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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916287/effects-of-anti-inflammatory-compounds-on-sulfur-mustard-injured-cells-recommendations-and-caveats-suggested-by-in-vitro-cell-culture-models
#1
Georg Menacher, Dirk Steinritz, Annette Schmidt, Tanja Popp, Franz Worek, Thomas Gudermann, Horst Thiermann, Frank Balszuweit
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant agent who had its first military use 100 years ago, in Ypres. Since then it has been used in several conflicts like the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s. The use of SM in Syria 2015 indicated the still existing threat. Despite decades of research no causal antidote against SM intoxication is available, so far. A SM intoxication is accompanied by necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation. To counteract the SM-induced inflammation, glucocorticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds (NSAIDs) are recommended...
September 12, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915590/combination-of-desi2-and-ip10-gene-therapy-significantly-improves-therapeutic-efficacy-against-murine-carcinoma
#2
Chao Lin, HuaYing Yan, Jun Yang, Lei Li, Mei Tang, Xinyu Zhao, Chunlai Nie, Na Luo, Yuquan Wei, Zhu Yuan
DESI2 (also known as PNAS-4) is a novel pro-apoptotic gene activated during the early response to DNA damage. We previously reported that overexpression of DESI2 induces S phase arrest and apoptosis by activating checkpoint kinases. The present study was designed to test whether combination of DESI2 and IP10 could improve the therapy efficacy in vitro and in vivo. The recombinant plasmid co-expressing DESI2 and IP10 was encapsulated with DOTAP/Cholesterol nanoparticle. Immunocompetent mice bearing CT26 colon carcinoma and LL2 lung cancer were treated with the complex...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906326/tissue-engineering-strategies-for-auricular-reconstruction
#3
Michael J Schroeder, Mark S Lloyd
Simulating natural characteristics and aesthetics in reconstructed ears has provided a complex 3-dimensional puzzle for those treating patients with microtia. Costochondral grafts remain the gold standard for autologous reconstruction. However, other options such as Medpor and prosthetics are indicated depending on patient circumstances and personal choice. Research into tissue engineering offers an alternative method to a traditional surgical approach that may reduce donor-site morbidity. However, tissue engineering for microtia reconstruction brings new challenges such as cell sourcing, promotion of chondrogenesis, scaffold vascularization, and prevention of scaffold contraction...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905216/slowly-progressing-varicella-zoster-brainstem-encephalitis-complicating-ramsay-hunt-syndrome-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Vito A G Ricigliano, Lorenzo Saraceno, Michele Cavalli, Mariaemma Rodegher, Giovanni Meola
A 56-year-old immunocompetent male developed brainstem encephalitis complicating Ramsay Hunt syndrome. The disease had a slowly progressing course of months after the triggering infection, much longer than previously reported. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging, physical-chemical, and cell count analyses on cerebrospinal fluid were normal, whereas polymerase chain reaction for varicella zoster virus DNA was positive. The simultaneous negativity of both imaging and basic CSF exams is very rare, although possible event which confirms the irreplaceable role of viral screening on CSF...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903971/extracellular-s100a9-protein-in-bone-marrow-supports-multiple-myeloma-survival-by-stimulating-angiogenesis-and-cytokine-secretion
#5
Kim De Veirman, Nathan De Beule, Ken Maes, Eline Menu, Elke De Bruyne, Hendrik De Raeve, Karel Fostier, Jerome Moreaux, Alboukadel Kassambara, Dirk Hose, Roy Heusschen, Helena Eriksson, Karin Vanderkerken, Els Van Valckenborgh
Dysregulated expression of S100 protein family members is associated with cancer proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and inflammation. S100A9 induces myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) accumulation and activity. MDSCs, immunosuppressive cells that contribute to tumor immune escape, are the main producers of S100A9. In this study, we evaluated the role of extracellular S100A9 and the therapeutic relevance of S100A9 inhibition in multiple myeloma (MM), using the immunocompetent murine 5T33MM model. We demonstrated the presence of S100A9 and its receptor TLR4 in both monocytic and granulocytic MDSCs in human and mouse samples...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903340/multi-modality-imaging-monitored-creation-of-rat-orthotopic-pancreatic-head-cancer-with-obstructive-jaundice
#6
Zhibin Bai, Yaoping Shi, Jianfeng Wang, Longhua Qiu, Gaojun Teng, Feng Zhang, Xiaoming Yang
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of using multi-modality imaging to monitor the creation of rat models with orthotopic pancreatic head cancer with obstructive jaundice. RESULTS: 27 of 52 rats (51.92%) developed pancreatic head cancer. The tumor formation rate was significantly higher in the animal group receiving bioluminescent tumor, compared to the group receiving non-bioluminescent donor tumors [78.1% (25/32 rats) vs 10.0% (2/20 rats), P = 0.0001]. Both ultrasound imaging and MRI clearly characterized the orthotopic tumors...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893938/epstein-barr-virus-associated-lymphomas
#7
REVIEW
Claire Shannon-Lowe, Alan B Rickinson, Andrew I Bell
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), originally discovered through its association with Burkitt lymphoma, is now aetiologically linked to a remarkably wide range of lymphoproliferative lesions and malignant lymphomas of B-, T- and NK-cell origin. Some occur as rare accidents of virus persistence in the B lymphoid system, while others arise as a result of viral entry into unnatural target cells. The early finding that EBV is a potent B-cell growth transforming agent hinted at a simple oncogenic mechanism by which this virus could promote lymphomagenesis...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892735/expression-of-the-chemokine-receptors-ccr1-and-ccr2b-is-up-regulated-in-peripheral-blood-b-cells-upon-ebv-infection-and-in-established-lymphoblastoid-cell-lines
#8
Irina Kholodnyuk, Zanna Rudevica, Ainars Leonciks, Barbro Ehlin-Henriksson, Elena Kashuba
In immunocompetent individuals, EBV establishes in B cells an asymptomatic lifelong latent infection controlled by the immune system. Chemokine receptors regulate immune system function. CCR1 and CCR2 share protein sequence similarity and exert responses to multiple chemokines. The role of these receptors in B cells is largely unknown. We show that the mRNA and functional protein expression of CCR1 and CCR2 is induced in ex vivo B cells upon EBV infection and in established lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs)...
September 8, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890836/new-diagnosis-of-aids-based-on-salmonella-enterica-subsp-i-enterica-enteritidis-a-meningitis-in-a-previously-immunocompetent-adult-in-the-united-states
#9
Andrew C Elton, James Levin, Matthew P Lazio
Salmonella meningitis is a rare manifestation of meningitis typically presenting in neonates and the elderly. This infection typically associates with foodborne outbreaks in developing nations and AIDS-endemic regions. We report a case of a 19-year-old male presenting with altered mental status after 3-day absence from work at a Wisconsin tourist area. He was febrile, tachycardic, and tachypneic with a GCS of 8. The patient was intubated and a presumptive diagnosis of meningitis was made. Treatment was initiated with ceftriaxone, vancomycin, acyclovir, dexamethasone, and fluid resuscitation...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886268/implanted-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells-encapsulated-in-polyvinylidene-fluoride-membrane-cylinders-promote-effective-recovery-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#10
Aiko Yamazaki, Kohya Obara, Natsuko Tohgi, Kyoumi Shirai, Sumiyuki Mii, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Ryoichi Aki, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
Hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area of the hair follicle, express the stem-cell marker, nestin, and have been shown to differentiate to nerve cells, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes. Transplanted HAP stem cells promote the recovery of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries and have the potential for heart regeneration as well. In the present study, we implanted mouse HAP stem-cell spheres encapsulated in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-membrane cylinders into the severed sciatic nerve of immunocompetent and immunocompromised (nude) mice...
September 8, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886250/dectin-2-is-a-c-type-lectin-receptor-that-recognizes-pneumocystis-and-participates-in-innate-immune-responses
#11
Theodore J Kottom, Deanne M Hebrink, Paige E Jenson, Paige L Marsolek, Marcel Wüthrich, Huafeng Wang, Bruce Klein, Sho Yamasaki, Andrew H Limper
Pneumocystis remains an important fungal pathogen causing life-threatening pneumonia in patients with AIDS and malignancy. Lung fungal pathogens are recognized by C-type Lectin Receptors (CLRs), which bind specific ligands and stimulate innate immune responses. Previously, a role for the CLR Dectin-1 has been shown to mediate immune responses to Pneumocystis spp. For this reason, we investigated a potential role for Dectin-2. Rats with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) exhibited elevated Dectin-2 mRNA levels. Soluble Dectin-2 CRD fusions protein showed binding to intact Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) and to native Pneumocystis major surface glycoprotein/glycoprotein A (Msg/gpA)...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881722/hepatic-nk-cell-mediated-hypersensitivity-to-cona-induced-liver-injury-in-mouse-liver-expressing-hepatitis-c-virus-polyprotein
#12
Qiuxia Fu, Shaoduo Yan, Licui Wang, Xiangguo Duan, Lei Wang, Yue Wang, Tao Wu, Xiaohui Wang, Jie An, Yulong Zhang, Qianqian Zhou, Linsheng Zhan
The role of hepatic NK cells in the pathogenesis of HCV-associated hepatic failure is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of HCV on ConA-induced immunological hepatic injury and the influence of HCV on hepatic NK cell activation in the liver after ConA administration. An immunocompetent HCV mouse model that encodes the entire viral polyprotein in a liver-specific manner based on hydrodynamic injection and φC31o integrase was used to study the role of hepatic NK cells. Interestingly, the frequency of hepatic NK cells was reduced in HCV mice, whereas the levels of other intrahepatic lymphocytes remained unaltered...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881710/experimental-african-trypanosome-infection-suppresses-the-development-of-multiple-myeloma-in-mice-by-inducing-intrinsic-apoptosis-of-malignant-plasma-cells
#13
Nathan De Beule, Eline Menu, Mathieu J M Bertrand, Mérédis Favreau, Elke De Bruyne, Ken Maes, Kim De Veirman, Magdalena Radwanska, Afshin Samali, Stefan Magez, Karin Vanderkerken, Carl De Trez
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Recently, several studies have highlighted the role of pathogens in either promoting or dampening malignancies of unrelated origin. Trypanosoma brucei is an extracellular protozoan parasite which causes sleeping sickness. Our group has previously demonstrated that trypanosome infection affects effector plasma B cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that T. brucei infection could have an impact on MM development...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878763/experimental-hyalohyphomycosis-by-purpureocillium-lilacinum-outcome-of-the-infection-in-c57bl-6-murine-models
#14
Danielly C M de Sequeira, Rodrigo C Menezes, Manoel M E Oliveira, Paulo R Z Antas, Paula M De Luca, Joseli de Oliveira-Ferreira, Cintia de Moraes Borba
Purpureocillium lilacinum is a filamentous, hyaline fungus considered an emerging pathogen in humans. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of hyalohyphomycosis in C57BL/6 murine models inoculated with two clinical P. lilacinum isolates (S1 and S2). Each isolate was inoculated in mice randomly distributed in immunocompetent (CPT) and immunosuppressed (SPS) groups. Mice were evaluated at day 7, 21, and 45 after inoculation for histopathological analysis, recovery of fungal cells, and immunological studies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878760/respiratory-commensal-bacteria-corynebacterium-pseudodiphtheriticum-improves-resistance-of-infant-mice-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-superinfection
#15
Paulraj Kanmani, Patricia Clua, Maria G Vizoso-Pinto, Cecilia Rodriguez, Susana Alvarez, Vyacheslav Melnikov, Hideki Takahashi, Haruki Kitazawa, Julio Villena
Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a Gram-positive bacterium found as a member of the normal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract. It was suggested that C. pseudodiphtheriticum may be potentially used as a next-generation probiotic for nasal application, although no deep studies were performed in this regard. We hypothesized that human isolate C. pseudodiphtheriticum strain 090104 is able to modulate the respiratory innate immune response and beneficially influence the resistance to viral and bacterial infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878085/hcmv-particles-treated-with-specific-antibodies-induce-intrinsic-and-adaptive-but-not-innate-immune-responses
#16
Zeguang Wu, Ruifang Qin, Li Wang, Matteo Bosso, Myriam Scherer, Thomas Stamminger, Dominik Hotter, Thomas Mertens, Giada Frascaroli
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) persistently infects 40% to 100% of the human population worldwide. Experimental and clinical evidence indicates that humoral immunity to HCMV plays an important role in restricting virus dissemination and protecting the infected host from disease. Specific immunoglobulin preparations from pooled plasma of adults selected for high titers of HCMV antibodies, have been used for prevention of CMV disease in transplant recipients and pregnant women. Even though incubation of HCMV particles with these preparations leads to neutralization of the viral infectivity, it is still unclear whether the antibody-treated HCMV particles (here defined as HCMV-Ab) enter into the cells and modulate anti-viral immune responses...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875507/the-etiology-of-b-cell-lymphoid-malignancies-with-a-focus-on-chronic-inflammation-and-infections
#17
Karin E Smedby, Maurilio Ponzoni
B-cell malignancies are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders with different molecular characteristics and clinical course. It is increasingly recognized that the group displays considerable heterogeneity also regarding etiologic factors. Here, we summarize the latest developments in the etiology of B-cell lymphoid malignancy subtypes focusing on immune perturbation. Severe immune suppression constitues a strong and well established risk factor for aggressive subtypes (e.g., diffuse large B-cell and Burkitt lymphoma), but appears unrelated to risk of common low-grade subtypes (e...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874690/a-single-neonatal-administration-of-bisphenol-a-induces-higher-tumour-weight-associated-to-changes-in-tumour-microenvironment-in-the-adulthood
#18
Margarita Isabel Palacios-Arreola, Karen Elizabeth Nava-Castro, Víctor Hugo Del Río-Araiza, Nashla Yazmín Pérez-Sánchez, Jorge Morales-Montor
BPA is an oestrogenic endocrine disrupting chemical compound. Exposure to BPA in as early as pregnancy leads to lifelong effects. Since endocrine and immune systems interact in a bidirectional manner, endocrine disruption may cause permanent alterations of the immune system, affecting a future anti-tumoral response. Neonate (PND 3) female syngeneic BALB/c mice were exposed to a single dose of 250 µg/kg BPA. Once sexual maturity was reached, a mammary tumour was induced injecting 4T1 cells in situ, these cells are derived from a spontaneous adenocarcinoma in a BALB/c mouse and therefore allows for an immunocompetent recipient...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874539/detection-of-immune-responses-after-immunotherapy-in-glioblastoma-using-pet-and-mri
#19
Joseph P Antonios, Horacio Soto, Richard G Everson, Diana L Moughon, Anthony C Wang, Joey Orpilla, Caius Radu, Benjamin M Ellingson, Jason T Lee, Timothy Cloughesy, Michael E Phelps, Johannes Czernin, Linda M Liau, Robert M Prins
Contrast-enhanced MRI is typically used to follow treatment response and progression in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). However, differentiating tumor progression from pseudoprogression remains a clinical dilemma largely unmitigated by current advances in imaging techniques. Noninvasive imaging techniques capable of distinguishing these two conditions could play an important role in the clinical management of patients with GBM and other brain malignancies. We hypothesized that PET probes for deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) could be used to differentiate immune inflammatory responses from other sources of contrast-enhancement on MRI...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871303/polymeric-mannosides-prevent-dc-sign-mediated-cell-infection-by-cytomegalovirus
#20
S Brument, C Cheneau, Y Brissonnet, D Deniaud, F Halary, S G Gouin
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a beta-herpesvirus with a high prevalence in the population. HCMV is asymptomatic for immunocompetent adults but is a leading cause of morbidity for new born and immunocompromised patients. It was recently shown that the envelope glycoprotein B (gB) of HCMV interacts with the Dendritic Cell-Specific ICAM-3 Grabbing Non integrin (DC-SIGN) to infect the host. In this work we developed a set of DC-SIGN blockers based on mono-, di-, tetra and polyvalent mannosides. The multivalent mannosides were designed to interact with the carbohydrate recognition domains of DC-SIGN in a chelate or bind and recapture process, and represent the first chemical antiadhesives of HCMV reported so far...
September 5, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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