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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659892/effect-of-physiological-state-on-female-melon-fly-diptera-tephritidae-attraction-to-host-and-food-odor-in-the-field
#1
Roger I Vargas, Jaime C Piñero, Neil W Miller
Foraging behavior of wild female melon fly, Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae Coquillett, a worldwide pest of economically important cucurbit crops, was examined through mark and recapture studies in both wild (Kona: dominated by the invasive weed ivy gourd, Coccinea grandis [L.] Voigt [Cucurbitaceae]), and cultivated (Kapoho: dominated by papaya, Carica papaya L. [Caricaceae] orchards) habitats on Hawaii Island. In particular, the extent to which wild melon flies and color-marked F2 females responded to cucumber odor and Solulys yeast hydrolysate laced with ammonium acetate (1%, wt/vol) according to sexual maturity stage and degree of protein hunger was documented...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629030/household-food-insecurity-diet-quality-and-weight-status-among-indigenous-women-mah-meri-in-peninsular-malaysia
#2
Chong Su Pei, Geeta Appannah, Norhasmah Sulaiman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study assessed household food security status and determined its association with diet quality and weight status among indigenous women from the Mah Meri tribe in Peninsular Malaysia. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument and the Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (HEI) were used to assess household food security status and diet quality, respectively. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and 24-hour dietary recall data were collected through face-to-face interview, and anthropometric measurements including weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained from 222 women...
April 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617527/association-of-hidradenitis-suppurativa-with-t-helper-1-t-helper-17-phenotypes-a-semantic-map-analysis
#3
Rahel Thomi, Simone Cazzaniga, S Morteza Seyed Jafari, Christoph Schlapbach, Robert E Hunger
Importance: In spite of progress in understanding the mechanisms underlying hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) as an inflammatory skin disease, there is still a demand for an overview on immunopathogenesis of HS. Objective: To demonstrate the importance of the type 1/type 17 immune response in lesional HS skin by drawing a semantic connectivity map. Design, Setting, and Participants: Single-center case series of 24 patients with HS. Association of HS with T helper 1/T helper 17 (TH1/TH17) phenotype was assessed using semantic map analysis...
April 4, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605841/secukinumab-versus-adalimumab-for-psoriatic-arthritis-comparative-effectiveness-up-to-48-weeks-using-a-matching-adjusted-indirect-comparison
#4
Peter Nash, Iain B McInnes, Philip J Mease, Howard Thom, Matthias Hunger, Andreas Karabis, Kunal Gandhi, Shephard Mpofu, Steffen M Jugl
INTRODUCTION: Secukinumab and adalimumab are approved for adults with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA). In the absence of direct randomized controlled trial (RCT) data, matching-adjusted indirect comparison can estimate the comparative effectiveness in anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-naïve populations. METHODS: Individual patient data from the FUTURE 2 RCT (secukinumab vs. placebo; N = 299) were adjusted to match baseline characteristics of the ADEPT RCT (adalimumab vs...
March 31, 2018: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596127/effect-of-early-postoperative-feeding-on-the-recovery-of-children-post-appendectomy
#5
Selda Rızalar, Ayfer Özbaş
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of early postoperative feeding on recovery after appendectomy in children. It was undertaken as a multicenter study. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups, each containing 46 children. Postoperatively, liquid and solid food intake and evacuation of first flatus and stool were recorded for the intervention and routine care groups. Postoperative thirst, hunger, nausea, and pain levels were evaluated at regular intervals using the Visual Analogue Scale. Data were obtained as number, mean, and percentage, and statistically analyzed using the chi-square test and the 2-sample t test...
March 2018: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595575/retrospective-evaluation-of-the-short-term-sustainability-of-the-locally-grown-produce-initiative-of-the-hunger-prevention-and-nutrition-assistance-program-in-new-york-state
#6
Marie A K Allsopp, Akiko S Hosler
CONTEXT: The Hunger Prevention and Nutrition Assistance Program (HPNAP) is a New York State Department of Health program. The HPNAP improves nutritional quality of food available at food banks, food pantries, soup kitchens, and emergency shelters through contractual relationships to fund the purchase, delivery, storage, and service of nutritious food. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a one-time fiscal stimulus of the Locally Grown Produce Initiative to HPNAP contractors in 2012-2013 would result in a short-term sustainable increase in the proportion of dollars spent on New York State Grown (NYSG) produce...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590554/lateral-septum-growth-hormone-secretagogue-receptor-affects-food-intake-and-motivation-for-sucrose-reinforcement
#7
Sarah J Terrill, Kaylee D Wall, Nelson D Medina, Calyn B Maske, Diana L Williams
The hormone ghrelin promotes eating and is widely considered to be a hunger signal. Ghrelin receptors, growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs), are found in a number of specific regions throughout the brain, including the lateral septum (LS), an area not traditionally associated with the control of feeding. Here we investigated whether GHSRs in the LS play a role in the control of food intake. We examined the feeding effects of ghrelin and the GHSR antagonists ([D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and JMV 2959), at doses subthreshold for effect when delivered to the lateral ventricle...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590401/noradrenergic-activity-in-the-human-brain-a-mechanism-supporting-the-defense-against-hypoglycemia
#8
Renata D Belfort-DeAguiar, Jean-Dominique Gallezot, Janice J Hwang, Ahmed Elshafie, Catherine W Yeckel, Owen Chan, Richard E Carson, Yu-Shin Ding, Robert S Sherwin
Context: Hypoglycemia, one of the major factors limiting optimal glycemic control in insulin-treated diabetic patients, elicits a brain response to restore normoglycemia by activating counterregulation. Animal data indicate that local release of norepinephrine in the hypothalamus is important for triggering hypoglycemia-induced counterregulatory (CR) hormonal responses. Objective: To examine the potential role of brain noradrenergic activation in humans during hypoglycemia...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587471/effects-of-two-doses-of-curry-prepared-with-mixed-spices-on-postprandial-ghrelin-and-subjective-appetite-responses-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-trial
#9
Sumanto Haldar, Joseph Lim, Siok Ching Chia, Shalini Ponnalagu, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Spices are known to provide orosensory stimulation that can potentially influence palatability, appetite, and energy balance. Previous studies with individual spices have shown divergent effects on appetite and energy intake measures. In a real-life context, however, several spices are consumed in combinations, as in various forms of curries. Therefore, we investigated changes in postprandial appetite and plasma ghrelin in response to the intake of two doses of curry prepared with mixed spices. The study was undertaken in healthy Chinese men, between 21 and 40 years of age and body mass index ≤27...
March 26, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582507/the-impact-of-caffeine-consumption-during-50-hr-of-extended-wakefulness-on-glucose-metabolism-self-reported-hunger-and-mood-state
#10
Crystal L Grant, Alison M Coates, Jillian Dorrian, Gemma M Paech, Maja Pajcin, Chris Della Vedova, Kayla Johnson, Gary H Kamimori, Justin Fidock, Eugene Aidman, Siobhan Banks
Caffeine is known for its capacity to mitigate performance decrements. The metabolic side-effects are less well understood. This study examined the impact of cumulative caffeine doses on glucose metabolism, self-reported hunger and mood state during 50 hr of wakefulness. In a double-blind laboratory study, participants were assigned to caffeine (n = 9, 6M, age 21.3 ± 2.1 years; body mass index 21.9 ± 1.6 kg/m2 ) or placebo conditions (n = 8, 4M, age 23.0 ± 2.8 years; body mass index 21.8 ± 1...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580229/population-admixture-can-enhance-establishment-success-of-the-introduced-biological-control-agent-cryptolaemus-montrouzieri
#11
Hao-Sen Li, Shang-Jun Zou, Patrick De Clercq, Hong Pang
BACKGROUND: Introduced biological control agents have opportunities of population admixture through multiple introductions in the field. However, the importance of population admixture for their establishment success often remains unclear. Previous studies based on genetic markers have suggested a history of population admixture in the predatory ladybird Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant in China. RESULTS: We tested whether population admixture may lead to fitness changes under laboratory conditions...
March 27, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571543/dysphagia-in-children
#12
Kimberly L Duffy
Speech-Language Pathologists (SLP) play an integral role in evaluating and treating pediatric patients with dysphagia related to aerodigestive disorders. Non-supportive anatomy, cardio-respiratory and medical status, state control, neurologic functioning, postural stability and control, gastrointestinal functioning, hunger and satiation, developmental abilities, oral-motor skills, oral/pharyngeal reflexes, airway protection and secretion management can create barriers to successful oral feeding. Swallowing is broken down into four phases and difficulties can occur during any phase or in combination with another phase of swallowing...
March 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570993/a-neural-circuit-for-the-suppression-of-pain-by-a-competing-need-state
#13
Amber L Alhadeff, Zhenwei Su, Elen Hernandez, Michelle L Klima, Sophie Z Phillips, Ruby A Holland, Caiying Guo, Adam W Hantman, Bart C De Jonghe, J Nicholas Betley
Hunger and pain are two competing signals that individuals must resolve to ensure survival. However, the neural processes that prioritize conflicting survival needs are poorly understood. We discovered that hunger attenuates behavioral responses and affective properties of inflammatory pain without altering acute nociceptive responses. This effect is centrally controlled, as activity in hunger-sensitive agouti-related protein (AgRP)-expressing neurons abrogates inflammatory pain. Systematic analysis of AgRP projection subpopulations revealed that the neural processing of hunger and inflammatory pain converge in the hindbrain parabrachial nucleus (PBN)...
March 22, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547121/-drosophila-mushroom-bodies-integrate-hunger-and-satiety-signals-to-control-innate-food-seeking-behavior
#14
Chang-Hui Tsao, Chien-Chun Chen, Chen-Han Lin, Hao-Yu Yang, Suewei Lin
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses...
March 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510179/sleep-influences-on-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Sirimon Reutrakul, Eve Van Cauter
A large body of epidemiologic evidence has linked insufficient sleep duration and quality to the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. To address putative causal mechanisms, this review focuses on laboratory interventions involving several nights of experimental sleep restriction, fragmentation or extension and examining metabolically relevant outcomes. Sleep restriction has been consistently shown to increase hunger, appetite and food intake, with the increase in caloric intake in excess of the energy requirements of extended wakefulness...
March 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505942/hippocampal-dependent-neuropsychological-tests-and-their-relationship-to-measures-of-cardiac-and-self-report-interoception
#16
Richard J Stevenson, Heather M Francis, Megan J Oaten, Rebecca Schilt
The hippocampus is involved in interoceptive processing (i.e., perceiving internal bodily states), with much of this evidence relating to hunger and fullness. Here we examine whether cardiac and self-report measures of interoception are related to two measures of hippocampal dependent learning and memory (HDLM) - the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Logical Memory. Healthy adults completed a neuropsychological test battery including all of these measures, along with assessments of intelligence and executive function...
March 2, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503862/implementing-goal-directed-foraging-decisions-of-a-simpler-nervous-system-in-simulation
#17
Jeffrey W Brown, Derek Caetano-Anollés, Marianne Catanho, Ekaterina Gribkova, Nathaniel Ryckman, Kun Tian, Mikhail Voloshin, Rhanor Gillette
Economic decisions arise from evaluation of alternative actions in contexts of motivation and memory. In the predatory sea-slug Pleurobranchaea the economic decisions of foraging are found to occur by the workings of a simple, affectively controlled homeostat with learning abilities. Here, the neuronal circuit relations for approach-avoidance choice of Pleurobranchaea are expressed and tested in the foraging simulation Cyberslug. Choice is organized around appetitive state as a moment-to-moment integration of sensation, motivation (satiation/hunger), and memory...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490721/the-efficacy-of-daily-snack-replacement-with-oligofructose-enriched-granola-bars-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-a-12-week-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Korrie Pol, Cees de Graaf, Diederick Meyer, Monica Mars
Oligofructose is a prebiotic dietary fibre obtained from chicory root inulin. Oligofructose supplementation may affect satiety, food intake, body weight and/or body composition. The aim was to examine the efficacy of oligofructose-supplemented granola bars on the following weight management outcomes: satiety, energy intake, body weight and body composition in overweight or obese adults. In all, fifty-five adults with overweight or obesity (thirty-six females/nineteen males; age: 41 (sd 12) years; 90·6 (sd 11·8) kg; BMI: 29·4 (sd 2·6) kg/m2) participated in a parallel, triple-blind, placebo-controlled intervention...
March 1, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478858/feeding-state-dependent-modulation-of-temperature-preference-requires-insulin-signaling-in-drosophila-warm-sensing-neurons
#19
Yujiro Umezaki, Sean E Hayley, Michelle L Chu, Hanna W Seo, Prasun Shah, Fumika N Hamada
Starvation is life-threatening and therefore strongly modulates many aspects of animal behavior and physiology [1]. In mammals, hunger causes a reduction in body temperature and metabolism [2], resulting in conservation of energy for survival. However, the molecular basis of the modulation of thermoregulation by starvation remains largely unclear. Whereas mammals control their body temperature internally, small ectotherms, such as Drosophila, set their body temperature by selecting an ideal environmental temperature through temperature preference behaviors [3, 4]...
February 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476589/emotional-food-cravings-predicts-poor-short-term-weight-loss-following-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy
#20
Michéle A Janse Van Vuuren, Esben Strodl, Katherine M White, Philip D Lockie
OBJECTIVES: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) incidence has increased worldwide. However, a proportion of patients achieve inadequate weight loss and some experience weight regain. Little is known of the influence of eating beliefs and behaviours in response to cravings on early weight loss trajectory. This study aimed to identify the post-surgery eating cravings that predicted patients not achieving excess weight loss outcome (EWL) at 6-8 months post-LSG. DESIGN: A total of 106 (80...
February 24, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
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