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Neural crest stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143997/epidermal-neural-crest-stem-cell-derived-glia-enhance-neurotrophic-elements-in-an-ex-vivo-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Sareh Pandamooz, Mohammad Saied Salehi, Mohammad Ismail Zibaii, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Mohammad Nabiuni, Leila Dargahi
Growing evidence that cell-based therapies can improve recovery outcome in spinal cord injury (SCI) models substantiates their application for treatment of human with SCI. To address the effectiveness of these stem cells, potential candidates should be evaluated in proper SCI platform that allows direct real-time monitoring. In this study, the role of epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSCs) was elucidated in an ex vivo model of SCI and valproic acid (VPA) was administered to ameliorate the inhospitable context of injury for grafted EPI-NCSCs...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130118/sox10-positive-cells-emerge-in-the-rat-pituitary-gland-during-late-embryogenesis-and-start-to-express-s100%C3%AE
#2
Hiroki Ueharu, Saishu Yoshida, Naoko Kanno, Kotaro Horiguchi, Naoto Nishimura, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
In the pituitary gland, S100β-positive cells localize in the neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis but the lineage of the two groups remains obscure. S100β is often observed in many neural crest-derived cell types. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the origin of pituitary S100β-positive cells by immunohistochemistry for SOX10, a potent neural crest cell marker, using S100β-green fluorescence protein-transgenic rats. On embryonic day 21.5, a SOX10-positive cell population, which was also positive for the stem/progenitor cell marker SOX2, emerged in the pituitary stalk and posterior lobe and subsequently expanded to create a rostral-caudal gradient on postnatal day 3 (P3)...
November 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107325/stemness-distinctions-between-the-ectomesenchymal-stem-cells-from-neonatal-and-adult-mice
#3
Qian Chen, Huangao Zhou, Pingping Hu
Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), a type of adult stem cells derived from cranial neural crest, can be non-invasively harvested from respiratory mucosa and play vital roles in therapies based on their stemness. However, whether donor age has any impact on the stemness of EMSCs remains elusive and is essential for EMSCs-based therapies. To address this, we first cultivated EMSCs from neonatal mice aged 1 week and adult mice aged 3 months or 6 months, and then compared their morphology, proliferative capacity, and pluripotency through various induced differentiation assays...
October 27, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092089/notch-wnt-cross-signalling-regulates-stemness-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-through-expression-of-neural-crest-and-core-pluripotency-factors
#4
V Uribe-Etxebarria, J Luzuriaga, P García-Gallastegui, A Agliano, F Unda, G Ibarretxe
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) from adult teeth express neural crest (NC) markers together with core transcriptional factors associated with stem cell pluripotency, such as Oct4a, Sox2, c-Myc, Rex1, Stella/Dppa3, Ssea1/Fut4, Lin28 and Nanog. The possibility to boost the natural stemness features of DPSCs by mild methods, that do not involve gene and/or chromatin modification or gene transfection, is highly desirable for cell therapy. Canonical Wnt and Notch are two highly conserved developmental signalling pathways that are involved in NC emergence and stem cell self-renewal...
November 1, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073101/utx-guided-neural-crest-function-underlies-craniofacial-features-of-kabuki-syndrome
#5
Karl B Shpargel, Joshua Starmer, Chaochen Wang, Kai Ge, Terry Magnuson
Kabuki syndrome, a congenital craniofacial disorder, manifests from mutations in an X-linked histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase (UTX/KDM6A) or a H3 lysine 4 methylase (KMT2D). However, the cellular and molecular etiology of histone-modifying enzymes in craniofacial disorders is unknown. We now establish Kabuki syndrome as a neurocristopathy, whereby the majority of clinical features are modeled in mice carrying neural crest (NC) deletion of UTX, including craniofacial dysmorphism, cardiac defects, and postnatal growth retardation...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061525/characterization-of-a-new-inducible-transgenic-mouse-model-with-gfp-expression-in-melanocytes-and-their-precursors
#6
Sandeep S Joshi, Bishal Tandukar, Maira Castaneda, Shunlin Jiang, Ganesh Diwakar, Ronna P Hertzano, Thomas J Hornyak
Melanocytes are neural crest-derived cells that are responsible for mammalian hair follicle (HF) pigmentation. The Dct-LacZ transgenic mouse is extensively used to study melanocyte biology but lacks conditionally-inducible labelling and fluorescent labelling, enabling specific, viable isolation of melanocytes using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Here, we have generated a Tet-off bitransgenic mouse model, Dct-H2BGFP, containing Dct-tTA and TRE-H2BGFP transgenes. Characterization of Dct-H2BGFP mice confirmed a pattern of Dct-H2BGFP expression in melanoblasts, melanocyte stem cells (McSCs), and terminally differentiated melanocytes similar to the expression pattern of previously published mouse models Dct-LacZ and iDct-GFP...
October 20, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058474/prolonged-expansion-induces-spontaneous-neural-progenitor-differentiation-from-human-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Domenico Scionti, Francesca Diomede, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Oriana Trubiani
Neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from dental tissues received considerable interest in regenerative medicine, particularly in nerve regeneration owing to their embryonic origin and ease of harvest. Proliferation efficacy and differentiation capacity into diverse cell lineages propose dental MSCs as an in vitro tool for disease modeling. In this study, we investigated the spontaneous differentiation efficiency of dental MSCs obtained from human gingiva tissue (hGMSCs) into neural progenitor cells after extended passaging...
October 23, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049740/phenotypic-plasticity-in-uveal-melanoma-is-not-restricted-to-a-tumor-subpopulation-and-is-unrelated-to-cancer-stem-cell-characteristics
#8
Rachel E Doherty, Karen Sisley, David W Hammond, Ian G Rennie, Neil A Cross
Purpose: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults and approximately half of those diagnosed will die of metastasis. This study investigates whether UM progression is driven by a subpopulation of stem-like cells, termed "cancer stem cells" (CSCs). Methods: Expression of postulated stem cell markers aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), CD44, and CD133 was analyzed in UM cell lines and primary UM short-term cultures (STCs) established from tumor samples...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049289/a-molecular-atlas-of-the-developing-ectoderm-defines-neural-neural-crest-placode-and-nonneural-progenitor-identity-in-vertebrates
#9
Jean-Louis Plouhinec, Sofía Medina-Ruiz, Caroline Borday, Elsa Bernard, Jean-Philippe Vert, Michael B Eisen, Richard M Harland, Anne H Monsoro-Burq
During vertebrate neurulation, the embryonic ectoderm is patterned into lineage progenitors for neural plate, neural crest, placodes and epidermis. Here, we use Xenopus laevis embryos to analyze the spatial and temporal transcriptome of distinct ectodermal domains in the course of neurulation, during the establishment of cell lineages. In order to define the transcriptome of small groups of cells from a single germ layer and to retain spatial information, dorsal and ventral ectoderm was subdivided along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes by microdissections...
October 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037816/in-vitro-segregation-and-isolation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-crest-cells
#10
Sabine Münst, Philipp Koch, Jaideep Kesavan, Michael Alexander-Mays, Bernhard Münst, Sandra Blaess, Oliver Brüstle
The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic cell population with remarkable characteristics. After delaminating from the neural tube, NC cells (NCCs) migrate extensively, populate nearly every tissue of the body and differentiate into highly diverse cell types such as peripheral neurons and glia, but also mesenchymal cells including chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes. While the NC has been extensively studied in several animal models, little is known about human NC development. A number of methods have been established to derive NCCs in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC)...
October 13, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033303/schwann-cells-in-the-ventral-dermis-do-not-derive-from-myf5-expressing-precursors
#11
Haizea Iribar, Virginia Pérez-López, Usue Etxaniz, Araika Gutiérrez-Rivera, Ander Izeta
The embryonic origin of lineage precursors of the trunk dermis is somewhat controversial. Precursor cells traced by Myf5 and Twist2 (Dermo1) promoter activation (i.e., cells of presumed dermomyotomal lineage) have been reported to generate Schwann cells. On the other hand, abundant data demonstrate that dermal Schwann cells derive from the neural crest. This is relevant because dermal precursors give rise to neural lineages, and multilineage differentiation potential qualifies them as adult stem cells. However, it is currently unclear whether neural lineages arise from dedifferentiated Schwann cells instead of mesodermally derived dermal precursor cells...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025656/dual-delivery-of-vegf-and-ngf-by-emulsion-electrospun-nanofibrous-scaffold-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#12
Bin Xia, Yonggang Lv
Controlled delivery of multiple therapeutic agents can be considered an effective approach in nerve injury due to its multifunction. In this study, recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and recombinant human nerve growth factor (NGF) were loaded on the surface and in the core of emulsion electrospun poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibrous scaffold, respectively. The in vitro studies showed that VEGF and NGF had a sequential release pattern in which most of the VEFG was released in the first few days but the NGF could be continuously released for >1month...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967641/large-scale-expansion-and-characterization-of-human-adult-neural-crest-derived-multipotent-stem-cells-from-hair-follicle-for-regenerative-medicine-applications
#13
R G Vasyliev, A E Rodnichenko, O S Gubar, A V Zlatska, I M Gordiienko, S N Novikova, D O Zubov
AIM: The purpose of this work was to obtain, multiply and characterize the adult neural crest-derived multipotent stem cells from human hair follicle for their further clinical use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult neural crest-derived multipotent stem cells were obtained from human hair follicle by explant method and were expanded at large-scale up to a clinically significant number. The resulted cell cultures were examined by flow cytometry and immunocytochemical analysis...
September 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954207/effects-of-%C3%A3-tcp-scaffolds-on-neurogenic-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#14
Premjit Arpornmaeklong, Michael J Pressler
Extracellular matrix (ECM) and adhesion molecules play crucial roles in regulating growth and differentiation of stem cells. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of beta-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) scaffolds on differentiation and expression of ECM and adhesion molecules of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Undifferentiated hESCs were seeded on ß-TCP scaffolds and cell culture plates and cultured in growth and osteogenic medium for 21 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed adhesion and growth of hESCs on the porous ß-TCP scaffolds...
September 24, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927893/msx1-induced-neural-crest-like-reprogramming-promotes-melanoma-progression
#15
Markus V Heppt, Joshua X Wang, Denitsa M Hristova, Zhi Wei, Ling Li, Brianna Evans, Marilda Beqiri, Samir Zaman, Jie Zhang, Martin Irmler, Carola Berking, Robert Besch, Johannes Beckers, Frank J Rauscher, Rick A Sturm, David E Fisher, Meenhard Herlyn, Mizuho Fukunaga-Kalabis
Melanoma cells share many biological properties with neural crest stem cells. Here we show that the homeodomain transcription factor Msh homeobox 1 (MSX1), which is significantly correlated with melanoma disease progression, reprograms melanocytes and melanoma cells towards a neural crest precursor-like state. MSX1-reprogrammed normal human melanocytes express the neural crest marker p75 and become multipotent. MSX1 induces a phenotypic switch in melanoma, which is characterized by an oncogenic transition from an E-cadherin-high non-migratory state towards a ZEB1-high invasive state...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922973/a-new-wnt1-cre-tomatorosa-es-cell-line-a-tool-for-studying-neural-crest-cell-integration-capacity
#16
Soledad Acuna Mendoza, Sabrina Martin, Sabine Kuchler-Bopp, Sandy Ribes, Jeremy H Thalgott, Catherine Chaussain, Sophie Creuzet, Hervé Lesot, Franck Lebrin, Anne Poliard
Neural crest (NC) cells are a migratory, multipotent population giving rise to numerous lineages in the embryo. Their plasticity renders attractive their use in tissue engineering-based therapies but further knowledge on their in vivo behaviour is required before clinical transfer may be envisioned. We here describe isolation and characterization of a new mouse ES line derived from Wnt1-CRE-R26 RosaTomatoTdv blastocyst and show that it displays the characteristics of typical ES cells. Furthermore, these cells can be efficiently directed towards a NC stem cell-like phenotype as attested by concomitant expression of NC marker genes and Tomato fluorescence...
September 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919261/top-down-inhibition-of-bmp-signaling-enables-robust-induction-of-hpscs-into-neural-crest-in-fully-defined-xeno-free-conditions
#17
James O S Hackland, Tom J R Frith, Oliver Thompson, Ana Marin Navarro, Martin I Garcia-Castro, Christian Unger, Peter W Andrews
Defects in neural crest development have been implicated in many human disorders, but information about human neural crest formation mostly depends on extrapolation from model organisms. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can be differentiated into in vitro counterparts of the neural crest, and some of the signals known to induce neural crest formation in vivo are required during this process. However, the protocols in current use tend to produce variable results, and there is no consensus as to the precise signals required for optimal neural crest differentiation...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886367/a-modular-platform-for-differentiation-of-human-pscs-into-all-major-ectodermal-lineages
#18
Jason Tchieu, Bastian Zimmer, Faranak Fattahi, Sadaf Amin, Nadja Zeltner, Shuibing Chen, Lorenz Studer
Directing the fate of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into different lineages requires variable starting conditions and components with undefined activities, introducing inconsistencies that confound reproducibility and assessment of specific perturbations. Here we introduce a simple, modular protocol for deriving the four main ectodermal lineages from hPSCs. By precisely varying FGF, BMP, WNT, and TGFβ pathway activity in a minimal, chemically defined medium, we show parallel, robust, and reproducible derivation of neuroectoderm, neural crest (NC), cranial placode (CP), and non-neural ectoderm in multiple hPSC lines, on different substrates independently of cell density...
September 7, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844482/impact-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-on-neural-crest-stem-cell-formation
#19
Cecilia Vichier-Guerre, Margaret Parker, Yael Pomerantz, Richard H Finnell, Robert M Cabrera
The use of antidepressants in pregnant women is rising, with rates up to 7.5% in the United States. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are currently the most common antidepressant prescribed to pregnant women. The teratogenic effects of SSRI exposure are debated because of discrepancies in epidemiological studies. As an alternative to epidemiological and animal studies, human embryonic stem cell research (hESC) provides a human-based experimental model to examine the risks of prenatal SSRI exposure...
November 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830860/human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-tsc2-haploinsufficient-smooth-muscle-cells-recapitulate-features-of-lymphangioleiomyomatosis
#20
Lisa M Julian, Sean P Delaney, Ying Wang, Alexander A Goldberg, Carole Doré, Julien Yockell-Lelièvre, Roger Y Tam, Krinio Giannikou, Fiona McMurray, Molly S Shoichet, Mary-Ellen Harper, Elizabeth P Henske, David J Kwiatkowski, Thomas N Darling, Joel Moss, Arnold S Kristof, William L Stanford
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive destructive neoplasm of the lung associated with inactivating mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 tumor suppressor genes. Cell or animal models that accurately reflect the pathology of LAM have been challenging to develop. Here, we generated a robust human cell model of LAM by reprogramming TSC2 mutation-bearing fibroblasts from a patient with both tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and LAM (TSC-LAM) into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), followed by selection of cells that resemble those found in LAM tumors by unbiased in vivo differentiation...
October 15, 2017: Cancer Research
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