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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454399/inhibition-of-lung-cancer-growth-by-hangamdan-b-is-mediated-by-macrophage-activation-to-m1-subtype
#1
Hye-Rin Park, Eun-Ji Lee, Seong-Cheol Moon, Tae-Wook Chung, Keuk-Jun Kim, Hwa-Seung Yoo, Chong-Kwan Cho, Ki-Tae Ha
Re-education of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) toward antitumor effectors may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the successful treatment of cancer. HangAmDan-B (HAD-B), a herbal formula, has been used for stimulating immune function and activation of vital energy to cancer patients in traditional Korean Medicine. Previous studies have reported the anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic effects of HAD-B; however, evidence on the immunomodulatory action of HAD-B was not demonstrated. In the present study, immunocompetent mice were used to demonstrate the suppression of the in vivo growth of allograft Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells, by HAD-B...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448566/il-33-st2-pathway-drives-regulatory-t-cell-dependent-suppression-of-liver-damage-upon-cytomegalovirus-infection
#2
Branka Popovic, Mijo Golemac, Jürgen Podlech, Jelena Zeleznjak, Lidija Bilic-Zulle, Miodrag L Lukic, Luka Cicin-Sain, Matthias J Reddehase, Tim Sparwasser, Astrid Krmpotic, Stipan Jonjic
Regulatory T (Treg) cells dampen an exaggerated immune response to viral infections in order to avoid immunopathology. Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are herpesviruses usually causing asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts and induce strong cellular immunity which provides protection against CMV disease. It remains unclear how these persistent viruses manage to avoid induction of immunopathology not only during the acute infection but also during life-long persistence and virus reactivation. This may be due to numerous viral immunoevasion strategies used to specifically modulate immune responses but also induction of Treg cells by CMV infection...
April 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446679/central-nervous-system-infection-with-borna-disease-virus-causes-kynurenine-pathway-dysregulation-and-neurotoxic-quinolinic-acid-production
#3
Simone Formisano, Mady Hornig, Kavitha Yaddanapudi, Mansi Vasishtha, Loren H Parsons, Thomas Briese, W Ian Lipkin, Brent L Williams
Central nervous system infection of neonatal and adult rats with Borna disease virus (BDV) results in neuronal destruction and behavioral abnormalities with differential immune-mediated involvement. Neuroactive metabolites generated from the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation have been implicated in several human neurodegenerative disorders. Here we report that brain expression of key enzymes in the kynurenine pathway are significantly, but differentially, altered in neonatal and adult rats with BDV infection...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446565/murinization-and-h-chain-isotype-matching-of-the-anti-gitr-antibody-dta-1-reduces-immunogenicity-mediated-anaphylaxis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#4
Nicole A Belmar, Sarah W Chan, Melvin I Fox, Josue A Samayoa, Marcia M Stickler, Ninian N Tran, Yoshiko Akamatsu, Diane Hollenbaugh, Fiona A Harding, Hamsell M Alvarez
Recent advances in immuno-oncology have shown that the immune system can be activated to induce long-term, durable antitumor responses. For immuno-oncology drug development, immune activation is often explored using rat Abs in immunocompetent mouse models. Although these models can be used to show efficacy, antidrug immune responses to experimental protein-based therapeutics can arise. Immunogenicity of surrogate Abs may therefore represent an important obstacle to the evaluation of the antitumor efficacy of immunomodulator Abs in syngeneic models...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446226/xenotransplantation-of-interferon-gamma-pretreated-clumps-of-a-human-mesenchymal-stem-cell-extracellular-matrix-complex-induces-mouse-calvarial-bone-regeneration
#5
Kei Takeshita, Souta Motoike, Mikihito Kajiya, Nao Komatsu, Manabu Takewaki, Kazuhisa Ouhara, Tomoyuki Iwata, Katsuhiro Takeda, Noriyoshi Mizuno, Tsuyoshi Fujita, Hidemi Kurihara
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional cultured clumps of a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)/extracellular matrix (ECM) complex (C-MSC) consists of cells and self-produced ECM. C-MSC can regulate the cellular function in vitro and induce successful bone regeneration using ECM as a cell scaffold. Potentiating the immunomodulatory capacity of C-MSCs, which can ameliorate the allo-specific immune response, may be helpful in developing beneficial "off-the-shelf" cell therapy for tissue regeneration. It is well reported that interferon (IFN)-γ stimulates the immunosuppressive properties of MSC via upregulation of the immunomodulatory enzyme IDO...
April 26, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445424/the-effect-of-deoxynivalenol-on-selected-populations-of-immunocompetent-cells-in-porcine-blood-a-preliminary-study
#6
Michał Dąbrowski, Ewa Jakimiuk, Mirosław Baranowski, Magdalena Gajęcka, Łukasz Zielonka, Maciej Tadeusz Gajęcki
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins in Europe. Pigs are an animal species that is most susceptible to this mycotoxin. Deoxynivalenol causes significant losses in pig production by lowering feed intake, decreasing daily weight gains, disrupting immune responses, and increasing susceptibility to diseases. The aim of this experiment was to determine the influence of feed contaminated with DON at concentrations insignificantly higher than recommended by the European Commission (900 µg/kg)...
April 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440395/microrna-mediated-inflammatory-responses-induced-by-cryptococcus-neoformans-are-dependent-on-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-human-monocytes
#7
Hong Chen, Yi Jin, Huan Chen, Ningxin Liao, Yan Wang, Jianghan Chen
Cryptococcosis is a significant invasive fungal infection with noteworthy morbidity and mortality that is usually caused by either Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) or Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii). Epidemiological studies have indicated that C. neoformans are more often reported in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. It has been well established that the cytokine profile of the host markedly affects the outcome of cryptococcal disease, and the negative regulators of microRNAs(miRs or miRNAs) are critically important for immunomodulation...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438973/pulmonary-il-17-lymphocytes-increase-during-pneumocystis-murina-infection-but-are-not-required-for-clearance-of-pneumocystis
#8
Chiara Ripamonti, Lisa R Bishop, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis remains an important pathogen of immunosuppressed patients, causing a potentially life-threatening pneumonia. Despite its medical importance, the immune responses required to control infection, including the role of IL-17, which is important in controlling other fungal infections, have not been clearly defined. Using flow cytometry and intracellular cytokine staining following stimulation with PMA and ionomycin, we examined interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17 production by lung lymphocytes in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice over time following infection with P...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436934/biopolymers-codelivering-engineered-t-cells-and-sting-agonists-can-eliminate-heterogeneous-tumors
#9
Tyrel T Smith, Howell F Moffett, Sirkka B Stephan, Cary F Opel, Amy G Dumigan, Xiuyun Jiang, Venu G Pillarisetty, Smitha P S Pillai, K Dane Wittrup, Matthias T Stephan
Therapies using T cells that are programmed to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) consistently produce positive results in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, CAR T cell treatments are less effective in solid tumors for several reasons. First, lymphocytes do not efficiently target CAR T cells; second, solid tumors create an immunosuppressive microenvironment that inactivates T cell responses; and third, solid cancers are typified by phenotypic diversity and thus include cells that do not express proteins targeted by the engineered receptors, enabling the formation of escape variants that elude CAR T cell targeting...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434842/a-simple-and-non-invasive-method-for-analyzing-local-immune-responses-in-vivo-using-fish-fin
#10
Yuta Matsuura, Naoki Takaoka, Ryuichiro Miyazawa, Teruyuki Nakanishi
Immunocompetence is an important parameter that reflects disease resistance in fish. Very few methods to examine immunocompetence in vivo have been developed, even for mammals. In the present study, we present a unique method for analyzing local immune responses using fish fin. We first demonstrated the migration of granulocytes to the site of zymosan injection in fin in a dose-dependent manner and that this could be easily observed macroscopically due to the fin membrane transparency. We also demonstrated phagocytic activity of accumulated leukocytes after zymosan administration and that almost all phagocytes were granulocytes...
April 20, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431402/micrometastasis-of-endometriosis-to-distant-organs-in-a-murine-model
#11
Elham N Samani, Ramanaiah Mamillapalli, Fei Li, Levent Mutlu, Demetra Hufnagel, Graciela Krikun, Hugh S Taylor
Endometriosis is an inflammatory gynecological disorder among reproductive-aged women caused by the engraftment and proliferation of endometrial cells outside the uterus, most commonly in the pelvis. It is thought that the disease arises primarily from retrograde menstruation where cells from the endometrium travel through the fallopian tubes to the peritoneal cavity. However, migration of endometriosis-derived cells to distant organs outside of the peritoneal cavity have not been explored. In the present study, we developed and validated a mouse model of disseminated endometriosis using syngeneic DsRed endometrial tissue introduced into the peritoneum of immunocompetent mice...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431394/effect-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vnp20009-and-vnp20009-with-restored-chemotaxis-on-4t1-mouse-mammary-carcinoma-progression
#12
Sheryl L Coutermarsh-Ott, Katherine M Broadway, Birgit E Scharf, Irving C Allen
A variety of bacterial strains have been evaluated as bio-therapeutic and immunomodulatory agents to treat cancer. One such strain, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium VNP20009, which is attenuated by a purine auxotrophic mutation and modified lipid A, is characterized in previous models as a safely administered, tumor colonizing agent. However, earlier work tended to use less aggressive cancer cell lines and immunocompromised animal models. Here, we investigated the safety and efficacy of VNP20009 in a highly malignant murine model of human breast cancer...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430880/cerebral-abscess-associated-with-odontogenic-bacteremias-hypoxemia-and-iron-loading-in-immunocompetent-patients-with-right-to-left-shunting-through-pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations
#13
E J Boother, S Brownlow, H C Tighe, K B Bamford, J E Jackson, C L Shovlin
Background: Cerebral abscess is a recognised complication of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) that allow systemic venous blood to bypass the pulmonary capillary bed through anatomic right-to-left shunts. Broader implications and mechanisms remain poorly explored. Methods: Between June 2005 and December 2016, at a single institution, 445 consecutive adult patients with CT-scan confirmed PAVMs (including 403 (90.5%) with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia) were recruited to a prospective series...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430642/immunocompetent-mouse-allograft-models-for-development-of-therapies-to-target-breast-cancer-metastasis
#14
Yuan Yang, Howard H Yang, Ying Hu, Peter H Watson, Huaitian Liu, Thomas R Geiger, Miriam R Anver, Diana C Haines, Philip Martin, Jeffrey E Green, Maxwell P Lee, Kent W Hunter, Lalage M Wakefield
Effective drug development to combat metastatic disease in breast cancer would be aided by the availability of well-characterized preclinical animal models that (a) metastasize with high efficiency, (b) metastasize in a reasonable time-frame, (c) have an intact immune system, and (d) capture some of the heterogeneity of the human disease. To address these issues, we have assembled a panel of twelve mouse mammary cancer cell lines that can metastasize efficiently on implantation into syngeneic immunocompetent hosts...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425928/porcine-circoviruses-and-xenotransplantation
#15
REVIEW
Joachim Denner, Annette Mankertz
Allotransplantation and xenotransplantation may be associated with the transmission of pathogens from the donor to the recipient. Whereas in the case of allotransplantation the transmitted microorganisms and their pathogenic effect are well characterized, the possible influence of porcine microorganisms on humans is mostly unknown. Porcine circoviruses (PCVs) are common in pig breeds and they belong to porcine microorganisms that still have not been fully addressed in terms of evaluating the potential risk of xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, and organs...
April 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424760/insights-into-local-tumor-microenvironment-immune-factors-associated-with-regression-of-cutaneous-melanoma-metastases-by-mycobacterium-bovis-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#16
Junbao Yang, Maris S Jones, Romela Irene Ramos, Alfred A Chan, Agnes F Lee, Leland J Foshag, Peter A Sieling, Mark B Faries, Delphine J Lee
Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is listed as an intralesional (IL) therapeutic option for inoperable stage III in-transit melanoma in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines. Although the mechanism is unknown, others have reported up to 50% regression of injected lesions, and 17% regression of uninjected lesions in immunocompetent patients after direct injection of BCG into metastatic melanoma lesions in the skin. BCG and other mycobacteria express ligands capable of stimulating the γ9δ2 T cells...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424213/magnesium-improves-cisplatin-mediated-tumor-killing-while-protecting-against-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity
#17
Gopal Kumar, Malvika H Solanki, Xiangying Xue, Rachel Mintz, Swati Madankumar, Proydot K Chatterjee, Christine N Metz
Approximately 30% of all cancer patients treated with cisplatin, a widely used, broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent, experience acute kidney injury (AKI). Almost all patients receiving cisplatin have magnesium (Mg) losses, which are proposed to aggravate AKI. Currently, there are no methods to successfully treat or prevent cisplatin-AKI. While Mg supplementation has been shown to reduce AKI in experimental models and several small clinical trials, the effects of Mg status on tumor outcomes in immunocompetent tumor-bearing mice and humans have not been investigated...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419429/mutational-landscape-of-b-cell-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#18
Thomas Menter, Darius Juskevicius, Mary Alikian, Juerg Steiger, Stephan Dirnhofer, Alexandar Tzankov, Kikkeri N Naresh
It is currently unclear whether post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (PT-DLBCL) display a similar genomic landscape as DLBCL in immunocompetent patients (IC-DLBCL). We investigated 50 post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) including 37 PT-DLBCL samples for somatic mutations frequently observed in IC-DLBCL. Targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) using the Ion Torrent platform and a customized panel of 68 genes was performed on genomic DNA. Non-tumoural tissue was sequenced to exclude germline variants in cases where available...
April 17, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416454/e1a-is-an-exogenous-in%C3%A2-vivo-tumour-suppressor
#19
F J Cimas, J L Callejas-Valera, D C García-Olmo, J Hernández-Losa, P Melgar-Rojas, M J Ruiz-Hidalgo, R Pascual-Serra, M Ortega-Muelas, O Roche, P Marcos, E Garcia-Gil, D M Fernandez-Aroca, S Ramón Y Cajal, J S Gutkind, R Sanchez-Prieto
The E1a gene from adenovirus has become a major tool in cancer research. Since the discovery of E1a, it has been proposed to be an oncogene, becoming a key element in the model of cooperation between oncogenes. However, E1a's in vivo behaviour is consistent with a tumour suppressor gene, due to the block/delay observed in different xenograft models. To clarify this interesting controversy, we have evaluated the effect of the E1a 13s isoform from adenovirus 5 in vivo. Initially, a conventional xenograft approach was performed using previously unreported HCT116 and B16-F10 cells, showing a clear anti-tumour effect regardless of the mouse's immunological background (immunosuppressed/immunocompetent)...
April 15, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413557/c2-primary-leiomyoma-in-an-immunocompetent-woman-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#20
Mohana Rao Patibandla, Madhukar T Nayak, A K Purohit, Megha Uppin, Sundaram Challa, Gokul Chowdary Addagada, Manisha Nukavarapu
Clinical case report and review of the literature. This is the first case of primary leiomyoma in an immunocompetent woman without previous history of uterine leiomyoma being reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Leiomyoma, a type of smooth muscle cell tumor, involving the vertebra is extremely rare. There were very few primary leiomyoma in patients with AIDS or in the immune-suppressed patients. This 48-year-old female came with H/o neck pain, weakness and bladder retention. On examination, tone increased in all four limbs, power on the right side of the limbs 4/5, power on the left upper limb 0/5, lower limb 3/5, left plantar was up going, decreased sensation over the left second cervical vertebra (C2) dermatome and all modalities decreased below C2...
January 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
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