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Whitney Marsh, Heith Copes, Travis Linnemann
BACKGROUND: Because of increased law enforcement and subsequent media attention, methamphetamine users appear in the public's imagination as diseased, zombie-like White trash. We explore methamphetamine users' perceptions about whether the images, people, and situations in anti-methamphetamine campaigns reflect their own lives and experiences using meth. METHODS: To explore these perceptions, we used photo-elicitation interviews with 47 people who used methamphetamine (30 former and 17 active)...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Eric T Lofgren
Mathematical modeling is an important tool in biological research, allowing for the synthesis of results from many studies into an understanding of a system. Despite this, the need for extensive subject matter knowledge and complex mathematics often leaves modeling as an esoteric subspecialty. A 2-fold approach can be used to make modeling more approachable for students and those interested in obtaining a functional knowledge of modeling. The first is the use of a popular culture disease system-a zombie epidemic-to allow for exploration of the concepts of modeling using a flexible framework...
October 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Joshua Shepherd
I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances...
June 2016: Noûs
Mark S Springer, Christopher A Emerling, Robert W Meredith, Jan E Janečka, Eduardo Eizirik, William J Murphy
The explosive, long fuse, and short fuse models represent competing hypotheses for the timing of placental mammal diversification. Support for the explosive model, which posits both interordinal and intraordinal diversification after the KPg mass extinction, derives from morphological cladistic studies that place Cretaceous eutherians outside of crown Placentalia. By contrast, most molecular studies favor the long fuse model wherein interordinal cladogenesis occurred in the Cretaceous followed by intraordinal cladogenesis after the KPg boundary...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Danial E Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Hospital Pharmacy
Stina Attebery
Biomedicine is increasingly shaped by the speculative economical values of neoliberal capitalism. A key feature of this new bioeconomical regime is the patenting and circulation of organisms and tissue samples, allowing rapid commercialisation of bacterial, animal and human biomedical materials. When thinking about this trend towards commercialisation, we must consider the ways by which biomedicine has been shaped by economics to better address these exploitative relationships between medical researchers and subjects...
August 24, 2016: Medical Humanities
Michael L Richardson
OBJECTIVE: One of the most important jobs of a radiologist is to pick the most appropriate imaging test for a particular clinical situation. Making a proper selection sometimes requires statistical analysis. The objective of this article is to introduce a simple graphic technique, an ROC plot that has been divided into zones of mostly bad imaging efficacy (ZOMBIE, hereafter referred to as the "zombie plot"), that transforms information about imaging efficacy from the numeric domain into the visual domain...
August 9, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Christie Wilcox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Scientific American
D P Hughes, J P M Araújo, R G Loreto, L Quevillon, C de Bekker, H C Evans
Parasites can manipulate the behavior of their hosts in ways that increase either their direct fitness or transmission to new hosts. The Kingdom Fungi have evolved a diverse array of strategies to manipulate arthropod behavior resulting in some of the most complex and impressive examples of behavioral manipulation by parasites. Here we provide an overview of these different interactions and discuss them from an evolutionary perspective. We discuss parasite manipulation within the context of Niko Tinbergen's four questions (function, phylogeny, causation, and ontogeny) before detailing the proximate mechanisms by which fungi control arthropod behavior and the evolutionary pathways to such adaptations...
2016: Advances in Genetics
Frederic W Hafferty, Jon Tilburt
Within the fields of medicine and sociology, the descriptor "profession" (along with its brethren: profession, professionalization, and professionalism) has had a rich etymological history, with terms taking on different meanings at different times-sometimes trespassing into shibboleth and jargon. This etymological journey has co-evolved with the career of David Mechanic to whom this issue of the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law is devoted. We exploit a provocative metaphor applied to Mechanic's work on the challenges facing medicine as a profession as a playful exegesis on what we call "profession" to excavate an ensconced and encrusted domain of health jargon operating at the tensive interface of society and modern medical work...
August 2016: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
Eric T Lofgren, Kristy M Collins, Tara C Smith, Reed A Cartwright
Mathematical models of infectious diseases are a valuable tool in understanding the mechanisms and patterns of disease transmission. It is, however, a difficult subject to teach, requiring both mathematical expertise and extensive subject-matter knowledge of a variety of disease systems. In this article, we explore several uses of zombie epidemics to make mathematical modeling and infectious disease epidemiology more accessible to public health professionals, students, and the general public. We further introduce a web-based simulation, White Zed (http://cartwrig...
March 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
David S Schneider
Speculative fiction examines the leading edge of science and can be used to introduce ideas into the classroom. For example, most students are already familiar with the fictional infectious diseases responsible for vampire and zombie outbreaks. The disease dynamics of these imaginary ailments follow the same rules we see for real diseases and can be used to remind students that they already understand the basic rules of disease ecology and immunology. By engaging writers of this sort of fiction in an effort to solve problems in immunology we may be able to perform a directed evolution experiment where we follow the evolution of plots rather than genetic traits...
April 2016: Trends in Immunology
Paul J C Adachi, Gordon Hodson, Teena Willoughby, Carolyn Blank, Alexandra Ha
Here we addressed whether even violent video games can improve intergroup attitudes if played cooperatively with an outgroup, in keeping with the Contact Hypothesis. In addition, we examined potential mechanisms of this effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 77), Canadians played a violent video game (Call of Duty: Black Ops) against zombies, either cooperatively or independently (i.e., at the same time but solo) with a (supposed) University of Buffalo participant. As expected, cooperative (vs. solo) play significantly improved outgroup attitudes and pro-outgroup participant behavior, effects explained by heightened 1-group recategorization (i...
March 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Alexander A Alemi, Matthew Bierbaum, Christopher R Myers, James P Sethna
We use a popular fictional disease, zombies, in order to introduce techniques used in modern epidemiology modeling, and ideas and techniques used in the numerical study of critical phenomena. We consider variants of zombie models, from fully connected continuous time dynamics to a full scale exact stochastic dynamic simulation of a zombie outbreak on the continental United States. Along the way, we offer a closed form analytical expression for the fully connected differential equation, and demonstrate that the single person per site two dimensional square lattice version of zombies lies in the percolation universality class...
2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Marjorie Kruvand, Fred B Bryant
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether or not CDC's zombie apocalypse campaign had the ability to achieve the agency's goals of educating young people about emergency preparedness and prompting them to get ready by developing an emergency kit and plan. While the campaign was extremely popular, we examined the question of whether the campaign had the capability to translate into knowledge and action. METHODS: We conducted an online experiment with 340 undergraduate students divided randomly into two groups...
November 2015: Public Health Reports
Florian Rümpler, Lydia Gramzow, Günter Theißen, Rainer Melzer
Phytoplasmas are pathogenic bacteria that reprogram plant development such that leaf-like structures instead of floral organs develop. Infected plants are sterile and mainly serve to propagate phytoplasmas and thus have been termed 'zombie plants'. The developmental reprogramming relies on specific interactions of the phytoplasma protein SAP54 with a small subset of MADS-domain transcription factors. Here, we propose that SAP54 folds into a structure that is similar to that of the K-domain, a protein-protein interaction domain of MADS-domain proteins...
December 2015: Trends in Plant Science
Arielle S Gillman, Angela D Bryan
BACKGROUND: Given the popularity of mobile applications (apps) designed to increase exercise participation, it is important to understand their effects on psychological predictors of exercise behavior. PURPOSE: This study tested a performance feedback-based app compared to a game-based app to examine their effects on aspects of immediate response to an exercise bout. METHODS: Twenty-eight participants completed a 30-min treadmill run while using one of two randomly assigned mobile running apps: Nike + Running, a performance-monitoring app which theoretically induces an associative, goal-driven state, or Zombies Run!, an app which turns the experience of running into a virtual reality game, theoretically inducing dissociation from primary exercise goals...
February 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Artur Direito, Yannan Jiang, Robyn Whittaker, Ralph Maddison
BACKGROUND: Given the global prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA), effective interventions that attenuate age-related decline in PA levels are needed. Mobile phone interventions that positively affect health (mHealth) show promise; however, their impact on PA levels and fitness in young people is unclear and little is known about what makes a good mHealth app. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the effects of two commercially available smartphone apps (Zombies, Run and Get Running) on cardiorespiratory fitness and PA levels in insufficiently active healthy young people...
2015: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Charissa de Bekker, Robin A Ohm, Raquel G Loreto, Aswathy Sebastian, Istvan Albert, Martha Merrow, Andreas Brachmann, David P Hughes
BACKGROUND: Adaptive manipulation of animal behavior by parasites functions to increase parasite transmission through changes in host behavior. These changes can range from slight alterations in existing behaviors of the host to the establishment of wholly novel behaviors. The biting behavior observed in Carpenter ants infected by the specialized fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis s.l. is an example of the latter. Though parasitic manipulation of host behavior is generally assumed to be due to the parasite's gene expression, few studies have set out to test this...
2015: BMC Genomics
Andrew T Sornborger, Zhuo Wang, Louis Tao
Neural oscillations can enhance feature recognition (Azouz and Gray Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 8110-8115 2000), modulate interactions between neurons (Womelsdorf et al. Science, 316, 1609-01612 2007), and improve learning and memory (Markowska et al. The Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 2063-2073 1995). Numerical studies have shown that coherent spiking can give rise to windows in time during which information transfer can be enhanced in neuronal networks (Abeles Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, 18, 83-92 1982; Lisman and Idiart Science, 267, 1512-1515 1995, Salinas and Sejnowski Nature Reviews...
October 2015: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
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