrose (PDX) reduces subsequent energy intake (EI) when administered at midmorning in single-blind trials of primarily normal-weight men. However, it is unclear if this effect also occurs when PDX is given at breakfast time. Furthermore, for ecological validity, it is desirable to study a female population, including those at risk for obesity. We studied the effects of PDX, served as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915379/nr2a-and-nr2b-nmda-receptors-and-drebrin-within-postsynaptic-spines-of-the-hippocampus-correlate-with-hunger-evoked-exercise
#6
Yi-Wen Chen, Hannah Actor-Engel, Ang Doma Sherpa, Lauren Klingensmith, Tara G Chowdhury, Chiye Aoki
Hunger evokes foraging. This innate response can be quantified as voluntary wheel running following food restriction (FR). Paradoxically, imposing severe FR evokes voluntary FR, as some animals choose to run rather than eat, even during limited periods of food availability. This phenomenon, called activity-based anorexia (ABA), has been used to identify brain changes associated with FR and excessive exercise (EX), two core symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN), and to explore neurobiological bases of AN vulnerability...
December 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901032/from-the-past-to-future-from-energy-expenditure-to-energy-intake-to-energy-expenditure
#7
REVIEW
M J Müller, C Geisler
Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890592/small-particle-size-lipid-emulsions-satiety-and-energy-intake-in-lean-men
#8
Y K Chan, S C Budgett, A K MacGibbon, S Y Quek, S Kindleysides, S D Poppitt
Lipid emulsions have been proposed to suppress hunger and food intake. Whilst there is no consensus on optimal structural properties or mechanism of action, small particle size (small-PS) stable emulsions may have greatest efficacy. Fabuless®, a commercial lipid emulsion reported in some studies to decrease energy intake (EI), is a small-PS, 'hard' fat emulsion comprising highly saturated palm oil base (PS, 82nm). To determine whether small-PS dairy lipid emulsions can enhance satiety, firstly, we investigated 2 'soft' fat dairy emulsions generated using dairy and soy emulsifying agents (PS, 114nm and 121nm) and a non-emulsified dairy control...
November 24, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885554/short-term-effects-of-a-green-coffee-extract-garcinia-c-ambogia-and-l-carnitine-containing-chewing-gum-on-snack-intake-and-appetite-regulation
#9
Cecilia Bobillo, Graham Finlayson, Ana Martínez, Daniela Fischman, Analisa Beneitez, Alejandro J Ferrero, Belisario E Fernández, Marcos A Mayer
INTRODUCTION: Different studies have assessed the influence of chewing gum to aid control of appetite and reduce food intake. PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of chewing gum on satiety, food hedonics and snack intake and to explore the potential effects of the combination of Garcinia c ambogia, green coffee extract and L-carnitine on satiety, when administered in a gum format. METHODS: This was a prospective study in which 57 subjects randomly received three kinds of treatments, in a crossover design: (1) active gum; (2) placebo gum; and (3) no gum...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877118/contexts-paired-with-junk-food-impair-goal-directed-behavior-in-rats-implications-for-decision-making-in-obesogenic-environments
#10
Michael D Kendig, Ambrose M K Cheung, Joel S Raymond, Laura H Corbit
The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behavior. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three "junk" foods (JFs context) and another containing chow (Chow context)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866988/the-effects-of-partial-sleep-restriction-and-altered-sleep-timing-on-appetite-and-food-reward
#11
Jessica McNeil, Geneviève Forest, Luzia Jaeger Hintze, Jean-François Brunet, Graham Finlayson, John E Blundell, Éric Doucet
: We examined the effects of partial sleep restriction (PSR) with an advanced wake-time or delayed bedtime on measures of appetite, food reward and subsequent energy intake (EI). Twelve men and 6 women (age: 23 ± 4 years, body fat: 18.8 ± 10.1%) participated in 3 randomized crossover sessions: control (habitual bed- and wake-time), 50% PSR with an advanced wake-time and 50% PSR with a delayed bedtime. Outcome variables included sleep architecture (polysomnography), ad libitum EI (validated food menu), appetite sensations (visual analogue scales), satiety quotient (SQ; mm/100 kcal) and food reward (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire and the relative-reinforcing value (RRV) of preferred food task)...
November 17, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866800/neural-architecture-of-hunger-dependent-multisensory-decision-making-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#12
D Dipon Ghosh, Tom Sanders, Soonwook Hong, Li Yan McCurdy, Daniel L Chase, Netta Cohen, Michael R Koelle, Michael N Nitabach
Little is known about how animals integrate multiple sensory inputs in natural environments to balance avoidance of danger with approach to things of value. Furthermore, the mechanistic link between internal physiological state and threat-reward decision making remains poorly understood. Here we confronted C. elegans worms with the decision whether to cross a hyperosmotic barrier presenting the threat of desiccation to reach a source of food odor. We identified a specific interneuron that controls this decision via top-down extrasynaptic aminergic potentiation of the primary osmosensory neurons to increase their sensitivity to the barrier...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859193/the-importance-of-motivation-weapons-and-foul-odors-in-driving-encounter-competition-in-carnivores
#13
Maximilian L Allen, Christopher C Wilmers, L Mark Elbroch, Julie M Golla, Heiko U Wittmer
Encounter competition is interference competition in which animals directly contend for resources. Ecological theory predicts the trait that determines the resource holding potential (RHP), and hence the winner of encounter competition, is most often body size or mass. The difficulties of observing encounter competition in complex organisms in natural environments, however, has limited opportunities to test this theory across diverse species. We studied the outcome of encounter competition contests among mesocarnivores at deer carcasses in California to determine the most important variables for winning these contests...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845156/coping-food-craving-with-neurofeedback-evaluation-of-the-usefulness-of-alpha-theta-training-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#14
Claudio Imperatori, Enrico Maria Valenti, Giacomo Della Marca, Noemi Amoroso, Chiara Massullo, Giuseppe Alessio Carbone, Giulia Maestoso, Maria Isabella Quintiliani, Anna Contardi, Benedetto Farina
The aim of the present study was to explore the usefulness of the alpha/theta (A/T) training in reducing Food Craving (FC) in a non-clinical sample. The modifications of electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectra associated with A/T training was also investigated. Fifty subjects were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to receive ten sessions of A/T training [neurofeedback group (NFG)=25], or to act as controls [waiting list group (WLG)=25]. All participants were administered the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836636/influence-of-bmi-and-dietary-restraint-on-self-selected-portions-of-prepared-meals-in-us-women
#15
David Labbe, Andréas Rytz, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Ciarán G Forde, Nathalie Martin
The rise of obesity prevalence has been attributed in part to an increase in food and beverage portion sizes selected and consumed among overweight and obese consumers. Nevertheless, evidence from observations of adults is mixed and contradictory findings might reflect the use of small or unrepresentative samples. The objective of this study was i) to determine the extent to which BMI and dietary restraint predict self-selected portion sizes for a range of commercially available prepared savoury meals and ii) to consider the importance of these variables relative to two previously established predictors of portion selection, expected satiation and expected liking...
November 8, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836626/stress-induced-eating-in-women-with-binge-eating-disorder-and-obesity
#16
Rebecca R Klatzkin, Sierra Gaffney, Kathryn Cyrus, Elizabeth Bigus, Kimberly A Brownley
The purpose of the current study was to investigate stress-induced eating in women with binge-eating disorder (BED) and obesity. Three groups of women [obese with BED (n=9); obese non-BED (n=11); and normal weight (NW) non-BED (n=12)], rated their levels of hunger and psychological distress before and after completing the Trier Social Stress Test, followed by food anticipation and then consumption of their preferred snack food. We differentiated between the motivational and hedonic components of eating by measuring the amount of food participants poured into a serving bowl compared to the amount consumed...
November 9, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836309/changes-in-taste-and-smell-function-dietary-intake-food-preference-and-body-composition-in-testicular-cancer-patients-treated-with-cisplatin-based-chemotherapy
#17
Irene IJpma, Remco J Renken, Jourik A Gietema, Riemer H J A Slart, Manon G J Mensink, Joop D Lefrandt, Gert J Ter Horst, Anna K L Reyners
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Taste and smell changes due to chemotherapy may contribute to the high prevalence of overweight in testicular cancer patients (TCPs). This study investigates the taste and smell function, dietary intake, food preference, and body composition in TCPs before, during, and up to 1 year after cisplatin-based chemotherapy. METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive TCPs participated. At baseline TCPs were compared to healthy controls (N = 48). Taste strips and 'Sniffin' Sticks' were used to determine psychophysical taste and smell function...
October 27, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811949/small-intestinal-protein-infusion-in-humans-evidence-for-a-location-specific-gradient-in-intestinal-feedback-on-food-intake-and-gi-peptide-release
#18
M van Avesaat, D Ripken, H F J Hendriks, A A M Masclee, F J Troost
BACKGROUND: Protein infusion in the small intestine results in intestinal brake activation: a negative feedback mechanism that may be mediated by the release of GI peptides resulting in a reduction in food intake. It has been proposed that duodenum, jejunum and ileum may respond differently to infused proteins. OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in ad libitum food intake, feelings of hunger and satiety and the systemic levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), glucose and insulin after intraduodenal, intrajejunal and intraileal protein infusion...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806865/altered-neural-efficiency-of-decision-making-during-temporal-reward-discounting-in-anorexia-nervosa
#19
Joseph A King, Daniel Geisler, Fabio Bernardoni, Franziska Ritschel, Ilka Böhm, Maria Seidel, Eva Mennigen, Stephan Ripke, Michael N Smolka, Veit Roessner, Stefan Ehrlich
OBJECTIVE: The ability of individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) to resist hunger and restrict caloric intake is often believed to reflect an unusual amount of self-control. However, the underlying neural substrate is poorly understood, especially in adolescent patients. METHOD: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used during an intertemporal choice task to probe the hemodynamic correlates of a common measurement of self-control-delayed (monetary) reward discounting-in a sample of acutely ill, predominately adolescent female patients with AN (n = 31) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 31)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789251/presence-of-music-while-eating-effects-on-energy-intake-eating-rate-and-appetite-sensations
#20
Eirini Mamalaki, Konstantina Zachari, Eleni Karfopoulou, Efthimios Zervas, Mary Yannakoulia
The role of music in energy and dietary intake of humans is poorly understood. The purpose of the present laboratory study was to examine the effect of background music, its presence and its intensity, on energy intake, eating rate and appetite feelings. The study had a randomized crossover design. Twenty-six normal weight and overweight/obese men participated in random order in three trials: the control trial (no music was playing), the 60dB and the 90dB music trials, while an ad libitum lunch was consumed...
January 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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