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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932310/loss-of-dopamine-d1-receptors-and-diminished-d1-5-receptor-mediated-erk-phosphorylation-in-the-periaqueductal-gray-after-spinal-cord-lesion
#1
Pamela J Voulalas, Yadong Ji, Li Jiang, Jamila Asgar, Jin Y Ro, Radi Masri
Neuropathic pain resulting from spinal cord injury is often accompanied by maladaptive plasticity of the central nervous system, including the opioid receptor-rich periaqueductal gray (PAG). Evidence suggests that sensory signaling via the PAG is robustly modulated by dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors, but the effect of damage to the spinal cord on D1 and D2 receptor protein expression and function in the PAG has not been examined. Here we show that 21 days after a T10 or C6 spinothalamic tract lesion, both mice and rats display a remarkable decline in the expression of D1 receptors in the PAG, revealed by western blot analysis...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931783/reduced-p3b-brain-response-during-sustained-visual-attention-is-associated-with-remote-blast-mtbi-and-current-ptsd-in-u-s-military-veterans
#2
Casey S Gilmore, Craig A Marquardt, Seung Suk Kang, Scott R Sponheim
Approximately 275,000 American service members deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan have sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), with 75% of these incidents involving an explosive blast. Combat-related mTBI is frequently associated with comorbid mental health disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Attention problems, including sustained attention, are common cognitive complaints of veterans with TBI and PTSD. The present study sought to examine neural correlates of sustained attention in veterans with blast mTBI and/or current PTSD...
December 5, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931507/hiv-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-efavirenz-reduces-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Jingji Jin, Bethany Grimmig, James Izzo, Lecia A M Brown, Charles Hudson, Adam J Smith, Jun Tan, Paula C Bickford, Brian Giunta
The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). There is evidence that neural stem cells (NSCs) can migrate to sites of brain injury such as those caused by inflammation and oxidative stress, which are pathological features of HAND. Thus, reductions in NSCs may contribute to HAND pathogenesis. Since the HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) has previously been associated with cognitive deficits and promotion of oxidative stress pathways, we examined its effect on NSCs in vitro as well as in C57BL/6J mice...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931179/structural-and-functional-integrity-of-the-intraparietal-sulcus-in-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Chandler Sours, Prashant Raghavan, Alexandre Medina de Jesus, Steven R Roys, Li Jiang, Jiachen Zhuo, Rao P Gullapalli
Severe and Moderate TBI (sTBI) often results in long-term cognitive deficits such as reduced processing speed and attention. The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is a neocortical structure that plays a crucial role in the deeply interrelated processes of multisensory processing and top down attention. Therefore, we hypothesized that disruptions in the functional and structural connections of the IPS may play a role in the development of such deficits. To examine these connections we used resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in a cohort of 27 sTBI patients (29...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930984/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-conditioned-media-could-potentially-ameliorate-ovalbumin-induced-asthmatic-changes
#5
Mahdi Ahmadi, Reza Rahbarghazi, Mohammad Reza Aslani, Amir-Ali Shahbazfar, Masoumeh Kazemi, Rana Keyhanmanesh
BACKGROUND: The major feature of asthma is governed by chronic airway inflammation. This investigation was proposed to achieve the suitable candidate for ameliorating long-term chronic asthmatic changes of respiratory tract. METHODS: 36 rats were classified into healthy (C) and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized animals (S). To sensitize, the rats were exposed to OVA over a course of 32±1days. One day after sensitization, equal six different groups were subjected to experimental procedure (n=6); Rats only received intratracheally 50ml PBS (CPT and SPT groups), 50μl conditioned medium (CM) (CST and SST groups) and 50μl PBS containing 2×10(6) rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) (CCT and SCT groups)...
December 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930890/within-session-responses-to-high-intensity-interval-training-in-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Todd Anthony Astorino, Jacob S Thum
AIM: Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake and health status, yet its feasibility in persons with spinal cord injury is unknown. PURPOSE: To compare changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables between two interval training regimes and moderate intensity exercise. METHOD: Nine adults with spinal cord injury (duration = 6.8 ± 6.2 year) initially underwent determination of peak oxygen uptake...
December 8, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930553/the-effects-of-hyaluronic-acid-on-hemiplegic-shoulder-injury-and-pain-in-patients-with-subacute-stroke-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#7
Yu-Chi Huang, Chau-Peng Leong, Lin Wang, Mei-Ju Chen, Chien-Yi Chuang, Mei-Yun Liaw, Lin-Yi Wang
BACKGROUND: Hemiplegic shoulder pain (HSP) is one of the most common comorbidities in stroke patients with flaccid shoulders. The pain limits functional motor recovery and affects the activities of daily living after acute stroke. This study investigated the effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) injection on pain reduction and motor function in subacute stroke patients with HSP and injury. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded controlled trial was conducted in a medical center...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930351/hydrogen-peroxide-responsive-nanoparticle-reduces-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#8
Soochan Bae, Minhyung Park, Changsun Kang, Serkan Dilmen, Tae Hi Kang, Dong Goo Kang, Qingen Ke, Seung Uk Lee, Dongwon Lee, Peter M Kang
BACKGROUND: During myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is produced. In particular, overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considered to be a main cause of I/R-mediated tissue damage. We generated novel H2O2-responsive antioxidant polymer nanoparticles (PVAX and HPOX) that are able to target the site of ROS overproduction and attenuate the oxidative stress-associated diseases. In this study, nanoparticles were examined for their therapeutic effect on myocardial I/R injury...
November 14, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929606/effect-of-a-corticosteroid-triamcinolone-and-chlorhexidine-on-chemotherapy-induced-oxidative-stress-in-the-buccal-mucosa-of-rats
#9
Sami Gümüş, Murat Yarıktaş, Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Abdülhadi Cihangir Uğuz, Giray Aynali, Şirin Başpınar
Oral mucositis manifests as erythematous and ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa. Among its various causes, cancer treatment (e.g., chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy) is one of the more well known. It has been widely mentioned that oxidative stress parameters such as lipid peroxidation levels increase during the cancer process. Glutathione is one of the major intracellular enzymes used to detoxify oxidant molecules; it exists in both a reduced and oxidized state. Reduced glutathione is used as a substrate to synthesize glutathione peroxidase...
December 2016: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929203/real-time-dose-adjustment-using-point-of-care-platelet-reactivity-testing-in-a-double-blind-study-of-prasugrel-in-children-with-sickle-cell-anaemia
#10
Joseph A Jakubowski, Carolyn C Hoppe, Chunmei Zhou, Brendan E Smith, Patricia B Brown, Lori E Heath, Baba Inusa, David C Rees, David S Small, Neehar Gupta, Suqin Yao, Matthew Heeney, Julie Kanter
Patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) have vaso-occlusive crises resulting from occlusive hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Prasugrel inhibits platelet activation and aggregation involved in SCA pathophysiology. Determining Effects of Platelet Inhibition on Vaso-Occlusive Events (DOVE) was a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial assessing prasugrel efficacy. DOVE sought to bring patients' P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) value within a targeted range via prasugrel dose adjustments using encrypted VerifyNow P2Y12(®) (VN-P2Y12) point-of-care testing and an interactive voice-response system (IVRS)...
December 8, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928956/chemical-properties-of-caffeic-and-ferulic-acids-in-biological-system-implications-in-cancer-therapy-a-review
#11
Sarah S Damasceno, Bruna B Dantas, Demetrius Antônio M Araújo, José Galberto M da Costa
Caffeic and ferulic acids have been extensively evaluated for their antioxidant properties in biological system, such activity is responsible for limiting the excessive production of free radical species, that are associated with cell proliferation. However, more recent studies suggest chemopreventive action of these phenolic acids through the regulation of gene expression, chelation and / or reduction of transition metals, covalent adduct formation (which damage DNA) and toxicity. The biological efficacy of these promising chemopreventive agents depends strongly on their chemical structure...
December 8, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927796/g9a-inhibits-creb-triggered-expression-of-mu-opioid-receptor-in-primary-sensory-neurons-following-peripheral-nerve-injury
#12
Lingli Liang, Jian-Yuan Zhao, Xiyao Gu, Shaogen Wu, Kai Mo, Ming Xiong, Brianna Marie Lutz, Alex Bekker, Yuan-Xiang Tao
Neuropathic pain, a distressing and debilitating disorder, is still poorly managed in clinic. Opioids, like morphine, remain the mainstay of prescribed medications in the treatment of this disorder, but their analgesic effects are highly unsatisfactory in part due to nerve injury-induced reduction of opioid receptors in the first-order sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia. G9a is a repressor of gene expression. We found that nerve injury-induced increases in G9a and its catalyzed repressive marker H3K9m2 are responsible for epigenetic silencing of Oprm1, Oprk1, and Oprd1 genes in the injured dorsal root ganglia...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925642/high-complication-rate-in-young-patients-with-high-energy-intertrochanteric-femoral-fractures
#13
Michael H Amini, John J Feldman, John C Weinlein
Although intertrochanteric femoral fractures in elderly patients are common injuries that have been studied extensively, little has been reported about high-energy intertrochanteric fractures in younger patients. This study examined the injury characteristics and outcomes of high-energy intertrochanteric fractures in patients younger than 65 years treated with either sliding hip screws (SHSs) or cephalomedullary nails (CMNs). A total of 37 patients younger than 65 years (mean age, 45 years) with high-energy intertrochanteric fractures and mean follow-up of 34 weeks were identified; 21 patients were treated with SHSs, and 16 patients were treated with CMNs...
December 7, 2016: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924167/reduction-of-falls-and-factors-affecting-falls-a-year-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-in-elderly-patients-with-severe-knee-osteoarthritis
#14
T Tsonga, M Michalopoulou, S Kapetanakis, E Giovannopoulou, P Malliou, G Godolias, P Soucacos
BACKGROUND: Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is a common surgical treatment for severe knee Osteoarthritis (OA), which generally improves pain, physical function, quality of life and possibly fall risk. Fall risk increases for older adults with severe knee OA; however it has not been studied extensively whether this parameter is improved after TKA. OBJECTIVE: To investigate: a) the history and frequency of falls, including mechanism or causes of falls, injuries sustained from falls reported, activity during falling and location of falls and, b) the factors affecting falls, a year after TKA in elderly patients with severe knee OA...
2016: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923762/treatment-of-acute-perilunate-dislocations-orif-versus-proximal-row-carpectomy
#15
Thibaut Muller, Juan José Hidalgo Diaz, Emilie Pire, Guillaume Prunières, Sybille Facca, Philippe Liverneaux
PURPOSE: Some authors have proposed performing proximal row carpectomy (PRC) as the initial treatment for perilunate dislocations. HYPOTHESIS: The goal of this retrospective study was to compare the results of a cohort of perilunate dislocation cases that were operated by ORIF (open reduction and internal fixation) or by PRC between 2006 and 2011. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 21 men with a mean age of 33 years, who either had an isolated perilunate dislocation (7 cases) or a fracture-dislocation (14 cases)...
December 3, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923687/investigation-for-role-of-tissue-factor-and-blood-coagulation-system-in-severe-acute-pancreatitis-and-associated-liver-injury
#16
Zhi-Bing Ou, Chun-Mu Miao, Ming-Xin Ye, Ding-Pei Xing, Kun He, Pei-Zhi Li, Rong-Tao Zhu, Jian-Ping Gong
This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and SAP-associated liver injury, we performed an association analysis of the functions of tissue factor (TF) and blood coagulation system in both SAP patients and mouse SAP model. Our results showed that serum TF and tissue factor-microparticle (TF-MP) levels were highly up-regulated in both SAP patients and SAP mouse model, which was accompanied by the dysfunction of blood coagulation system...
December 3, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923475/the-outcomes-of-pediatric-femoral-shaft-fractures-treated-surgically-by-different-types-of-orthopedists
#17
Di Lu, Jie Yang, Jing-Dong Zhang, Hua Chen, Liao-Jun Sun
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of pediatric femoral shaft fractures treated with titanium elastic nail (TEN) by pediatric orthopedists and non-pediatric orthopedists. METHODS: From May 2006 to June 2014, 88 children with femoral shaft fractures were randomized to operative stabilization either by pediatric orthopedists (Group A, 44 cases) or by non-pediatric orthopedists (Group B, 44 cases). Demographic data and clinical characteristics (age, sex, weight, fracture side and type, cause of injury, associated injuries and interval from injury to surgery) were comparable between the two groups before surgery...
November 29, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923399/ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-is-required-for-satellite-cell-self-renewal
#18
Neena Lala-Tabbert, Hamood AlSudais, François Marchildon, Dechen Fu, Nadine Wiper-Bergeron
BACKGROUND: Postnatal growth and repair of skeletal muscle relies upon a population of quiescent muscle precursor cells, called satellite cells that can be activated to proliferate and differentiate into new myofibers, as well as self-renew to replenish the satellite cell population. The balance between differentiation and self-renewal is critical to maintain muscle tissue homeostasis, and alterations in this equilibrium can lead to chronic muscle degeneration. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) is expressed in Pax7(+) satellite cells of healthy muscle and is downregulated during myoblast differentiation...
December 7, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923219/nonoperative-versus-operative-treatment-of-displaced-ankle-fractures-in-diabetics
#19
Andrew J Lovy, James Dowdell, Aakash Keswani, Steven Koehler, Jaehon Kim, Steven Weinfeld, David Joseph
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a risk factor for complications related to displaced ankle fractures. Limited literature exists comparing complication rates in nonoperative versus operative treatment of displaced ankle fractures in diabetics. No study has highlighted the natural history of nonoperative treatment of displaced ankle fractures in diabetics. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all adult ankle fractures from September 2011 through December 2014. Inclusion was limited to ambulatory adults (>18 years) with closed, displaced (widened mortise) ankle fractures with diabetes mellitus...
November 14, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923046/mitochondria-and-caspases-tune-nmnat-mediated-stabilization-to-promote-axon-regeneration
#20
Li Chen, Derek M Nye, Michelle C Stone, Alexis T Weiner, Kyle W Gheres, Xin Xiong, Catherine A Collins, Melissa M Rolls
Axon injury can lead to several cell survival responses including increased stability and axon regeneration. Using an accessible Drosophila model system, we investigated the regulation of injury responses and their relationship. Axon injury stabilizes the rest of the cell, including the entire dendrite arbor. After axon injury we found mitochondrial fission in dendrites was upregulated, and that reducing fission increased stabilization or neuroprotection (NP). Thus axon injury seems to both turn on NP, but also dampen it by activating mitochondrial fission...
December 6, 2016: PLoS Genetics
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