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Neural crest stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107504/sox10-nano-lantern-reporter-human-ips-cells-a-versatile-tool-for-neural-crest-research
#1
Tomoko Horikiri, Hiromi Ohi, Mitsuaki Shibata, Makoto Ikeya, Morio Ueno, Chie Sotozono, Shigeru Kinoshita, Takahiko Sato
The neural crest is a source to produce multipotent neural crest stem cells that have a potential to differentiate into diverse cell types. The transcription factor SOX10 is expressed through early neural crest progenitors and stem cells in vertebrates. Here we report the generation of SOX10-Nano-lantern (NL) reporter human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPS) by using CRISPR/Cas9 systems, that are beneficial to investigate the generation and maintenance of neural crest progenitor cells. SOX10-NL positive cells are produced transiently from hiPS cells by treatment with TGFβ inhibitor SB431542 and GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079995/effects-of-cell-cycle-phases-on-the-induction-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-toward-dopaminergic-like-cells
#2
Nareshwaran Gnanasegaran, Vijayendran Govindasamy, Premasangery Kathirvaloo, Sabri Musa, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by tremors and cognitive issues, and is due to the death of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in brain circuits that are responsible for producing neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). Currently, cell replacement therapies are underway to overcome existing therapeutic approaches such as drug treatments and electrical stimulation. Among the widely available sources, dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth (DPSC) have gained popularity due to their neural crest origin and inherent propensity toward neuronal lineage...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075051/bilateral-multifocal-upper-extremity-atypical-granular-cell-tumors-presenting-as-long-standing-right-wrist-and-left-hand-masses-in-a-15-year-old-african-american-female
#3
Michael DeWall, Corey O Montgomery, Jerad M Gardner
Granular cell tumor (GrCT) is a benign nerve sheath tumor. Atypical and malignant variants of GrCT are rare but have been well described. We report a case of multifocal symmetric atypical GrCT in the bilateral hand/wrists of a 15 year old African American female. The initial clinical impression for both masses were favored to be ganglion cysts. Ultrasound findings of both masses revealed hypoechoic soft tissue lesions with some internal echogenicity favoring complex cysts. On excision, both masses were histologically circumscribed, lobulated, and attached to tendon...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070746/boundary-cap-neural-crest-stem-cells-promote-survival-of-mutant-sod1-motor-neurons
#4
Tanya Aggarwal, Jan Hoeber, Patrik Ivert, Svitlana Vasylovska, Elena N Kozlova
ALS is a devastating disease resulting in degeneration of motor neurons (MNs) in the brain and spinal cord. The survival of MNs strongly depends on surrounding glial cells and neurotrophic support from muscles. We previously demonstrated that boundary cap neural crest stem cells (bNCSCs) can give rise to neurons and glial cells in vitro and in vivo and have multiple beneficial effects on co-cultured and co-implanted cells, including neural cells. In this paper, we investigate if bNCSCs may improve survival of MNs harboring a mutant form of human SOD1 (SOD1(G93A)) in vitro under normal conditions and oxidative stress and in vivo after implantation to the spinal cord...
January 9, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061353/created-of-warm-blood-and-nerves-restoring-an-enteric-nervous-system-in-organoids
#5
Christopher R Schlieve, Tracy C Grikscheit
The enteric nervous system (ENS) regulates numerous gastrointestinal functions, including epithelial barrier permeability and motility. In a recent Nature Medicine study, Workman et al. (2016) propose a method for introducing human pluripotent stem cell-derived enteric neural crest cells into developing human intestinal organoids, thereby restoring ENS cell types and contractile function.
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060794/postnatal-human-enteric-neuronal-progenitors-can-migrate-differentiate-and-proliferate-in-embryonic-and-postnatal-aganglionic-gut-environments
#6
Lily S Cheng, Ryo Hotta, Hannah K Graham, Jaime Belkind-Gerson, Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Enteric neural stem/progenitor cells (ENSCs) offer an innovative approach to treating Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) and other enteric neuropathies. However, postnatal-derived human ENSCs have not been thoroughly characterized and their behavior in the embryonic and postnatal intestinal environment is unknown. METHODS: ENSCs were isolated from the intestines of 25 patients undergoing bowel resection, including 7 children with HSCR. Neuronal differentiation and proliferation of ENSCs from submucosal and myenteric plexuses from patients with and without HSCR were characterized...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026856/gene-tracing-analysis-reveals-the-contribution-of-neural-crest-derived-cells-in-pituitary-development
#7
Hiroki Ueharu, Saishu Yoshida, Takako Kikkawa, Naoko Kanno, Masashi Higuchi, Takako Kato, Noriko Osumi, Yukio Kato
The anterior pituitary originates from the adenohypophyseal placode. Both the preplacode region and neural crest (NC) derive from subdivision of the neural border region, and further individualization of the placode domain is established by a reciprocal interaction between placodal precursors and NC cells (NCCs). It has long been known that NCCs are present in the adenohypophysis as interstitial cells. A recent report demonstrated that NCCs also contribute to the formation of pericytes in the developing pituitary...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005909/neural-crest-migration-and-survival-are-susceptible-to-morpholino-induced-artifacts
#8
Elena F Boer, Cicely A Jette, Rodney A Stewart
The neural crest (NC) is a stem cell-like embryonic population that is essential for generating and patterning the vertebrate body, including the craniofacial skeleton and peripheral nervous system. Defects in NC development underlie many birth defects and contribute to formation of some of the most malignant cancers in humans, such as melanoma and neuroblastoma. For these reasons, significant research efforts have been expended to identify genes that control NC development, as it is expected to lead to a deeper understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling vertebrate development and identify new treatments for NC-derived diseases and cancers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003366/neuroendocrine-cells-of-the-prostate-derive-from-the-neural-crest
#9
Jaroslaw Szczyrba, Anne Niesen, Matthias Wagner, Petra M Wandernoth, Gerhard Aumüller, Gunther Wennemuth
The histogenesis of prostatic neuroendocrine cells is controversial: a stem cell hypothesis with a urogenital sinus-derived progeny of all prostatic epithelial cells is opposed by a dual origin hypothesis, favoring the derivation of neuroendocrine cells from the neural crest whereas the secretory and basal cells being of urogenital sinus origin. A computer-assisted 3D reconstruction was used to analyze the distribution of CGA immunoreactive cells in serial sections of human fetal prostate specimens (gestation weeks 18 and 25)...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002632/hypoxia-and-hyperoxia-differentially-control-proliferation-of-rat-neural-crest-stem-cells-via-distinct-regulatory-pathways-of-the-hif1%C3%AE-cxcr4-and-tp53-tpm1-proteins
#10
Chien-Cheng Chen, Ching-Wu Hsia, Cheng-Wen Ho, Chang-Min Liang, Chieh-Min Chen, Kun-Lun Huang, Bor-Hwang Kang, Yi-Hui Chen
BACKGROUND: Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are a population of adult multipotent stem cells. We are interested in studying whether oxygen tensions affect the capability of NCSCs to self-renew and repair damaged tissues. NCSCs extracted from the hair follicle bulge region of the rat whisker pad were cultured in vitro under different oxygen tensions. RESULTS: We found significantly increased and decreased rates of cell proliferation in rat NCSCs (rNCSCs) cultured respectively at 0...
December 21, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002562/generation-of-human-corneal-endothelial-cells-via-in-vitro-ocular-lineage-restriction-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#11
Jiagang J Zhao, Natalie A Afshari
Purpose: We generate a renewable supply of corneal endothelial cells (CEC) from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) under defined culture conditions. Methods: Corneal endothelial cell induction was driven by small molecules in a stepwise fashion of lineage specification. During the initial phase, PSC fate was restricted to the eye field-like state and became eye field stem cells (EFSCs). In the second phase, PSC-derived EFSCs were further directed toward either neural crest lineage or retinal lineage...
December 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001323/prenatal-transplantation-of-epidermal-neural-crest-stem-cells-in-malformation-of-cortical-development-mouse-model
#12
Ameneh Omidi, Mohammad Akbari, Keywan Mortezaee, Ehsan Eqlimi, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendedel, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani
Prenatal interventions may offer an immense opportunity in therapeutic protocols of malformations of cortical development (MCD). Epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSCs) of the hair follicle bulge exhibit features of both embryonic and adult stem cells; these cells maintain their neurologic differentiation capability because of their neural crest origin. However, it is unknown if prenatal use of EPI-NCSCs could be beneficial in targeting methylazoxymethanol (MAM)-induced MCD, which further addressed in the present work...
December 21, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000662/hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-neural-crest-derived-bone-marrow
#13
Nan Jiang, Mo Chen, Guodong Yang, Lusai Xiang, Ling He, Thomas K Hei, Gregory Chotkowski, Dennis P Tarnow, Myron Finkel, Lei Ding, Yanheng Zhou, Jeremy J Mao
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the endosteum of mesoderm-derived appendicular bones have been extensively studied. Neural crest-derived bones differ from appendicular bones in developmental origin, mode of bone formation and pathological bone resorption. Whether neural crest-derived bones harbor HSCs is elusive. Here, we discovered HSC-like cells in postnatal murine mandible, and benchmarked them with donor-matched, mesoderm-derived femur/tibia HSCs, including clonogenic assay and long-term culture. Mandibular CD34 negative, LSK cells proliferated similarly to appendicular HSCs, and differentiated into all hematopoietic lineages...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992514/induction-of-skin-derived-precursor-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Yoriko Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Tsutomu Fujimura, Shigeru Moriwaki
The generation of full thickness human skin from dissociated cells is an attractive approach not only for treating skin diseases, but also for treating many systemic disorders. However, it is currently not possible to obtain an unlimited number of skin dermal cells. The goal of this study was to develop a procedure to produce skin dermal stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) were isolated as adult dermal precursors that could differentiate into both neural and mesodermal progenies and could reconstitute the dermis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983986/ectoderm-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-differentiation-and-maturation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells
#15
Zhijian Zhang, Zhengnan Li, Wenwen Deng, Qinghua He, Qiang Wang, Wentao Shi, Qian Chen, Wenjing Yang, Myron Spector, Aihua Gong, Jiangnan Yu, Ximing Xu
Many neurological diseases are closely associated with demyelination caused by pathological changes of oligodendrocytes. Although intrinsic remyelination occurs after injury, the regeneration efficiency of myelinating oligodendrocytes remains to be improved. Herein, we reported an initiative finding of employing a valuable cell source, namely neural crest-derived ectoderm mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), for promoting oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation by co-culturing oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) with the EMSCs...
October 27, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981666/skin-derived-precursors-possess-the-ability-of-differentiation-into-the-epidermal-progeny-and-accelerate-burn-wound-healing
#16
Vahid Bayati, Mohammad Reza Abbaspour, Niloofar Neisi, Mahmoud Hashemitabar
Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) are remnants of the embryonic neural crest stem cells that reside in the dermis until adulthood. Although they possess a wide range of differentiation potentials, their differentiation into keratinocyte-like cells and their roles in skin wound healing are obscure. The present study aimed to investigate the differentiation of SKPs into keratinocyte-like cells and evaluate their role in healing of third degree burn wounds. To this aim, SKPs were differentiated into keratinocyte-like cells on tissue culture plate and collagen-chitosan scaffold prepared by freeze-drying...
December 16, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959615/developmental-mechanisms-of-aortic-valve-malformation-and-disease
#17
Bingruo Wu, Yidong Wang, Feng Xiao, Jonathan T Butcher, Katherine E Yutzey, Bin Zhou
Normal aortic valves are composed of valve endothelial cells (VECs) and valve interstitial cells (VICs). VICs are the major cell population and have distinct embryonic origins in the endocardium and cardiac neural crest cells. Cell signaling between the VECs and VICs plays critical roles in aortic valve morphogenesis. Disruption of major cell signaling pathways results in aortic valve malformations, including bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). BAV is a common congenital heart valve disease that may lead to calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), but there is currently no effective medical treatment for this beyond surgical replacement...
December 9, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943583/human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-expressing-stro-1-c-kit-and-cd34-markers-in-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#18
Gianluca Carnevale, Alessandra Pisciotta, Massimo Riccio, Laura Bertoni, Sara De Biasi, Lara Gibellini, Alessio Zordani, Gian Maria Cavallini, Giovanni Battista La Sala, Giacomo Bruzzesi, Adriano Ferrari, Andrea Cossarizza, Anto de Pol
Peripheral nerve injuries are a commonly encountered clinical problem and often result in long-term functional defects. The application of stem cells able to differentiate in Schwann cells-like cells in vitro and in vivo, could represent an attractive therapeutic approach for the treatment of nerve injuries. Further, stem cells sources sharing the same embryological origin of Schwann cells might be considered a suitable tool. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ability of a neuroectodermal subpopulation of human STRO-1+/c-Kit+/CD34+ DPSCs, expressing P75(NTR) , Nestin and SOX-10, to differentiate into Schwann cells-like cells in vitro and to promote axonal regeneration in vivo, which led to functional recovery as measured by sustained gait improvement, in animal rat model of peripheral nerve injury...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926868/cmyc-regulates-the-size-of-the-premigratory-neural-crest-stem-cell-pool
#19
Laura Kerosuo, Marianne E Bronner
The neural crest is a transient embryonic population that originates within the central nervous system (CNS) and then migrates into the periphery and differentiates into multiple cell types. The mechanisms that govern neural crest stem-like characteristics and self-renewal ability are poorly understood. Here, we show that the proto-oncogene cMyc is a critical factor in the chick dorsal neural tube, where it regulates the size of the premigratory neural crest stem cell pool. Loss of cMyc dramatically decreases the number of emigrating neural crest cells due to reduced self-renewal capacity, increased cell death, and shorter duration of the emigration process...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923324/uncovering-the-in-vivo-source-of-adult-neural-crest-stem-cells
#20
Jorge B Aquino
Some late embryonic and adult postmigratory neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) from diverse tissues were shown to grow as multipotent neurospheres. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) contained in these spheres, were found to give rise not only to neuroectodermal derivatives but also to some of the progeny of the other embryonic germ layers. In this review, evidences regarding the in vivo properties of NCDCs contributing to NCSCs are discussed. Even though in many cases the final prove for the phenotype identity of in vivo cells generating NCSCs is lacking, some evidences suggest that such postmigratory NCDCs would differ from neural crest cells (NCCs)...
December 6, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
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