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Neural crest stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350613/fgf-mediated-mapk-and-pi3k-akt-signals-make-distinct-contributions-to-pluripotency-and-the-establishment-of-neural-crest
#1
Lauren Geary, Carole LaBonne
Early vertebrate embryos possess cells with the potential to generate all embryonic cell types. While this pluripotency is progressively lost as cells become lineage restricted, Neural Crest cells retain broad developmental potential. Here, we provide novel insights into signals essential for both pluripotency and neural crest formation in Xenopus. We show that FGF signaling controls a subset of genes expressed by pluripotent blastula cells, and find a striking switch in the signaling cascades activated by FGF signaling as cells lose pluripotency and commence lineage restriction...
January 19, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347911/micrornas-associated-with-early-neural-crest-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#2
Nicole J Ward, Darrell Green, Janet Higgins, Tamas Dalmay, Andrea Münsterberg, Simon Moxon, Grant N Wheeler
BACKGROUND: The neural crest (NC) is a class of transitory stem cell-like cells unique to vertebrate embryos. NC cells arise within the dorsal neural tube where they undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition in order to migrate and differentiate throughout the developing embryo. The derivative cell types give rise to multiple tissues, including the craniofacial skeleton, peripheral nervous system and skin pigment cells. Several well-studied gene regulatory networks underpin NC development, which when disrupted can lead to various neurocristopathies such as craniofrontonasal dysplasia, DiGeorge syndrome and some forms of cancer...
January 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336212/simulated-microgravity-impairs-cardiac-autonomic-neurogenesis-from-neural-crest-cells
#3
Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Zhijie Jiang, Krystalenia Valasaki, Lauro M Takeuchi, Wayne Balkan, Preethi Atluri, Dieter Saur, Barbara Seidler, Nicholas Tsinoremas, Darcy DiFede, Joshua M Hare
Microgravity-induced alterations in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) contribute to derangements in both the mechanical and electrophysiologic function of the cardiovascular system, leading to severe symptoms in humans following space travel. Because the ANS forms embryonically from neural crest progenitors (NCs), we hypothesized that microgravity can impair NC derived cardiac structures. Accordingly, we conducted in vitro simulated microgravity experiments employing NC genetic lineage-tracing in mice with cKitCreERT2/+, Isl1nLacZ and Wnt1-Cre reporter alleles...
January 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330377/phenotypic-and-functional-characterization-of-peripheral-sensory-neurons-derived-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#4
Abdullah Jawad Alshawaf, Serena Viventi, Wanzhi Qiu, Giovanna D'Abaco, Bryony Nayagam, Michael Erlichster, Gursharan Chana, Ian Everall, Jason Ivanusic, Efstratios Skafidas, Mirella Dottori
The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) consist of a multitude of sensory neuronal subtypes that function to relay sensory stimuli, including temperature, pressure, pain and position to the central nervous system. Our knowledge of DRG sensory neurons have been predominantly driven by animal studies and considerably less is known about the human DRG. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are valuable resource to help close this gap. Our previous studies reported an efficient system for deriving neural crest and DRG sensory neurons from hESC...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327452/regenerative-effects-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-neural-crest-cells-for-treatment-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#5
Iwan Jones, Liudmila N Novikova, Lev N Novikov, Monika Renardy, Andreas Ullrich, Mikael Wiberg, Leif Carlsson, Paul J Kingham
Surgical intervention is the current gold standard treatment following peripheral nerve injury. However, this approach has limitations and full recovery of both motor and sensory modalities often remains incomplete. The development of artificial nerve grafts that either complement or replace current surgical procedures is therefore of paramount importance. An essential component of artificial grafts are biodegradable conduits and transplanted cells that provide trophic support during the regenerative process...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276154/modeling-the-pathogenesis-of-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-type-1a-using-patient-specific-ipscs
#6
Lei Shi, Lihua Huang, Ruojie He, Weijun Huang, Huiyan Wang, Xingqiang Lai, Zhengwei Zou, Jiaqi Sun, Qiong Ke, Minying Zheng, Xilin Lu, Zhong Pei, Huanxing Su, Andy Peng Xiang, Weiqiang Li, Xiaoli Yao
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), one of the most frequent inherited peripheral neuropathies, is associated with PMP22 gene duplication. Previous studies of CMT1A mainly relied on rodent models, and it is not yet clear how PMP22 overexpression leads to the phenotype in patients. Here, we generated the human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines from two CMT1A patients as an in vitro cell model. We found that, unlike the normal control cells, CMT1A hiPSCs rarely generated Schwann cells through neural crest stem cells (NCSCs)...
December 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243108/identification-of-a-novel-high-yielding-source-of-multipotent-adult-human-neural-crest-derived-stem-cells
#7
Matthias Schürmann, Viktoria Brotzmann, Marlena Bütow, Johannes Greiner, Anna Höving, Christian Kaltschmidt, Barbara Kaltschmidt, Holger Sudhoff
Due to their extraordinarily broad differentiation potential and persistence during adulthood, adult neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are highly promising candidates for clinical applications, particularly when facing the challenging treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or complex craniofacial injuries. Successful application of human NCSCs in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical research mainly relies on the availability of sufficient amounts of tissue for cell isolation procedures. Facing this challenge, we here describe for the first time a novel population of NCSCs within the middle turbinate of the human nasal cavity...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239730/directed-differentiation-of-periocular-mesenchyme-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#8
Matthew Lovatt, Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Gary S Peh, Alan Colman, N Ray Dunn, Jodhbir S Mehta
Corneal tissue is the most transplanted of all body tissues. Currently, cadaveric donor tissues are used for transplantation. However, a global shortage of transplant grade material has prompted development of alternative, cell-based therapies for corneal diseases. Pluripotent stem cells are attractive sources of cells for regenerative medicine, because large numbers of therapeutically useful cells can be generated. However, a detailed understanding of how to differentiate clinically relevant cell types from stem cells is fundamentally required...
November 16, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238067/alternative-nhej-pathway-proteins-as-components-of-mycn-oncogenic-activity-in-human-neural-crest-stem-cell-differentiation-implications-for-neuroblastoma-initiation
#9
Erika A Newman, Sahiti Chukkapalli, Daniela Bashllari, Tina T Thomas, Raelene A Van Noord, Elizabeth R Lawlor, Mark J Hoenerhoff, Anthony W Opipari, Valerie P Opipari
Neuroblastoma is a cancer of neural crest stem cell (NCSC) lineage. Signaling pathways that regulate NCSC differentiation have been implicated in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. This is exemplified by MYCN oncogene targets that balance proliferation, differentiation, and cell death similarly in normal NCSC and in high-risk neuroblastoma. Our previous work discovered a survival mechanism by which MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma circumvents cell death by upregulating components of the error-prone non-canonical alternative nonhomologous end-joining (alt-NHEJ) DNA repair pathway...
December 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234013/the-differentiation-stage-of-transplanted-stem-cells-modulates-nerve-regeneration
#10
Ching-Wen Huang, Wen-Chin Huang, Xuefeng Qiu, Flavia Fernandes Ferreira da Silva, Aijun Wang, Shyam Patel, Leon J Nesti, Mu-Ming Poo, Song Li
In regenerative medicine applications, the differentiation stage of implanted stem cells must be optimized to control cell fate and enhance therapeutic efficacy. We investigated the therapeutic potential of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cells at two differentiation stages on peripheral nerve regeneration. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) and Schwann cells (NCSC-SCs) derived from iPSCs were used to construct a tissue-engineered nerve conduit that was applied to bridge injured nerves in a rat sciatic nerve transection model...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233551/generation-of-adrenal-chromaffin-like-cells-from-human-pluripotent-stem%C3%A2-cells
#11
Kwaku Dad Abu-Bonsrah, Dongcheng Zhang, Andrew R Bjorksten, Mirella Dottori, Donald F Newgreen
Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells are catecholamine (CA)-producing cells originating from trunk neural crest (NC) via sympathoadrenal progenitors (SAPs). We generated NC and SAPs from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in vitro via BMP2/FGF2 exposure, ascertained by qPCR and immunoexpression of SOX10, ASCL1, TFAP2α, and PHOX2B, and by fluorescence-activated cell sorting selection for p75NTR and GD2, and confirmed their trunk-like HOX gene expression. We showed that continuing BMP4 and curtailing FGF2 in vitro, augmented with corticosteroid mimetic, induced these cells to upregulate the chromaffin cell-specific marker PNMT and other CA synthesis and storage markers, and we demonstrated noradrenaline and adrenaline by Faglu and high-performance liquid chromatography...
November 27, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217752/mapping-the-distribution-of-stem-progenitor-cells-across-the-middle-ear-during-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#12
Abigail S Tucker, Carlene J Dyer, Juan M Fons Romero, Tathyane H N Teshima, Jennifer C Fuchs, Hannah Thompson
The middle ear epithelium is derived from neural crest and endoderm, which line distinct regions of the middle ear cavity. Here we investigate the distribution of putative stem cell markers in the middle ear combined with an analysis of the location of label retaining cells (LRCs) to create a map of the middle ear mucosa. We show that proliferating cells and LRCs were associated with specific regions of the ear epithelium, concentrated in the hypotympanum at the base of the auditory bulla and around the ear drum...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214379/dual-contribution-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-employed-for-tissue-engineering-of-peripheral-nerves-trophic-activity-and-differentiation-into-connective-tissue-cells
#13
F Evaristo-Mendonça, A Carrier-Ruiz, R de Siqueira-Santos, R M P Campos, B Rangel, T H Kasai-Brunswick, V T Ribeiro-Resende
Adult peripheral nerves in vertebrates can regrow their axons and re-establish function after crush lesion. However, when there is extensive loss of a nerve segment, due to an accident or compressive damage caused by tumors, regeneration is strongly impaired. In order to overcome this problem, bioengineering strategies have been employed, using biomaterials formed by key cell types combined with biodegradable polymers. Many of these strategies are successful, and regenerated nerve tissue can be observed 12 weeks after the implantation...
December 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214313/rna-sequencing-gene-expression-profiling-of-orbital-adipose-derived-stem-cell-population-implicate-hox-genes-and-wnt-signaling-dysregulation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-thyroid-associated-orbitopathy
#14
Wensi Tao, Juan A Ayala-Haedo, Matthew G Field, Daniel Pelaez, Sara T Wester
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the intrinsic cellular properties of orbital adipose-derived stem cells (OASC) from patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) and healthy controls. Methods: Orbital adipose tissue was collected from a total of nine patients: four controls and five patients with TAO. Isolated OASC were characterized with mesenchymal stem cell-specific markers. Orbital adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated into three lineages: chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193736/development-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-the-human-digestive-tract-as-the-result-of-reciprocal-induction-of-mesenchymal-and-neural-crest-cells
#15
REVIEW
Goran Radenkovic, Dina Radenkovic, Aleksandra Velickov
Neural crest cells (NCC) can migrate into different parts of the body and express their strong inductive potential. In addition, they are multipotent and are able to differentiate into various cell types with diverse functions. In the primitive gut, NCC induce differentiation of muscular structures and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and they themselves differentiate into the elements of the enteric nervous system (ENS), neurons and glial cells. ICC develop by way of mesenchymal cell differentiation in the outer parts of the primitive gut wall around the myenteric plexus (MP) ganglia, with the exception of colon, where they appear simultaneously also at the submucosal border of the circular muscular layer around the submucosal plexus (SMP) ganglia...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193426/low-osteogenic-yield-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-associates-with-differential-neural-crest-promoter-methylation
#16
Nicole Renee Lee Sparks, Ivann Kenneth Carvajal Martinez, Cristina Helen Soto, Nicole Isolde Zur Nieden
Human pluripotent stem cell-derived osteoblasts possess great potential for utilization in bone disorder elucidation and repair; yet, while the general ability of human pluripotent stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts and lay down bone-specific matrix has been shown, previous studies lack the complete characterization of the process whereby such osteoblasts are derived as well as a comparison between the osteogenic efficiency of multiple cell lines. Here, we compared the osteogenic potential of two human induced pluripotent stem cell lines (RIV9 and RIV4) to human H9 embryonic stem cells...
November 29, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184067/identification-of-a-neural-crest-stem-cell-niche-by-spatial-genomic-analysis
#17
Antti Lignell, Laura Kerosuo, Sebastian J Streichan, Long Cai, Marianne E Bronner
The neural crest is an embryonic population of multipotent stem cells that form numerous defining features of vertebrates. Due to lack of reliable techniques to perform transcriptional profiling in intact tissues, it remains controversial whether the neural crest is a heterogeneous or homogeneous population. By coupling multiplex single molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization with machine learning algorithm based cell segmentation, we examine expression of 35 genes at single cell  resolution in vivo. Unbiased hierarchical clustering reveals five spatially distinct subpopulations within the chick dorsal neural tube...
November 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181082/sox10-mitf-pathway-activity-in-melanoma-cells
#18
Karol B Tudrej, Edyta Czepielewska, Małgorzata Kozłowska-Wojciechowska
Melanoma is one of the most dangerous and lethal skin cancers, with a considerable metastatic potential and drug resistance. It involves a malignant transformation of melanocytes. The exact course of events in which melanocytes become melanoma cells remains unclear. Nevertheless, this process is said to be dependent on the occurrence of cells with the phenotype of progenitor cells - cells characterized by expression of proteins such as nestin, CD-133 or CD-271. The development of these cells and their survival were found to be potentially dependent on the neural crest stem cell transcription factor SOX10...
October 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179815/charge-syndrome-modeling-using-patient-ipscs-reveals-defective-migration-of-neural-crest-cells-harboring-chd7-mutations
#19
Hironobu Okuno, Francois Renault Mihara, Shigeki Ohta, Kimiko Fukuda, Kenji Kurosawa, Wado Akamatsu, Tsukasa Sanosaka, Jun Kohyama, Kanehiro Hayashi, Kazunori Nakajima, Takao Takahashi, Joanna Wysocka, Kenjiro Kosaki, Hideyuki Okano
CHARGE syndrome is caused by heterozygous mutations in the chromatin remodeler, CHD7, and is characterized by a set of malformations that, on clinical grounds, were historically postulated to arise from defects in neural crest formation during embryogenesis. To better delineate neural crest defects in CHARGE syndrome, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from two patients with typical syndrome manifestations, and characterized neural crest cells differentiated in vitro from these iPSCs (iPSC-NCCs)...
November 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174469/boundary-cap-cells-in-development-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Katarzyna J Radomska, Piotr Topilko
Broad plasticity of the peripheral glia is an emerging concept during development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Recent studies have identified the neural crest-derived boundary caps (BCs), as a multitask stem cell population of the developing PNS. BC progeny migrate along the nerves to provide the major glial component of nerve roots and nerve terminals in the skin. Strikingly, those two locations constitute the privileged sites for development of benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors called neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), making BCs attractive candidates for the 'cell of origin' of this disease...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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