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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142583/primary-gastric-burkitt-s-lymphoma
#1
Adnan Khan, Sarbiland Khan, Umair Arshad
The primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a rare entity. Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive form of B-cell lymphoma which is endemic in Africa, while in rest of the world non-endemic cases has been reported. Primary gastric BL is extremely rare and only around 53 cases have been reported till now. Here we present the case of a middle-aged male, immunocompetent who presented with anorexia weight loss and diarrhea. His upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy revealed a large primary gastric Burkitt lymphoma...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141824/inhibition-of-neurogenesis-in-a-case-of-marburg-variant-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Celia Oreja-Guevara, Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Julia García-López, Rafael Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto Valverde-Moyano, Alberto Rabano-Gutierrez, Jordi A Matías-Guiu, Ines González-Suárez, Jorge Matías-Guiu
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSC) are located essentially in the subventricular zone (SVZ), subgranular zone (SGZ), and along the central canal of the spinal cord. These cells can proliferate in vitro and differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astroglia, thus contributing to repair in multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a pathological study to analyse neurogenic response in a patient with Marburg variant MS. METHODS: We present the case of a 27-year-old immunocompetent patient with Marburg variant MS, a fulminant form of the disease...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141050/differential-immunomodulation-in-human-monocytes-versus-macrophages-by-filarial-cystatin
#3
Gopinath Venugopal, Marion Mueller, Susanne Hartmann, Svenja Steinfelder
Parasitic nematodes have evolved powerful immunomodulatory molecules to enable their survival in immunocompetent hosts by subverting immune responses and minimizing pathological processes. One filarial molecule known to counteract host immune responses by inducing IL-10 and regulatory macrophages in mice is filarial cystatin. During a patent filarial infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135052/enhanced-effect-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-expressing-human-tnf-%C3%AE-r-fc-and-ho-1-gene-on-porcine-islet-xenotransplantation-in-humanized-mice
#4
Han-Sin Lee, Sanghyun Song, Du Yeon Shin, Geun-Soo Kim, Jong-Hyun Lee, Chan Woo Cho, Kyo Won Lee, Hyojun Park, Curie Ahn, Jaeseok Yang, Heung-Mo Yang, Jae Berm Park, Sung-Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Porcine islet xenotransplantation is considered an attractive alternative treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, it is largely limited because of initial rejection due to Instant Blood-Mediated Inflammatory Reaction (IBMIR), oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses. Recently, soluble tumor necrosis factor-ɑ receptor type I (sTNF-αR) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 genes (HO-1/sTNF-αR) have been shown to improve the viability and functionality of porcine islets after transplantation...
November 14, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133063/octopamine-enhances-the-immune-responses-of-freshwater-giant-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-via-octopamine-receptors
#5
Hsin-Wei Kuo, Winton Cheng
Octopamine (OA) is known to play an important role in regulating insect immune responses. In Macrobrachium rosenbergii (18.0 ± 1.7 g), OA at 25.0 and 250.0 pmol/prawn significantly increased THC, semigranular cells (SGCs) and PO activity in hemocytes per 50 μL hemolymph, hyaline cells, granular cells (GCs) and RBs in hemocytes per 10 μL hemolymph, and RBs per hemocyte, and however, significantly decreased PO activity per granulocyte (GC + SGC), which returned to control levels after 4 h of injection...
November 10, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128674/staged-development-of-long-lived-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-th17-resident-memory-t-cell-population-to-candida-albicans-after-skin-infection
#6
Chang Ook Park, Xiujun Fu, Xiaodong Jiang, Youdong Pan, Jessica E Teague, Nicholas Collins, Tian Tian, John T O'Malley, Ryan O Emerson, Ji Hye Kim, Yookyung Jung, Rei Watanabe, Robert C Fuhlbrigge, Francis R Carbone, Thomas Gebhardt, Rachael A Clark, Charles P Lin, Thomas S Kupper
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus to which humans are exposed early in life and by adulthood it is part of the mycobiome of skin and other tissues. Neonatal skin lacks resident memory T (TRM) cells, but in adults the C. albicans skin test is a surrogate for immunocompetence. Young adult mice raised under SPF conditions are naive to C. albicans, and have recently been shown to have an immune system resembling that of neonatal humans. OBJECTIVE: We studied the evolution of the adaptive cutaneous immune response to Candida...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128232/liposome-based-immunity-inducing-systems-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#7
REVIEW
Eiji Yuba
Cancer immunotherapy has gained much attention for next-generation cancer treatment. To conduct cancer immunotherapy, efficient antigen delivery systems must be able to deliver an antigen selectively to antigen-presenting cells, release it at suitable sites for induction of cross-presentation, and simultaneously induce activation of immunocompetent cells. Liposomes are a candidate for use as such multifunctional antigen delivery carriers because of their capability for easy functionalization. This review describes the rational design of liposome-based antigen delivery systems...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125731/imaging-pd-l1-expression-with-immunopet
#8
Charles Truillet, Hsueh Ling J Oh, Siok Ping Yeo, Chia-Yin Lee, Loc T Huynh, Junnian Wei, Matthew F L Parker, Collin Blakely, Natalia Sevillano, Yung-Hua Wang, Yuqin S Shen, Victor Olivas, Khaled M Jami, Anna Moroz, Benoit Jego, Emilie Jaumain, Lawrence Fong, Charles S Craik, Albert J Chang, Trever G Bivona, Cheng-I Wang, Michael J Evans
High sensitivity imaging tools could provide a more holistic view of target antigen expression to improve the identification of patients who might benefit from cancer immunotherapy. We developed for immunoPET a novel recombinant human IgG1 (termed C4) that potently binds an extracellular epitope on human and mouse PD-L1 and radiolabeled the antibody with zirconium-89. Small animal PET/CT studies showed that (89)Zr-C4 detected antigen levels on a patient derived xenograft (PDX) established from a non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient before an 8-month response to anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA4 therapy...
November 15, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125649/milker-s-nodule-an-occupational-infection-and-threat-to-the-immunocompromised
#9
REVIEW
Nancy S Handler, M Z Handler, Andris Rubins, Silvestr Rubins, Marcis Septe, Camila K Janniger, Robert A Schwartz
Milker's nodule virus, also called paravaccinia virus is a DNA virus of the parapoxvirus genus transmitted from infected cows to humans. It results from contact with cattle, cattle byproducts, or fomites. Classified as an occupational disorder, those at risk of exposure include farmers, butchers, and agricultural tourists. The viral infection begins 5-15 days after inoculation as an erythematous-purple, round nodule with a clear depressed center, and a surrounding erythematous ring. While familiar to those in farming communities, the presence of the nodule may be concerning to others, particularly the immunosuppressed...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123966/pd-1-blockade-at-the-time-of-tumor-escape-potentiates-the-immune-mediated-antitumor-effects-of-a-melanoma-targeting-monoclonal-antibody
#10
Laetitia They, Henri-Alexandre Michaud, Ondine Becquart, Virginie Lafont, Bernard Guillot, Florence Boissière-Michot, Marta Jarlier, Caroline Mollevi, Jean-François Eliaou, Nathalie Bonnefoy, Laurent Gros
Tumor antigen-targeting monoclonal antibodies (TA-targeting mAbs) are used as therapeutics in many malignancies and their capacity to mobilize the host immunity puts them at the forefront of anti-cancer immunotherapies. Both innate and adaptive immune cells have been associated with the therapeutic activity of such antibodies, but tumor escape from mAb-induced tumor immune surveillance remains one of the main clinical issues. In this preclinical study, we grafted immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice with the B16F10 mouse melanoma cell line and treated them with the TA99 TA-targeting mAb to analyze the immune mechanisms associated with the tumor response and resistance to TA99 monotherapy...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122211/citrate-dialysate-does-not-induce-oxidative-stress-or-inflammation-in-vitro-as-compared-to-acetate-dialysate
#11
Rafael Pérez-García, Rafael Ramírez Chamond, Patricia de Sequera Ortiz, Marta Albalate, Marta Puerta Carretero, Mayra Ortega, M Caridad Ruiz Caro, Roberto Alcazar Arroyo
Increased acetataemia during haemodialysis sessions has been associated with a number of abnormalities, including increased oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide synthesis. However, citric acid may play an alternative role to acetate as a dialysate stabiliser given that the effect of citrate on complement and leukocyte activation is different to that of acetate. The purpose of this study was to compare the inflammatory effect in immunocompetent blood cells of acetate dialysate and citrate dialysate...
November 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122114/frequency-and-perforin-expression-of-different-lymphocyte-subpopulations-in-patients-with-lower-limb-fracture-and-thoracic-injury
#12
Nikola Grzalja, Tedi Cicvaric, Danijel Knezevic, Janja Kuharic, Alan Sustic, Bore Bakota, Simona Komen, Vlatka Sotosek Tokmadzic
INTRODUCTION: Trauma with multiple injuries is associated with a high risk of complications, which may be related to excessive stimulation of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Although the effects of polytrauma on the immune response have been well established at the cellular and molecular levels, there is little information about the changes in the cytolytic potential of immunocompetent cells, including expression of cytotoxic molecules such as perforin. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyse and compare differences in the frequency and perforin expression of leukocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood of patients with lower limb fracture, thoracic injury, and simultaneous lower limb fracture and thoracic injury...
November 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118502/bilateral-sensorineural-hearing-loss-secondary-to-sympathetic-ophthalmia-in-a-human-leukocyte-antigen-a2-positive-patient
#13
Konstantinos T Tsaousis, Vasileios E Konidaris, Theodoros Empeslidis
We report a case of sympathetic ophthalmia 1 month following trauma in a 71-year-old immunocompetent female patient of Indian origin. The patient was hospitalized with signs and symptoms of meningism, ataxia, and neurosensory deafness. We explore and provide further clinical evidence in supporting the hypothesis of antigen cross-reactivity derived from tissues with common neural crest embryological background such as the uvea and cells of the labyrinth. The patient was human leukocyte antigen-A2 positive and treatment with oral steroids and cyclosporine has managed to have favorable results and control the inflammation...
September 2017: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118090/complement-activation-via-a-c3a-receptor-pathway-alters-cd4-t-lymphocytes-and-mediates-lung-cancer-progression
#14
Jeff W Kwak, Jennifer Laskowski, Howard Y Li, Maria V McSharry, Trisha R Sippel, Bonnie L Bullock, Amber M Johnson, Joanna M Poczobutt, Alexander J Neuwelt, Stephen P Malkoski, Mary C Weiser-Evans, John Lambris, Eric T Clambey, Joshua M Thurman, Raphael A Nemenoff
The complement cascade is a part of the innate immune system which acts primarily to remove pathogens and injured cells. However, complement activation is also peculiarly associated with tumor progression. Here we report mechanistic insights into this association in multiple immunocompetent orthotopic models of lung cancer. After tumor engraftment, we observed systemic activation of the complement cascade as reflected by elevated levels of the key regulator C3a. Notably, growth of primary tumors and metastases was both strongly inhibited in C3-deficient mice (C3-/- mice), with tumors undetectable in many subjects...
November 8, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109476/the-major-targets-of-acute-norovirus-infection-are-immune-cells-in-the-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue
#15
Katrina R Grau, Alexa N Roth, Shu Zhu, Abel Hernandez, Natacha Colliou, Bayli B DiVita, Drake T Philip, Cara Riffe, Benoit Giasson, Shannon M Wallet, Mansour Mohamadzadeh, Stephanie M Karst
Noroviruses are the leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks and childhood diarrhoea globally, estimated to be responsible for 200,000 deaths in children each year (1-4) . Thus, reducing norovirus-associated disease is a critical priority. Development of vaccines and therapeutics has been hindered by the limited understanding of basic norovirus pathogenesis and cell tropism. While macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and stem-cell-derived enteroids can all support infection of certain noroviruses in vitro (5-7) , efforts to define in vivo norovirus cell tropism have generated conflicting results...
November 6, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109176/candidalysin-drives-epithelial-signaling-neutrophil-recruitment-and-immunopathology-at-the-vaginal-mucosa
#16
Jonathan P Richardson, Hubertine M E Willems, David L Moyes, Saeed Shoaie, Katherine S Barker, Shir Lynn Tan, Glen E Palmer, Bernhard Hube, Julian R Naglik, Brian M Peters
Unlike other forms of candidiasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, is a disease of immunocompetent and otherwise healthy women. Despite its prevalence, the fungal factors responsible for initiating symptomatic infection remain poorly understood. One of the hallmarks of vaginal candidiasis is the robust recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection, which seemingly do not clear the fungus, but rather exacerbate disease symptomatology. Candidalysin, a newly discovered peptide toxin secreted by C...
November 6, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108353/evaluation-of-real-world-treatment-outcomes-in-patients-with-distant-metastatic-merkel-cell-carcinoma-following-second-line-chemotherapy-in-europe
#17
Jürgen C Becker, Eva Lorenz, Selma Ugurel, Thomas K Eigentler, Felix Kiecker, Claudia Pföhler, Ivonne Kellner, Friedegund Meier, Katharina Kähler, Peter Mohr, Carola Berking, Gabriele Haas, Christoph Helwig, Dina Oksen, Dirk Schadendorf, Lisa Mahnke, Murtuza Bharmal
Background and aims: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive skin cancer; few treatments exist for patients with advanced disease. Once tumors metastasize to distant sites, patients generally receive chemotherapy, but response duration and progression-free survival (PFS) are typically short. Few studies have assessed the efficacy of second-line chemotherapy for metastatic MCC. Here, we studied outcomes in patients who received ≥ 2 lines of chemotherapy for metastatic MCC. Materials and methods: Patients in an MCC-specific registry diagnosed with stage IV MCC between November 1, 2004, and September 15, 2015, and treated with second-line or later chemotherapy were analyzed retrospectively...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102653/combination-vismodegib-and-photodynamic-therapy-for-multiple-basal-cell-carcinomas
#18
Jason M Rizzo, Robert J Segal, Nathalie C Zeitouni
BACKGROUND: Oral vismodegib therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) are non-invasive treatments for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with overlapping utility in widespread BCCs and patients who are poor surgical candidates. There is no published study to date investigating the combination use of PDT with vismodegib to optimize individual response rates. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combination of red light PDT and vismodegib therapy in patients with multiple nodular BCCs...
November 1, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101162/ex-vivo-profiling-of-pd-1-blockade-using-organotypic-tumor-spheroids
#19
Russell W Jenkins, Amir R Aref, Patrick H Lizotte, Elena Ivanova, Susanna Stinson, Chensheng W Zhou, Michaela Bowden, Jiehui Deng, Hongye Liu, Diana Miao, Meng Xiao He, William Walker, Gao Zhang, Tian Tian, Chaoran Cheng, Zhi Wei, Sangeetha Palakurthi, Mark Bittinger, Hans Vitzthum, Jong Wook Kim, Ashley Merlino, Max Quinn, Chandrasekar Venkataramani, Joshua A Kaplan, Andrew Portell, Prafulla C Gokhale, Bart Phillips, Alicia Smart, Asaf Rotem, Robert E Jones, Lauren Keogh, Maria Anguiano, Lance Stapleton, Zhiheng Jia, Michal Barzily-Rokni, Israel Cañadas, Tran C Thai, Marc R Hammond, Raven Vlahos, Eric S Wang, Hua Zhang, Shuai Li, Glenn J Hanna, Wei Huang, Mai P Hoang, Adriano Piris, Jean-Pierre Eliane, Anat O Stemmer-Rachamimov, Lisa Cameron, Mei-Ju Su, Parin Shah, Benjamin Izar, Manisha Thakuria, Nicole R LeBoeuf, Guilherme Rabinowits, Viswanath Gunda, Sareh Parangi, James M Cleary, Brian C Miller, Shunsuke Kitajima, Rohit Thummalapalli, Benchun Miao, Thanh U Barbie, Vivek Sivathanu, Joshua Wong, William G Richards, Raphael Bueno, Charles H Yoon, Juan Miret, Meenhard Herlyn, Levi A Garraway, Eliezer M Van Allen, Gordon J Freeman, Paul T Kirschmeier, Jochen H Lorch, Patrick A Ott, F Stephen Hodi, Keith T Flaherty, Roger D Kamm, Genevieve M Boland, Kwok-Kin Wong, David Dornan, Cloud Peter Paweletz, David A Barbie
Ex vivo systems that incorporate features of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and model the dynamic response to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) may facilitate efforts in precision immuno-oncology and the development of effective combination therapies. Here, we demonstrate the ability to interrogate ex vivo response to ICB using murine- and patient-derived organotypic tumor spheroids (MDOTS/PDOTS). MDOTS/PDOTS isolated from mouse and human tumors retain autologous lymphoid and myeloid cell populations, and respond to ICB in short-term 3-dimensional microfluidic culture...
November 3, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100887/a-pharmacologically-immunosuppressed-mouse-model-for-assessing-influenza-b-virus-pathogenicity-and-oseltamivir-treatment
#20
Bindumadhav M Marathe, Heba H Mostafa, Peter Vogel, Philippe Noriel Q Pascua, Jeremy C Jones, Charles J Russell, Richard J Webby, Elena A Govorkova
Immunocompromised patients are highly susceptible to influenza virus infections. Although neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) therapy has proved effective in these patients, the treatment regimens require optimization, which can be partly addressed via animal models. Here, we describe a pharmacologically immunosuppressed mouse model for studying the pathogenesis of influenza B viruses and evaluating the efficacy of antiviral treatment. We modeled clinical regimens for dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide to immunosuppress BALB/c mice that were then inoculated with B/Phuket/3073/2013 (Yamagata lineage) or B/Brisbane/60/2008 (BR/08, Victoria lineage) virus...
October 31, 2017: Antiviral Research
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