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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642689/integrating-neural-circuits-controlling-female-sexual-behavior
#1
REVIEW
Paul E Micevych, Robert L Meisel
The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639441/effect-of-periodized-high-intensity-interval-training-hiit-on-body-composition-and-attitudes-towards-hunger-in-active-men-and-women
#2
Todd A Astorino, Brendyn Heath, Jason Bandong, Gina M Ordille, Ramon Contreras, Matthew Montell, Matthew M Schubert
BACKGROUND: High intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake similar to aerobic exercise. However, changes in body composition are equivocal in response to HIIT. AIM: We examined changes in body composition and dietary restraint in response to 20 sessions of HIIT varying in structure. METHODS: Thirty nine active men and women (age and VO2max = 22.5 ± 4.4 yr and 40.1 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) were randomized to one of three periodized HIIT regimes performed on a cycle ergometer...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632394/changes-in-eating-behaviors-of-children-with-obesity-in-response-to-carbohydrate-modified-and-portion-controlled-diets
#3
Shelley Kirk, Jessica G Woo, Bonnie Brehm, Stephen R Daniels, Brian E Saelens
OBJECTIVE: This study's objective was to determine whether two distinct carbohydrate (CHO)-modified diets and a standard portion-controlled (PC) diet differentially impacted children's eating behaviors and whether eating behavior scores predicted lower BMI among children with obesity. METHODS: Children (n = 102) aged 7-12 years with obesity were randomly assigned to a 12-month intervention of a low-carbohydrate (LC), reduced glycemic load (RGL), or standard PC diet...
June 20, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632132/antagonistic-modulation-of-npy-agrp-and-pomc-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-by-noradrenalin
#4
Lars Paeger, Ismene Karakasilioti, Janine Altmüller, Peter Frommolt, Jens Brüning, Peter Kloppenburg
In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) satiety signaling (anorexigenic) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing and hunger signaling (orexigenic) agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons are key components of the neuronal circuits that control food intake and energy homeostasis. Here, we assessed whether the catecholamine noradrenalin directly modulates the activity of these neurons in mice. Perforated patch clamp recordings showed that noradrenalin changes the activity of these functionally antagonistic neurons in opposite ways, increasing the activity of the orexigenic NPY/AgRP neurons and decreasing the activity of the anorexigenic POMC neurons...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625709/review-and-analysis-of-physical-exercise-at-hormonal-and-brain-level-and-its-influence-on-appetite
#5
Laura Gómez Escribano, Arancha Gálvez Casas, Antonio R Escribá Fernández-Marcote, Pedro Tárraga López, Loreto Tárraga Marcos
Due to the currently growing rate of obesity, it is important to maintain good control of food intake. The main purpose of the present study is to determine the influence of physical exercise on appetite, changes in hormone concentrations, and changes in certain neuronal regions. To achieve this, a literature search was conducted using different data bases. The results show how exercise produces changes in the appetite perception, in the amount of energy intake, and in different weight-control related hormones, as well as in specific neuronal responses...
June 15, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625043/pre-and-postprandial-acylated-ghrelin-in-obese-and-normal-weight-men
#6
Sri Andarini, Ferdy Bangun Kangsaputra, Dian Handayani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of obesity in Indonesia has increasing. We have assessed the relationship between plasma acylated ghrelin hormone and self-reported appetite ratings (hunger and desire to eat) in obese and normal weight men. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-two men participated in an experimental study, where acylated ghrelin and self-reported appetite ratings were compared between a test group of 16 obese men and a control group of 16 men with normal body mass indices...
June 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623163/factors-associated-with-school-lunch-consumption-reverse-recess-and-school-brunch
#7
Leah Elizabeth Chapman, Juliana Cohen, Melanie Canterberry, Thomas W Carton
BACKGROUND: While school foods have become healthier under the Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act, research suggests there is still substantial food waste in cafeterias. It is therefore necessary to study factors that can impact food consumption, including holding recess before lunch ("reverse recess") and starting lunch periods very early or very late. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between the timing of recess (pre-lunch vs post-lunch recess), the timing of the lunch period, and food consumed by students at lunch...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609591/obesity-and-weight-management-at-menopause
#8
Joseph Proietto
BACKGROUND: Many women report gaining weight as they transition through menopause. For most, the weight gain is modest and can be reduced with a conscious effort to limit energy intake and increase energy expenditure. However, many women who are already overweight and obese will gain more weight as they approach menopause. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this paper are to explain the reasons for menopausal weight gain and to detail a method for achieving and sustaining a substantial weight loss...
June 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599876/effects-of-different-musical-frequencies-on-npy-and-ghrelin-secretion-in-the-rat-hypothalamus
#9
Cristina Russo, Antonella Russo, Rosario Gulino, Rosalia Pellitteri, Stefania Stanzani
It is known that exists a relationship between listening to music and food intake. Hypothalamus appears to integrate the orexigenic properties of a novel peptide, ghrelin (Ghre) that induces food intake through neuropeptide Y (NPY). Ghre stimulates appetite by acting on the ventral hypothalamus, which controls food intake. Ghre is secreted from the stomach and circulates in the bloodstream under fasting conditions, sending a hunger signal from the periphery to the Central Nervous System. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in the rat, the effects of different musical frequencies (432 and 440Hz) on the Ghre and NPY expression in the hypothalamic neurons through immunohistochemistry; in addition, we investigated on the different production of Ghre in the serum through Western blot assay (Wb), in relation to the body weight of animals...
June 6, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596721/cannabinoid-receptor-signaling-in-central-regulation-of-feeding-behavior-a-mini-review
#10
REVIEW
Marco Koch
Cannabinoids are lipid messengers that modulate a variety of physiological processes and modify the generation of specific behaviors. In this regard, the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) represents the most relevant target molecule of cannabinoids so far. One main function of central CB1 signaling is to maintain whole body energy homeostasis. Thus, cannabinoids functionally interact with classical neurotransmitters in neural networks that control energy metabolism and feeding behavior. The promotion of CB1 signaling can increase appetite and stimulate feeding, while blockade of CB1 suppresses hunger and induces hypophagia...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589340/cigarette-smoking-among-women-who-are-homeless-or-unstably-housed-examining-the-role-of-food-insecurity
#11
Jin E Kim, Annesa Flentje, Janice Y Tsoh, Elise D Riley
Smoking prevalence remains high among individuals who are homeless, partly due to stressors related to homelessness. Beyond housing insecurity, homelessness involves financial stresses and unmet subsistence needs. In particular, food insecurity contributes to negative health outcomes and other health risks. This study examined associations between food insecurity severity and smoking among homeless and marginally housed women in San Francisco, California. We used data from 247 women from a longitudinal cohort study...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575897/effect-of-diet-liberalization-on-bowel-preparation
#12
Danny J Avalos, Daniel A Sussman, Luis F Lara, Fayez S Sarkis, Fernando J Castro
OBJECTIVES: Precolonoscopy dietary regimens often are restricted to clear liquids; however, the superiority of a clear liquid diet (CLD) for bowel preparation quality is ambiguous. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing bowel preparation outcomes between a low-residue diet (LRD) or regular diet (RD) compared with a CLD. METHODS: MEDLINE, clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane Central Register, Scopus, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Web of Science databases were used to conduct a search for randomized controlled trials from 1976 to March 2015...
June 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560529/desire-for-core-tastes-decreases-after-sleeve-gastrectomy-a-single-center-longitudinal-observational-study-with-6-month-follow-up
#13
Daniel Gero, Fadia Dib, Lara Ribeiro-Parenti, Konstantinos Arapis, Denis Chosidow, Jean-Pierre Marmuse
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) modifies gastrointestinal substances that control hunger and satiation via the brain-gut axis. A potential mechanism implicated in weight loss is the shift in food preferences. Our aim was to assess changes in taste preferences and their relationship to weight loss. METHODS: This is a prospective longitudinal observational study in 100 consecutive LSG patients. Questionnaire with photographs of tastes was administered before surgery, at postoperative (PO) day 6 and PO month 6...
May 30, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551112/resting-state-hypothalamic-response-to-glucose-predicts-glucose-induced-attenuation-in-the-ventral-striatal-response-to-food-cues
#14
Shan Luo, A James Melrose, Hilary Dorton, Jasmin Alves, John R Monterosso, Kathleen A Page
Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interaction of central nervous system responses to metabolic signals that reflect nutrient availability and to food cues that trigger appetitive responses. Prior work has shown that the hypothalamus is a key brain area that senses and responds to changes in metabolic signals, and exposure to food cues induces the activation of brain areas involved in reward processing. However, it is not known how the hypothalamic responses to changes in metabolic state are related to reward responses to food cues...
May 25, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543989/brain-structural-alterations-in-obese-children-with-and-without-prader-willi-syndrome
#15
Mingze Xu, Yi Zhang, Karen M von Deneen, Huaiqiu Zhu, Jia-Hong Gao
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic imprinting disorder that is mainly characterized by hyperphagia and childhood obesity. Previous neuroimaging studies revealed that there is a significant difference in brain activation patterns between obese children with and without PWS. However, whether there are differences in the brain structure of obese children with and without PWS remains elusive. In the current study, we used T1-weighted and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to investigate alterations in the brain structure, such as the cortical volume and white matter integrity, in relation to this eating disorder in 12 children with PWS, 18 obese children without PWS (OB) and 18 healthy controls...
May 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542506/impact-evaluation-of-different-cash-based-intervention-modalities-on-child-and-maternal-nutritional-status-in-sindh-province-pakistan-at-6-mo-and-at-1-y-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Bridget Fenn, Tim Colbourn, Carmel Dolan, Silke Pietzsch, Murtaza Sangrasi, Jeremy Shoham
BACKGROUND: Cash-based interventions (CBIs), offer an interesting opportunity to prevent increases in wasting in humanitarian aid settings. However, questions remain as to the impact of CBIs on nutritional status and, therefore, how to incorporate them into emergency programmes to maximise their success in terms of improved nutritional outcomes. This study evaluated the effects of three different CBI modalities on nutritional outcomes in children under 5 y of age at 6 mo and at 1 y. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a four-arm parallel longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial in 114 villages in Dadu District, Pakistan...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525609/e-cigarettes-and-weight-loss-product-design-innovation-insights-from-industry-patents
#17
Harkirat Singh, Ryan David Kennedy, Lisa Lagasse, Lauren M Czaplicki, Joanna E Cohen
Objective: There is emerging evidence that e-cigarettes are being used by some to mitigate weight gain after quitting smoking, and being used to help control weight. This study sought to identify and describe patents related to innovations for e-cigarette devices associated and weight loss. Methods: Relevant patents were identified using Google Patents with the core search terms: "electronic cigarette" OR "e-cigarette" OR "vaporizer" OR "vapourizer" AND "nicotine" AND "weight loss" OR "weight control" OR "obesity" OR "hunger"...
May 19, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511192/individual-variation-in-hunger-energy-intake-and-ghrelin-responses-to-acute-exercise
#18
James A King, Kevin Deighton, David R Broom, Lucy K Wasse, Jessica A Douglas, Stephen F Burns, Philip A Cordery, Emily S Petherick, Rachel L Batterham, Fernanda R Goltz, Alice E Thackray, Thomas Yates, David J Stensel
PURPOSE: This study aimed to characterize the immediate and extended effect of acute exercise on hunger, energy intake, and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations using a large data set of homogenous experimental trials and to describe the variation in responses between individuals. METHODS: Data from 17 of our group's experimental crossover trials were aggregated yielding a total sample of 192 young, healthy males. In these studies, single bouts of moderate to high-intensity aerobic exercise (69% ± 5% V˙O2 peak; mean ± SD) were completed with detailed participant assessments occurring during and for several hours postexercise...
June 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502739/the-hunger-games-using-hunger-to-promote-healthy-choices-in-self-control-conflicts
#19
Tracy T L Cheung, Floor M Kroese, Bob M Fennis, Denise T D De Ridder
The majority of existing research and conventional wisdom would advise against shopping on an empty stomach as hunger is assumed to encourage impulsive choices that typically lead to self-control failure (i.e., favouring short-term gratifications at the expense of long-term goals). Nonetheless, through two studies the current research aims to demonstrate that hungry consumers would not always be disadvantaged when encountering a self-control conflict involving a trade-off choice between a healthy vs. a more palatable but unhealthy choice...
May 11, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502203/chewing-gum-improves-postoperative-recovery-of-gastrointestinal-function-after-cesarean-delivery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-trials
#20
Andrea Ciardulli, Gabriele Saccone, Daniele Di Mascio, Claudia Caissutti, Vincenzo Berghella
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether chewing gum hastens the return of gastrointestinal function after a cesarean delivery. METHODS: All randomized controlled trials comparing the use of chewing gum in the immediate postoperative recovery period (i.e. intervention group) with a control group were included in the meta-analysis. The primary outcome was the time to first flatus in hours. Meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model of DerSimonian and Laird, to produce summary treatment effects in terms of mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI)...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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