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Hunger control

E Scarpellini, E Deloose, R Vos, I Francois, J A Delcour, W F Broekaert, K Verbeke, J Tack
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prebiotics such as Arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) are non-digestible, fermentable food ingredients stimulating growth/activity of colonic bacteria with enhanced carbohydrates fermentation (CF) in humans. The migrating motor complex (MMC) of the gastrointestinal tract has been recently identified as an important hunger signal, but no data are available yet on the role of acute CF on MMC activity and related hunger ratings. Thus, we aimed to study the effect of acute AXOS CF on MMC and hunger in humans...
February 13, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Suzanne Higgs, Maartje S Spetter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review organises the recent literature on the role of memory in eating behaviours and provides an overview of the current evidence relating to the associations between memory and weight gain. RECENT FINDINGS: Research over the last few years has highlighted working memory as an important cognitive process that underpins many aspects of appetite control. Recent work on episodic memory and appetite has replicated work showing that manipulating memory for recent eating affects later consumption and extended this work to examine associations between individual differences in memory and eating behaviours...
February 12, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
Christine H Emilien, Yong Zhu, Walter H Hsu, Patricia Williamson, James H Hollis
OBJECTIVES: This crossover study investigated the effect of consuming a beverage that contains soluble fiber dextrin (SFD) on appetite and food intake in adults to test the hypothesis that beverages that contain 10 or 20 g of fiber from SFD would be more satiating than the control beverage. METHODS: Forty-one participants consumed lunch with a beverage that contained 0 g, 10 g, or 20 g of fiber from SFD. Appetite questionnaires were completed and blood samples collected immediately before lunch and at regular intervals over the following 150 min...
March 2018: Nutrition
Giuseppina Costabile, Ettore Griffo, Paola Cipriano, Claudia Vetrani, Marilena Vitale, Gianfranco Mamone, Angela A Rivellese, Gabriele Riccardi, Rosalba Giacco
Dietary fiber and whole grain foods may contribute to the regulation of appetite; however, evidence has produced inconclusive findings. The objective was to evaluate the effects of an experimental wholemeal pasta on appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones involved in appetite control, and postprandial glucose/insulin responses in healthy adults. Fourteen healthy adults (7M/7F), mean age 30 ± 2 yrs (mean ± SEM), participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial...
February 7, 2018: Appetite
Stephanie Cox, Cassie Brode
BACKGROUND: Current and lifetime psychopathology is common in adult patients seeking bariatric surgery, with major depressive disorder and binge eating disorder affecting a higher proportion of this group than the general population. While depressive symptoms have been previously associated with eating pathology, potential mediators of this relationship are not well understood. METHODS: This study used a naturalistic, retrospective design to investigate cognitive and behavioral aspects of eating behavior (cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger) as potential mediators of the relationship between depressive symptoms and binge eating within a sample of 119 adult patients (82...
February 7, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Shelly K Annameier, Nichole R Kelly, Amber B Courville, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Jack A Yanovski, Lauren B Shomaker
Mindfulness-based intervention has become increasingly popular to address disinhibited eating in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Theoretically, present-moment attention promotes the ability to recognize and respond to internal hunger cues and to differentiate physiological hunger from other stimuli. Yet, there is limited research describing the relationship of mindfulness with disinhibited eating patterns in adolescents. In this study, we evaluated the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to laboratory eating in 107 adolescent (12-17 years) girls at risk for T2D...
January 30, 2018: Appetite
Teresa T Fung, Sheila Isanaka, Frank B Hu, Walter C Willett
Background: Standard diet quality assessment tools, which measure micronutrient sufficiency and food consumption related to disease and applicable to different populations, are needed to track progress in meeting the Sustainable Development Goals related to hunger, food security, and nutrition. Diet quality scores have been constructed for high- and low-income countries, but none are simple to administer or applicable internationally. Objective: We prospectively examined the association between the Food Group Index (FGI), the Minimal Diet Diversity Score for Women (MDDW), and a new Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), and the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in 3 US cohorts...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Dongxing Zhao, Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Eveline Deloose, Julie Iven, Nathalie Weltens, Inge Depoortere, Owen O'daly, Jan Tack, Lukas Van Oudenhove
The motilin agonist, erythromycin, induces gastric phase III of the migrating motor complex, which in turn generates hunger peaks. To identify the brain mechanisms underlying these orexigenic effects, 14 healthy women participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Functional magnetic resonance brain images were acquired for 50 minutes interprandially. Intravenous infusion of erythromycin (40 mg) or saline started 10 minutes after the start of scanning. Blood samples (for glucose and hormone levels) and hunger ratings were collected at fixed timepoints...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amir Shmueli
Although the management of quality of care by the health funds has contributed to its improvement, medical teams criticize the way it is performed. Many call for renewed values-driven thinking and to leave the concern for quality in the hands of the medical teams, relying on "self control and enforcement", based on values, compassion, concern for others, patient service, discipline and personal responsibility. This article aims to present an economic perspective on the measurement of quality of care. It places the development of "measuring the quality of care and its management" within the development of the organization of care, health insurance and payment arrangements for medical teams...
January 2018: Harefuah
Maria L Stewart, Meredith L Wilcox, Marjorie Bell, Mary A Buggia, Kevin C Maki
Resistant starch (RS) is a type of dietary fiber that has been acknowledged for multiple physiological benefits. Resistant starch type 4 (RS4) is a subcategory of RS that has been more intensively studied as new types of RS4 emerge in the food supply. The primary aim of this randomized, double-blind, controlled study was to characterize the postprandial glucose response in healthy adults after consuming a high fiber scone containing a novel RS4 or a low fiber control scone without RS4. Secondary aims included assessment of postprandial insulin response, postprandial satiety, and gastrointestinal tolerance...
January 26, 2018: Nutrients
Jon Davis
Hunger is defined as a craving or urgent need for food. Abundant evidence now indicates that homeostatic and cognitive mechanisms promote the sensation of hunger. Communication between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the central nervous system (CNS) regulate both homeostatic and cognitive mechanisms to control feeding behavior. In this context the GI derived feeding peptide ghrelin, targets the CNS to promote food anticipation, learning, hedonic feeding and motivation for food. Importantly meal expectation following nutrient deprivation or satiation is associated with elevation of plasma ghrelin, highlighting the propensity of each mechanism to stimulate GI ghrelin secretion...
January 20, 2018: Brain Research
Masahiro Okada
Research on the influence of relationships among satiety, muscle mass, and outdoor environmental factors is sparse. In this work the relationships among satiety feeling, body composition, and outdoor environmental factors on eating in healthy young Japanese women are investigated. Fifty three (53) women were examined over an approximately 2-year period. All participants ate the same lunch; feelings of satiety and body composition were measured before and immediately after lunch. Satiety was assessed using a visual analog scale...
January 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
A Y Sim, E X Lim, M K Leow, B K Cheon
Recent evidence suggests that lower perceived socioeconomic status is linked to increased appetite and intake of greater calories. Yet, whether insecurity of socioeconomic resources directly influences regulatory systems of appetite and energy intake is not known. Considering psychological states, mindsets and beliefs have shown to meaningfully affect physiological responses to food, the present study tested the hypothesis that low subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) will have a direct influence on physiological responses, such as appetite-related hormones (ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide and insulin)...
January 12, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Rachel Dopart, Dai Lu, Aron H Lichtman, Debra A Kendall
The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is located primarily in the central nervous system. CB1 is a therapeutic target which may impact pathways to mediate pain, neurodegenerative disorders, hunger, and drug-seeking behavior. Despite these benefits, development of orthosteric therapeutic compounds, which target the endogenous ligand-binding site of CB1, has been challenging due to detrimental side effects including psychoactivity, depression, and suicidal thoughts. However, CB1 also has an allosteric binding site(s), which is topographically distinct from the orthosteric site...
January 21, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Cynthia M Kroeger, John F Trepanowski, Monica C Klempel, Adrienne Barnosky, Surabhi Bhutani, Kelsey Gabel, Krista A Varady
BACKGROUND: Alternate-day fasting (ADF) has gained popularity in recent years. The diet consists of a "fast day" where an individual consumes 0-25% of their energy needs, alternated with a "feast day" where a person is permitted to eat ad libitum. AIM: This study examined eating behavior traits of successful weight losers during alternate day fasting. METHODS: Obese participants ( n = 34) took part in 12 months of ADF and were grouped into a high (≥5%) or low-weight-loss (<5%) group post-treatment...
January 1, 2018: Nutrition and Health
Kwaku Oppong Asante, Nuworza Kugbey, Joseph Osafo, Emmanuel Nii-Boye Quarshie, Jacob Owusu Sarfo
Suicide is recognised as the third leading cause of death among adolescents globally. There is however limited data on the prevalence and factors associated with suicide particularly in Ghana. To explore the prevalence and risk and protective factors associated with suicide in Ghana, a nationwide Global School-based Student Health Survey data collected among senior high school adolescents in Ghana was used. The prevalence of suicidal behaviours was 18.2%, 22.5% and 22.2% for suicidal ideation, suicidal plan and suicidal attempt respectively...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
Marcela Martinelli, Emilia Hick, Florencia Walz, Silvina R Drago
The effects of 15 d polydextrose (16.7 g) consumption on energy intake (EI) and appetite feelings were investigated. Overweight adults consumed a polydextrose-bar or a control-bar matched in energy content as a midmorning snack for 15 consecutive days in a single-blind, randomised, crossover design. The two 15-d intervention periods were separated by a 15-d washout period. On the day 1 and the day 15 of each intervention period, energy intake (primary outcome) and appetite feelings (secondary outcome) were assessed...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Anja Hilbert, Susanne Kurz, Daniela Dremmel, Susann Weihrauch Blüher, Simone Munsch, Ricarda Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Childhood loss of control (LOC) eating and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid conditions and present with disordered eating behaviors, such as overeating. This study sought to delineate shared and specific abnormalities in physiological, cognitive-motivational, and behavioral components of food-specific impulsivity in children with LOC eating and ADHD. Specifically, children's reactivity and habituation to food and eating in the absence of hunger were examined...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Lone V Nielsen, Marlene D Kristensen, Lars Klingenberg, Christian Ritz, Anita Belza, Arne Astrup, Anne Raben
Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28...
January 16, 2018: Nutrients
L Charbonnier, F van Meer, A M Johnstone, D Crabtree, W Buosi, Y Manios, O Androutsos, A Giannopoulou, M A Viergever, P A M Smeets
The abundant exposure to food cues in our environment is one of the main drivers of overconsumption. Food evaluation is important for the regulation of food intake by the brain and it's interaction with hunger state. Children are especially susceptible to food cues. Understanding the mechanisms behind this regulation in healthy individuals across the life span can help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying overconsumption and aid the development of future obesity prevention strategies. Few functional neuroimaging studies have been done in children and elderly...
January 11, 2018: NeuroImage
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