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Neural crest stem cell

Nathália Kersting, Bárbara Kunzler Souza, Igor Araujo Vieira, Rafael Pereira Dos Santos, Danielly Brufatto Olguins, Lauro José Gregianin, André Tesainer Brunetto, Algemir Lunardi Brunetto, Rafael Roesler, Caroline Brunetto de Farias, Gilberto Schwartsmann
OBJECTIVE: Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a type of childhood cancer probably arising from stem mesenchymal or neural crest cells. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) acts as a driver oncogene in many types of solid tumors. However, its involvement in ES remains poorly understood. METHODS: Human SK-ES-1 and RD-ES ES cells were treated with EGF, the EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin (AG1478), or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) inhibitors...
March 14, 2018: Oncology
Genia Dubrovsky, James C Y Dunn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the notable structures and pathways in intestinal epithelial growth before presenting the current main areas of active research in intestinal regeneration. As a rapidly advancing field, a number of breakthroughs have recently been made related to the culture of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and to the engineering of intestinal tissue. RECENT FINDINGS: ISCs can be derived from fibroblasts and can be cultured in hydrogels under xenogeneic-free conditions...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
S Kabatas, C S Demir, E Civelek, I Yilmaz, A Kircelli, C Yilmaz, Y Akyuva, E Karaoz
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the effect of human Dental Pulp-Neural Crest Stem Cells (hDP-NCSCs) delivery on lesion site after spinal cord injury (SCI), and to observe the functional recovery after transplantation. METHODS: Neural Crest Stem Cells (NCSCs) were isolated from human Dental Pulp (hDP). The experimental rat population was divided into four groups (n = 6/24). Their behavioral motility was scored regularly. After 4-weeks, rats were sacrificed, and their spinal cords were examined for Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled hDP-NCSCs by immunofluorescence (IF) staining...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Ericia Pei-Wen Teo, Melina Setiawan, Matthew J Lovatt, Nur Zahirah Binte M Yusoff, Matthias Fuest, Bee-Tin Goh, Jodhbir S Mehta
Corneal opacities are a leading cause of global blindness. They are conventionally treated by the transplantation of donor corneal tissue, which is, restricted by a worldwide donor material shortage and allograft rejection. Autologous adult stem cells with a potential to differentiate into corneal stromal keratocytes (CSKs) could offer a suitable choice of cells for regenerative cell therapy. Postnatal periodontal ligament (PDL) contains a population of adult stem cells, which has a similar embryological origin as CSK, that is cranial neural crest...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Hitomi Aoki
Rest is a regulator of neuronal development and has been suggested to function in maintaining the pluripotent state of embryonic stem cells (ESCs); however, this remains controversial. Since Rest null mice show embryonic lethality, we herein generated conditional Rest knockout (CKO) models to investigate Rest functions in more detail. Our results revealed that Rest was not necessary for maintaining the pluripotency of ESCs and instead promoted primitive endoderm differentiation. In contrast to the repressive role of Rest in vitro, including ESCs, neural stem cells, and fibroblasts, on the expression of target neural genes, Rest CKO did not affect the in vivo development of brain tissue...
March 13, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
Yu Okamoto, Naoko Nishimura, Kazunari Matsuda, Deshani C Ranawakage, Yusuke Kamachi, Hisato Kondoh, Masanori Uchikawa
To elucidate the transcriptional regulation that underlies specification of the otic placode, we investigated the Sox3 downstream enhancer Otic1 of the chicken, the activity of which is restricted to and distributed across the entire otic placode. The 181-bp Otic1 enhancer sequence was dissected into a 68-bp minimal activating sequence, which exhibited dimer enhancer activity in the otic placode and cephalic neural crest, and this was further reduced to a 25-bp Otic1 core sequence, which also showed octamer enhancer activity in the same regions...
March 8, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Nikos Schizas, N König, B Andersson, S Vasylovska, J Hoeber, E N Kozlova, N P Hailer
The acute phase of spinal cord injury is characterized by excitotoxic and inflammatory events that mediate extensive neuronal loss in the gray matter. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) can exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects that may be mediated by soluble factors. We therefore hypothesize that transplantation of NCSCs to acutely injured spinal cord slice cultures (SCSCs) can prevent neuronal loss after excitotoxic injury. NCSCs were applied onto SCSCs previously subjected to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced injury...
March 7, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Yao Liu, Huan Jing, Xiaoxing Kou, Chider Chen, Dawei Liu, Yan Jin, Li Lu, Songtao Shi
Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) belongs to an inhibitory signaling pathway capable of maintaining central and peripheral immune tolerance. Blockage of PD-1 has been identified as a promising immunotherapeutic approach for cancer and chronic infectious diseases. However, it is unknown whether PD-1 pathway regulates stem cell function. It is generally believed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) produce PD-1 ligand, but fail to express PD-1. In this study, we show that neural crest-derived MSCs from dental pulp (MSC-DP), but not MSCs from bone marrow, expressed PD-1...
February 22, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
A K M G Muhammad, Kevin Kim, Irina Epifantseva, Arwin Aghamaleky-Sarvestany, Megan E Simpkinson, Sharon Carmona, Jesse Landeros, Shaughn Bell, John Svaren, Robert H Baloh
Objective: To investigate transplantation of rat Schwann cells or human iPSC-derived neural crest cells and derivatives into models of acquired and inherited peripheral myelin damage. Methods: Primary cultured rat Schwann cells labeled with a fluorescent protein for monitoring at various times after transplantation. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were differentiated into neural crest stem cells, and subsequently toward a Schwann cell lineage via two different protocols...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Eduardo Anitua, María Troya, Mar Zalduendo
The field of tissue engineering is emerging as a multidisciplinary area with promising potential for regenerating new tissues and organs. This approach requires the involvement of three essential components: stem cells, scaffolds and growth factors. To date, dental pulp stem cells have received special attention because they represent a readily accessible source of stem cells. Their high plasticity and multipotential capacity to differentiate into a large array of tissues can be explained by its neural crest origin, which supports applications beyond the scope of oral tissues...
February 12, 2018: Cytotherapy
Jun Aruga
Zic family proteins have been investigated in various biomedical studies. Here we summarize the contact points between Zic proteins and recent medical research. The topics cover a wide range, reflecting the pleiotropic roles of these proteins in early embryogenesis and organogenesis. Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 proteins play important roles in the development of axial and limb bones, and of muscles, among the derivatives of the notochord and somites. Zic1 is involved in bone's response to mechanical stress, and it also serves as a marker specific for brown adipocytes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
MuhChyi Chai, Tsukasa Sanosaka, Hironobu Okuno, Zhi Zhou, Ikuko Koya, Satoe Banno, Tomoko Andoh-Noda, Yoshikuni Tabata, Rieko Shimamura, Tetsutaro Hayashi, Masashi Ebisawa, Yohei Sasagawa, Itoshi Nikaido, Hideyuki Okano, Jun Kohyama
Multiple congenital disorders often present complex phenotypes, but how the mutation of individual genetic factors can lead to multiple defects remains poorly understood. In the present study, we used human neuroepithelial (NE) cells and CHARGE patient-derived cells as an in vitro model system to identify the function of chromodomain helicase DNA-binding 7 (CHD7) in NE-neural crest bifurcation, thus revealing an etiological link between the central nervous system (CNS) and craniofacial anomalies observed in CHARGE syndrome...
January 15, 2018: Genes & Development
Yuan Zhang, Subo Cai, Scheffer C G Tseng, Ying-Ting Zhu
To expand multi-potent progenitors from human trabecular meshwork (TM), we have created a new optimized method on two-dimensional (2D) followed by three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel in modified embryonic stem cell medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (MESCM + 5% FBS). The expanded TM cells were small cuboidal cells expressing TM markers such as AQP1, MGP, CHI3L1, and AnkG, embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers such as Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and ABCG2, and neural crest (NC) markers such as p75NTR, FOXD3, Sox9, Sox10, and MSX1...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lin Ho, Shan-Hui Hsu
3D bioprinting is a technique which enables the direct printing of biodegradable materials with cells into 3D tissue. So far there is no cell reprogramming in situ performed with the 3D bioprinting process. Forkhead box D3 (FoxD3) is a transcription factor and neural crest marker, which was reported to reprogram human fibroblasts into neural crest stem-like cells. In this study, we synthesized a new biodegradable thermo-responsive waterborne polyurethane (PU) gel as a bioink. FoxD3 plasmids and human fibroblasts were co-extruded with the PU hydrogel through the syringe needle tip for cell reprogramming...
February 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Thanasup Gonmanee, Charoensri Thonabulsombat, Kutkao Vongsavan, Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai
OBJECTIVE: Stem cells from pulp tissue are a promising cell-based therapy for neurodegenerative patients based on their origin in the neural crest. The aim of this study was to differentiate and evaluate the ability of human dental pulp stem cells from permanent teeth (DPSC) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) to differentiate into spiral ganglion neurons. DESIGN: After isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cell properties, DPSC and SHED were treated with the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Xuemei Zhang, Yinglian Zhou, Hulun Li, Rui Wang, Dan Yang, Bing Li, Xiaofang Cao, Jin Fu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ischemic stroke is a major cause of disability and mortality worldwide, while effective restorative treatments are limited at present. Stem cell transplantation holds therapeutic potential for ischemic vascular diseases and may provide an opportunity for neural regeneration. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) origin from neural crest and have neuro-ectodermal features including proliferation and multilineage differentiation potentials. METHODS: The rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to evaluate whether intravenous administration of DPSCs can reduce infarct size and to estimate the migration and trans-differentiation into neuron-like cells in focal cerebral ischemia models...
January 22, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hong-Bo Li, Xian-Qing Jin, Xin Jin, Zheng-Hua Guo, Xiong-Hui Ding, Quan Wang, Rui-Zhuo Liu
Transplacental bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 RNA interference (RNAi) is a technique used to knockdown genes in embryos. BMP4 are essential for the development of nervous system in the differentiation of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs). The failure of differentiation and migration of NCSCs may lead to aganglionosis. In the present study, pregnant mice were divided into three groups: Ringer's group, pSES group and RNAi‑BMP4 group. In order to silence the BMP4 gene in the first generation (F1), 11.5 day pregnant mice were injected with the small interfering RNA BMP4 plasmid, pSES or Ringer's solution via the tail vein...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Hiroyasu Kamei, Yosuke Yoneyama, Fumihiko Hakuno, Rie Sawada, Toshiaki Shimizu, Cunming Duan, Shin-Ichiro Takahashi
Most animals display retarded growth in adverse conditions; however, upon the removal of unfavorable factors, they often show quick growth restoration, which is known as "catch-up" growth. In zebrafish embryos, hypoxia causes growth arrest but subsequent reoxygenation induces the catch-up growth. Here we report the role of Irs1-mediated insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and the involvement of stem cells in catch-up growth in reoxygenated zebrafish embryos. Disturbed irs1 expression attenuated IIS resulting in greater growth inhibition in catch-up growth than in normal growth, and forced IIS-activation restored the catch-up growth...
January 30, 2018: Endocrinology
Qunzhou Zhang, Phuong D Nguyen, Shihong Shi, Justin C Burrell, Qilin Xu, Kacy D Cullen, Anh D Le
Non-genetic induction of somatic cells into neural crest stem-like cells (NCSCs) is promising for potential cell-based therapies for post-traumatic peripheral nerve regeneration. Here, we report that human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) could be reproducibly and readily induced into NCSCs via non-genetic approaches. Compared to parental GMSCs, induced NCSC population had increased expression in NCSC-related genes and displayed robust differentiation into neuronal and Schwann-like cells. Knockdown of the expression of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a critical mechanosensor and mechanotransducer, attenuated the expression of NCSC-related genes; specific blocking of RhoA/ROCK activity and non-muscle myosin II (NM II)-dependent contraction suppressed YAP1 and NCSC-related genes and concurrently abolished neural spheroid formation in NCSCs...
January 25, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Kateřina Vlčková, Jiri Vachtenheim, Jiri Réda, Pavel Horák, Lubica Ondrušová
Melanoma arises from neural crest-derived melanocytes which reside mostly in the skin in an adult organism. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a tumorigenic programme through which cells acquire mesenchymal, more pro-oncogenic phenotype. The reversible phenotype switching is an event still not completely understood in melanoma. The EMT features and increased invasiveness are associated with lower levels of the pivotal lineage identity maintaining and melanoma-specific transcription factor MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), whereas increased proliferation is linked to higher MITF levels...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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