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Sachiko Kinoshita, Teresa Schubert, Rinus G Verdonschot
It is well-established that allographs like the uppercase and lowercase forms of the Roman alphabet (e.g., a and A) map onto the same "abstract letter identity," orthographic representations that are independent of the visual form. Consistent with this, in the allograph match task ("Are 'a' and 'A' the same letter?"), priming by a masked letter prime is equally robust for visually dissimilar prime-target pairs (e.g., d and D) and similar pairs (e.g., c and C). However, in principle this pattern of priming is also consistent with the possibility that allograph priming is purely phonological, based on the letter name...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Kengo Maeda, Tomoyuki Shiraishi
Japanese people born before World War II learned Japanese kana (Japanese syllabograms) writing in a style that is not currently used. These individuals had to learn the current style of kana orthography after the war. An 85-year-old man was taken to our hospital by his family who were surprised by his diary. It was written with kanji (Japanese ideograms) and katakana using the prewar style. A neuropsychological examination revealed impaired recall of hiragana. Neuroimaging studies revealed atrophy of the left fronto-parietal lobe and hypoperfusion of the left frontal lobe...
2018: Internal Medicine
Parichart Boueroy, Chariya Hahnvajanawong, Thidarut Boonmars, Sunitta Saensa-ard, Wareeporn Wattanawongdon, Charuphan Kongsanthia, Kanin Salao, Suwin Wongwajana, Natthinee Anantachoke, Vichai Reutrakul
Background: Chemotherapy for advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is largely ineffective; thus innovative combinations of chemotherapeutic agents and natural compounds represent a promising strategy. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of forbesione combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamster cholangiocarcinoma (Ham-1) cells both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor effects of 5-FU combined with forbesione in vitro were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and the effects in vivo were assessed in transplanted Ham-1 allograph models...
December 29, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Gloria Jennis Tan, Ghazali Sulong, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim
This paper presents a review on the state of the art in offline text-independent writer identification methods for three major languages, namely English, Chinese and Arabic, which were published in literatures from 2011 till 2016. For ease of discussions, we grouped the techniques into three categories: texture-, structure-, and allograph-based. Results are analysed, compared and tabulated along with datasets used for fair and just comparisons. It is observed that during that period, there are significant progresses achieved on English and Arabic; however, the growth on Chinese is rather slow and far from satisfactory in comparison to its wide usage...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
Britney Bare-Welchel, Phillip M Campbell, Marianela Gonzalez, Peter H Buschang
INTRODUCTION: A randomized split-mouth experiment was performed in dogs to determine the effects of bone grafting, together with corticotomies and buccal tooth movements, on dehiscence formation. METHODS: Bilateral full-thickness mucoperiosteal buccal flaps were raised, and corticotomies were performed with a piezosurgery unit adjacent to the maxillary second premolars in 7 dogs. The experimental (graft+) side received a demineralized freeze-dried allograph and a resorbable collagen membrane...
June 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
David Rothlein, Brenda Rapp
The literate brain must contend with countless font variants for any given letter. How does the visual system handle such variability? One proposed solution posits stored structural descriptions of basic letter shapes that are abstract enough to deal with the many possible font variations of each letter. These font-invariant representations, referred to as allographs in this paper, while frequently posited, have seldom been empirically evaluated. The research reported here helps to address this gap with 2 experiments that examine the possible influence of allograph representations on visual letter processing...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Joseba Lizega Rika
This is an exploratory study that analyzes the width and the height of letters in two texts written by each of the 21 writers analyzed. After detrending the linear, text, and allograph trends, we proceeded to comparing the sizes obtained in different texts. The different detrended series were compared by means of correlation and t-test. According to the results regarding the width of letters, the texts of 19 of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas the texts of two writers did not correlate with the limits of the threshold...
January 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Christian Peake, Alicia Diaz, Ceferino Artiles
This study examined the relationship and degree of predictability that the fluency of writing the alphabet from memory and the selection of allographs have on measures of fluency and accuracy of spelling in a free-writing sentence task when keyboarding. The Test Estandarizado para la Evaluación de la Escritura con Teclado ("Spanish Keyboarding Writing Test"; Jiménez, 2012) was used as the assessment tool. A sample of 986 children from Grades 1 through 3 were classified according to transcription skills measured by keyboard ability (poor vs...
September 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Pablo Barrientos
The central purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamics of handwriting movements in real time for Spanish students in early grades with and without learning disabilities. The sample consisted of 120 children from Grades 1 through 3 (primary education), classified into two groups: with learning disabilities and without learning disabilities. The Early Grade Writing Assessment tasks selected for this purpose were writing the alphabet in order from memory, alphabet copying in cursive and manuscript, and allograph selection...
September 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Juan E Jiménez, Isaac Marco, Natalia Suárez, Desirée González
This study had two purposes: examining the internal structure of the Test Estandarizado para la Evaluación Inicial de la Escritura con Teclado (TEVET; Spanish Keyboarding Writing Test), and analyzing the development of keyboarding skills in Spanish elementary school children with and without learning disabilities (LD) in writing. A group of 1,168 elementary school children carried out the following writing tasks: writing the alphabet in order from memory, allograph selection, word copying, writing dictated words with inconsistent spelling, writing pseudowords from dictation, and independent composition of sentence...
September 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Richard J Miron, Qiao Zhang, Anton Sculean, Daniel Buser, Benjamin E Pippenger, Michel Dard, Yoshinori Shirakata, Fatiha Chandad, Yufeng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) aims to predictably restore missing bone that has been lost due to trauma, periodontal disease or a variety of systemic conditions. Critical to this procedure is the ability of a bone grafting material to predictably serve as a 3-dimensional scaffold capable of inducing cell and bone tissue in-growth at the material surface. Although all bone grafts are osteoconductive to bone-forming osteoblasts, only a small number of commercially available bone grafts with FDA approval are osteoinductive including demineralized freeze-dried bone allographs (DFDBA) and scaffolds containing bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)...
November 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Katherine A Batterton, Christine M Schubert
The Youden index is a commonly employed metric to characterize the performance of a diagnostic test at its optimal point. For tests with three or more outcome classes, the Youden index has been extended; however, there are limited methods to compute a confidence interval (CI) about its value. Often, outcome classes are assumed to be normally distributed, which facilitates computational formulas for the CI bounds; however, many scenarios exist for which these assumptions cannot be made. In addition, many of these existing CI methods do not work well for small sample sizes...
January 15, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
Eugénio Pereira, Ana Messias, Ricardo Dias, Fernando Judas, Alexander Salvoni, Fernando Guerra
BACKGROUND: Reliable implant-supported rehabilitation of an alveolar ridge needs sufficient volume of bone. In order to achieve a prosthetic-driven positioning, bone graft techniques may be required. PURPOSE: This prospective cohort study aims to clinically evaluate the amount of resorption of corticocancellous fresh-frozen allografts bone blocks used in the reconstruction of the severe atrophic maxilla. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two partial and totally edentulous patients underwent bone augmentation procedures with fresh-frozen allogenous blocks from the iliac crest under local anesthesia...
October 2015: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Mahire Yakup, Wayit Abliz, Joan Sereno, Manuel Perea
We examined how letter position coding is achieved in a script (Arabic) in which the different letter forms (i.e., allographs) may vary depending on their position within the letter string (e.g., compare the same-ligation pair [see text] and [see text] vs. the different-ligation pair [see text] and [see text]. To that end, we conducted an experiment in Uyghur, an agglutinative language from the Turkic family that employs an Arabic-based script in which both consonants and vowels are explicitly written. Participants had to reproduce the correct word forms in rapid serial visual presentation sentences that either contained jumbled words (with the same ligation or different ligation) or were intact...
December 2014: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
James L Mayo, Anna Mathai, Anna Mattai, Hugo St Hilaire, Michael H Moses
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2014: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Teresa Schubert, Michael McCloskey
We report a detailed and extensive single-case study of an acquired dyslexic patient, L.H.D., who suffered a left-hemisphere lesion as a result of a ruptured aneurysm. We present evidence that L.H.D.'s reading errors stem from a deficit in visual letter identification, and we use her deficit as a basis for exploring a variety of issues concerning prelexical representations and processes in reading. First, building on the work of other researchers, we present evidence that the prelexical reading system includes an allograph level of representation that represents each distinct visual shape of a letter (e...
2013: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Miguel Angel Ruiz-Ibán, Fausto Gonzalez-Lizán, Jorge Diaz-Heredia, Maria Elena Elías-Martin, Carlos Correa Gorospe
PURPOSE: Long-bone segmental defects caused by infection, fracture, or tumour are a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Structural allografts are sometimes used in their treatment but their poor biological characteristics are a liability. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) to a structural allograft improved its integration into a rabbit tibial segmental defect in a non-union model. METHODS: Tibial segmental defects were filled with heat sterilized allogenic tubular tibiae sections and then stabilized with a screw plate...
May 2015: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
David Pickham, Kathleen Hickey, Lynn Doering, Belinda Chen, Carmen Castillo, Barbara J Drew
STUDY AIM: Describe ECG abnormalities in the first year following transplant surgery. METHODS: Analysis of 12-lead ECGs from heart transplant subjects enrolled in an ongoing multicenter clinical trial. RESULTS: 585 ECGs from 98 subjects showed few with abnormal cardiac rhythm (99% of ECGs were sinus rhythm/tachycardia). A majority of subjects (69%) had either right intraventricular conduction delay (56%) or right bundle branch block (13%)...
March 2014: Journal of Electrocardiology
Emilia J Sitek, Ewa Narozanska, Anna Barczak, Barbara Jasinska-Myga, Michał Harciarek, Małgorzata Chodakowska-Zebrowska, Małgorzata Kubiak, Dariusz Wieczorek, Seweryna Konieczna, Rosa Rademakers, Matt Baker, Mariusz Berdynski, Bogna Brockhuis, Maria Barcikowska, Cezary Zekanowski, Kenneth M Heilman, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Jarosław Slawek
OBJECTIVES: Patients with frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) may be agraphic. The study aimed at characterizing agraphia in individuals with a P301L MAPT mutation. METHODS: Two pairs of siblings with FTDP-17 were longitudinally examined for agraphia in relation to language and cognitive deficits. RESULTS: All patients presented with dysexecutive agraphia. In addition, in the first pair of siblings one sibling demonstrated spatial agraphia with less pronounced allographic agraphia and the other sibling had aphasic agraphia...
2014: Neurocase
Alina Menichelli, Francesca Machetta, Antonella Zadini, Carlo Semenza
The case is reported of a patient (PS) who, following acute encephalitis with residual occipito-temporal damage, showed a selective deficit in writing cursive letters in isolation, but no difficulty to write cursive-case words and non-words. Notably, he was able to recognize the same allographs he could not write and to produce both single letters and words in print. In addition to this selective single letter writing difficulty, the patient demonstrated an inability to correctly perform a series of imagery tasks for cursive letters...
2012: Behavioural Neurology
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