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Derek Nelson, Rachael M Heuer, Georgina K Cox, John D Stieglitz, Ronald Hoenig, Edward M Mager, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Dane A Crossley
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) negatively impacts exercise performance in fish species but the physiological modifications that result in this phenotype are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that embryonic and juvenile mahi-mahi (Coryphaeus hippurus) exposed to PAH exhibit morphological abnormalities, altered cardiac development and reduced swimming performance. It has been suggested that cardiovascular function inhibited by PAH exposure accounts for the compromised exercise performance in fish species...
October 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Boel Bengtsson, Anders Heijl
Purpose: We evaluate how visual fields are affected by the initiation of IOP-reducing therapy in previously untreated glaucoma individuals. Methods: Qualifying individuals with newly diagnosed glaucoma having normal to moderately elevated IOP were prospectively randomized either to IOP-reducing therapy or to no treatment. Before randomization, individuals underwent repeatedly Standard Automated Perimetry (SAP) testing and Goldmann tonometry. Three months after randomization, patients again underwent SAP and tonometry...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yasushi Wada, Tomomi Higashide, Atsushi Nagata, Kazuhisa Sugiyama
Purpose: To investigate longitudinal changes in mean blur rate (MBR) measured by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) in the rat optic nerve head (ONH), and the reproducibility of MBR. Methods: Rats were dilated under general anesthesia. Intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure, ocular perfusion pressure (OPP), heart rate, and LSFG were measured 30 minutes later. Mean blur rate in the ONH was determined using LSFG-Micro and was subdivided into MBR of the total area (MA), vessel region (MV), and tissue region (MT)...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Si Hyung Lee, Eun Min Kang, Gyu Ah Kim, Seung Woo Kwak, Joon Mo Kim, Hyoung Won Bae, Gong Je Seong, Chan Yun Kim
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between heavy metal levels and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low- and high-teen baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 5,198 participants older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2012 and had blood heavy metal levels available. The OAG with normal baseline IOP (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg) subjects were stratified into low-teen OAG (baseline IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen OAG (15 mmHg < baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg), and the association between blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels and glaucoma prevalence was assessed for low- and high-teen OAG...
2016: PloS One
Srikanth Boddu, Marc Dinkin, Maria Suurna, Kelly Hannsgen, Xem Bui, Athos Patsalides
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the role of venous sinus stenting in the treatment of pulsatile tinnitus among patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) and significant venous sinus stenosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A written informed consent approved by the Weill Cornell institutional review board was signed and obtained from the study participants. Thirty-seven consecutive patients with IIH and venous sinus stenosis who were treated with venous sinus stenting between Jan...
2016: PloS One
Zhanglong Peng, Shibani Pati, Magali J Fontaine, Kelly Hall, Anthony V Herrera, Rosemary A Kozar
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have demonstrated that the early and empiric use of plasma improves survival after hemorrhagic shock. We have demonstrated in rodent models of hemorrhagic shock that resuscitation with plasma is protective to the lungs compared with lactated Ringer's solution. As our long-term objective is to determine the molecular mechanisms that modulate plasma's protective effects in injured bleeding patients, we have used human plasma in a mouse model of hemorrhagic shock...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Bellal Joseph, Kareem Ibraheem, Ansab A Haider, Narong Kulvatunyou, Andrew Tang, Terence O'Keeffe, Zachary M Bauman, Donald J Green, Rifat Latifi, Peter Rhee
BACKGROUND: Resuscitative thoracotomy (RT) has been the standard therapy in patients with acute arrest due to hemorrhagic shock. However, with the development of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), its role as a potential adjunct to a highly morbid intervention such as RT is being discussed. The aim of this study was to identify patients who most likely would have potentially benefited from REBOA use based on autopsy findings. METHODS: We performed a 4-year retrospective review of all RTs performed at our Level I trauma center...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Deanna Gray-Miceli, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Arwin Thomasson, Patricia Quigley, Kang Li, William Craelius
BACKGROUND: Patients at greatest risk for fall-related injuries are older adults with orthostatic hypotension (OH), a condition which drops blood pressure. This study sought to determine salient demographic and patient-level factors increasing risk for OH among a sample of elderly fallers. METHODS: Data analysis for this retrospective study sought to assess the relationship between various demographic and clinical risk factors and the likelihood of OH. Because fallers could experience multiple falls, generalized estimating equations were used to account for patient-level correlations...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Ariane Malclès, Corinne Dot, Nicolas Voirin, Anne-Laure Vié, Émilie Agard, David Bellocq, Philippe Denis, Laurent Kodjikian
PURPOSE: To analyze the incidence, risk factors, and time course of intraocular pressure elevation after intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex). METHODS: The medical charts of 421 consecutive eyes (361 patients) receiving one or more Ozurdex implant between October 2010 and February 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Ocular hypertension was defined as intraocular pressure of at least 25 mmHg or an increase of at least 10 mmHg from baseline. The main indications for treatment were retinal vein occlusion (34%), diabetic macular edema (30%), postsurgical macular edema (17%), uveitis (14%), and other etiologies (5%)...
October 20, 2016: Retina
Anita Barikian, Haytham Salti, Ammar Safar, Ziyad R Mahfoud, Ziad F Bashshur
PURPOSE: To study the benefit of intravitreal dexamethasone implant in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration resistant to bevacizumab and ranibizumab. METHODS: Patients with persistent macular fluid on optical coherence tomography despite monthly treatment with at least three consecutive bevacizumab injections followed by at least three ranibizumab injections were prospectively enrolled. A single dexamethasone implant was administered followed by intravitreal ranibizumab 1 week later...
October 20, 2016: Retina
Caterina Magnani, Diana Giannarelli, Giuseppe Casale
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of breakthrough pain (BTP) provoked by 6 common procedures in patients with advanced disease. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter, national study was performed in 23 palliative care units in Italy. Patients were recruited if they were undergoing one of the following procedures as part of normal care: turning, personal hygiene care, transfer from bed to chair, bladder catheterization, pressure ulcer care, and subcutaneous drug administration...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
Jill Cox, Loretta Kaes, Miguel Martinez, Daniel Moles
Skin temperature may help prospectively determine whether an area of skin discoloration will evolve into necrosis. A prospective, observational study was conducted in 7 skilled nursing facilities to determine if skin temperature measured using infrared thermography could predict the progression of discolored intact skin (blanchable erythema, Stage 1 pressure ulcer, or sus- pected deep tissue injury [sDTI]) to necrosis and to evaluate if nurses could effectively integrate thermography into the clinical setting...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
Michael C Sklar, Karen Burns, Nuttapol Rittayamai, Ashley Lanys, Michela Rauseo, Lu Chen, Martin Dres, Guang-Qiang Chen, Ewan C Goligher, Neill Kj Adhikari, Laurent Brochard, Jan O Friedrich
Introduction Spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) are designed to simulate conditions following extubation and it is essential to understand the physiological impact of different methods. We conducted a systematic review and pooled measures reflecting patient respiratory effort among studies comparing SBT methods in a meta-analysis. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science from inception to January 2016 to identify randomized and non-randomized clinical trials reporting physiological measurements of respiratory effort (pressure-time product, PTP) or work of breathing during at least 2 SBT techniques...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Vujica Markovic, Dragan Vukovic, Aleksandra Radosavljevic, Ivan Marjanovic
PURPOSE: To investigate the possible association between acquired ectropion uveae and blunt trauma to the eye. We present 3 cases of acquired ectropion uveae that occurred after blunt trauma to the eye. There are no previously published data on possible association of these conditions. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with ectropion uveae and eye injury at University Eye Hospital over a 10-year period (2006-2016). We analyzed medical records and clinical findings...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Riccardo Toninato, Silvia Scuri, Vincenzo Tarzia, Gino Gerosa, Francesca M Susin
PURPOSE: The gold standard therapy for patients with advanced heart failure is heart transplant. The gap between donors and patients in waiting lists promoted the development of circulatory support devices, such as the total artificial heart (TAH). Focusing on in vitro tests performed with CardioWest™ TAH (CW) driven by the SynCardia Freedom® portable driver (FD) the present study goals are: i) prove the reliability of a hydraulic circuit used as patient simulator to replicate a quasi-physiological scenario for various hydrodynamic conditions, ii) investigate the hydrodynamic performance of the CW FD, iii) help clinicians in possible interpretation of clinical cases outcomes...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
H Esfandiari, M Pakravan, Z Zakeri, S Ziaie, P Pakravan, V Ownagh
PurposeThe purpose of the study was to investigate ocular hypertensive effect of exogenous glucosamine in comparison with placebo in patients with osteoarthritis.Patients and methodsIn this double-masked randomized clinical trial, 88 patients with osteoarthritis were included. Forty-four patients were randomized into either glucosamine sulfate or the placebo group.Comprehensive ophthalmologic exam including intraocular pressure (IOP) at baseline, month 1, and 3 was performed. Ocular response analyzer parameters were also checked at baseline and month 3...
October 21, 2016: Eye
Joré Céline, Brun Jean-Frédéric, Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a major regulator of blood viscosity. Its long lasting action analogue methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin-β (MIRCERA®) seems to be also employed in modern doping. We took the opportunity of a study aiming at developing a detection of recent MIRCERATM injection in the context of doping detection to assess the effects of this EPO analogue on red blood cells (RBC) aggregation. A single dose 200 μg of MIRCERA® was injected to 10 male volunteers and blood samplings were drawn over 24 days...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Brun Jean-Frédéric, Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle, Fédou Christine, Raynaud de Mauverger Eric
We investigated to what extent a prediction of the 'ideal' hematocrit based on individual hemorheological profile with an equation of viscosity is relevant in trained athletes, and how the agreement between theoretical and actual values is modified by changes in training volume and performance. Elite soccer players (national level: 18-32 yr, weight 61-83 kg, body mass index 20.9-25.8 kg/m2) were seen twice at one year interval. Hemorheologic parameters were measured with the MT90 viscometer and the Myrenne aggregometer the theoretical bell-shaped curve of hematocrit/viscosity ratio as a function of hematocrit was reconstructed with Quemada's equation using actual plasma viscosity and red cell rigidity to predict hematocrit/viscosity at various hematocrit levels...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Rachel B Matusow, Ian P Herring, J Phillip Pickett, Natalia Henao-Guerrero, Stephen R Werre
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of topically applied 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride-0.5% timolol maleate ophthalmic solution (DHTM) on incidence and severity of postoperative ocular hypertension (POH; ie, intraocular pressure [IOP] > 25 mm Hg) in dogs undergoing cataract extraction by phacoemulsification. DESIGN Randomized, masked, controlled study. ANIMALS 103 dogs (180 eyes). PROCEDURES Pertinent history, signalment, and ophthalmic examination findings were recorded. Dogs received 1 drop of DHTM or sham treatment solution (sterile, buffered, isotonic eye drops) in both eyes 14 hours and 2 hours before anesthetic induction and at the time of corneal incision closure (ie, end of surgery); IOPs were assessed by rebound tonometry 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after surgery and between 7:30 and 8:00 am on the following day...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Ryuya Hashimoto, Tetsuya Sugiyama, Makoto Ubuka, Takatoshi Maeno
PURPOSE: To investigate optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow changes resulting from intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in subjects without systemic disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen eyes of 18 patients who underwent vitrectomy to treat an epiretinal membrane or macular hole at Toho University Sakura Medical Center were included. Following standard 25-gauge microincision vitreous surgery, mean blur rate (MBR) in tissue (MT), an index of ONH blood flow, was measured using laser speckle flowgraphy...
October 21, 2016: Current Eye Research
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