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Neural crest stem cell

Daniel Pelaez, Zenith Acosta Torres, Tsz Kin Ng, Kwong Wai Choy, Chi Pui Pang, Herman S Cheung
Cellular therapies for the treatment of myocardial infarction have proven to be an invaluable tool in recent years and provide encouraging evidence for the possibility to restore normal heart function. However, questions still remain as to the optimal cell source, pre-conditioning methods and delivery techniques for such an application. This study explores the use of a population of stem cells arising from the neural crest and isolated from adult human periodontal ligament along with short-term mechanical strain as an inducer of cardiomyogenesis and possibly pre-conditioning stimulus for cellular cardiomyoplasty...
October 17, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Nicholas L Bayless, Rachel S Greenberg, Tomek Swigut, Joanna Wysocka, Catherine A Blish
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is linked to microcephaly, which is attributed to infection of developing brain structures. ZIKV infects neural progenitor cells in vitro, though its effects on other developmentally relevant stem cell populations, including cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs), have not been assessed. CNCCs give rise to most cranial bones and exert paracrine effects on the developing brain. Here, we report that CNCCs are productively infected by ZIKV, but not by the related dengue virus...
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Tyler Square, David Jandzik, Maria Cattell, Andrew Hansen, Daniel Meulemans Medeiros
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are highly patterned embryonic cells that migrate along stereotyped routes to give rise to a diverse array of adult tissues and cell types. Modern NCCs are thought to have evolved from migratory neural precursors with limited developmental potential and patterning. How this occurred is poorly understood. Endothelin signaling regulates several aspects of NCC development, including their migration, differentiation, and patterning. In jawed vertebrates, Endothelin signaling involves multiple functionally distinct ligands (Edns) and receptors (Ednrs) expressed in various NCC subpopulations...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jessica Aijia Liu, Martin Cheung
The neural crest (NC) is a remarkable transient structure generated during early vertebrate development. The neural crest progenitors have extensive migratory capacity and multipotency, harboring stem cell-like characteristics such as self-renewal. They can differentiate into a variety of cell types from craniofacial skeletal tissues to the trunk peripheral nervous system (PNS). Multiple regulators such as signaling factors, transcription factors, and migration machinery components are expressed at different stages of NC development...
September 14, 2016: Developmental Biology
Kishore Reddy Katikireddy, Thore Schmedt, Marianne O Price, Francis W Price, Ula V Jurkunas
Human corneal endothelial cells are derived from neural crest and because of postmitotic arrest lack competence to repair cell loss from trauma, aging, and degenerative disorders such as Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Herein, we identified a rapidly proliferating subpopulation of cells from the corneal endothelium of adult normal and FECD donors that exhibited features of neural crest-derived progenitor (NCDP) cells by showing absence of senescence with passaging, propensity to form spheres, and increased colony forming efficacy compared with the primary cells...
October 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Peipei Zhou, Geng Wu, Ping Zhang, Rongyao Xu, Jie Ge, Yu Fu, Yuchao Zhang, Yifei Du, Jinhai Ye, Jie Cheng, Hongbing Jiang
Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) senescence contributes to age-related bone loss. The alveolar bone in jaws originates from neural crest cells and possesses significant site- and age-related properties. However, such intrinsic characteristics of BMSCs from alveolar bone (AB-BMSCs) and the underlying regulatory mechanisms still remain unknown. Here, we found that the expression of special AT-rich binding protein 2 (SATB2) in human AB-BMSCs significantly decreased with aging. SATB2 knockdown on AB-BMSCs from young donors displayed these aging-related phenotypes in vitro...
September 14, 2016: Aging
Volkan Coskun, Dawn M Lombardo
The cardiovascular and nervous systems are deeply connected during development, health, and disease. Both systems affect and regulate the development of each other during embryogenesis and the early postnatal period. Specialized neural crest cells contribute to cardiac structures, and a number of growth factors released from the cardiac tissue (e.g., glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin, nerve growth factor, Neurotrophin-3) ensure proper maturation of the incoming parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Anna Spina, Roberta Montella, Davide Liccardo, Alfredo De Rosa, Luigi Laino, Thimios A Mitsiadis, Marcella La Noce
Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), selected from the stromal-vascular fraction of dental pulp, are ecto-mesenchymal stem cells deriving from neural crests, successfully used in human bone tissue engineering. For their use in human therapy GMP procedures are required. For instance, the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) is strongly discouraged in clinical practice due to its high risk of prions and other infections for human health. Alternatively, clinical grade sera have been suggested, including the New Zealand FBS (NZ-FBS)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Nikolaos Panagiotis Mandalos, Eumorphia Remboutsika
Precise control of neural progenitor transformation into neural crest stem cells ensures proper craniofacial and head development. In the neural progenitor pool, SoxB factors play an essential role as cell fate determinants of neural development, whereas during neural crest stem cell formation, Sox2 plays a predominant role as a guardian of the developmental clock that ensures precision of cell flow in the developing head.
August 31, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Kyohei Fujita, Ryuhei Ogawa, Kazuo Ito
Neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are tissue-specific stem cells derived from multipotent neural crest cells. NCSCs are present in some adult tissues such as dorsal root ganglia, sciatic nerve, and bone marrow. However, little is known about the formation mechanisms of these cells. We have shown that BMP2/Wnt3a signaling and a chromatin remodeler, CHD7, in mice help to maintain the multipotency of neural crest cells and lead to the formation of NCSCs. In the present study, we analyzed a regulatory gene cascade in the formation of mouse NCSCs...
August 31, 2016: FEBS Journal
Markus Kaller, Heiko Hermeking
The epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) represents a morphogenetic program involved in developmental processes such as gastrulation and neural crest formation. The EMT program is co-opted by epithelial tumor cells and endows them with features necessary for spreading to distant sites, such as invasion, migration, apoptosis resistance and stemness. Thereby, EMT facilitates metastasis formation and therapy resistance. A growing number of transcription factors has been implicated in the regulation of EMT. These include EMT-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs), the most prominent being SNAIL, SLUG, ZEB1, ZEB2 and TWIST, and negative regulators of EMT, such as p53...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Neeraj Malhotra
iPS cells are derived from somatic cells via transduction and expression of selective transcription factors. Both viral-integrating (like retroviral) and non-integrating (like, mRNA or protein-based) techniques are available for the production of iPS cells. In the field of dentistry, iPS cells have been derived from stem cells of apical papilla, dental pulp stem cells, and stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth, gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts, and buccal mucosa fibroblasts. iPS cells have the potential to differentiate into all derivatives of the 3 primary germ layers i...
August 31, 2016: International Journal of Stem Cells
Joshua X Wang, Mizuho Fukunaga-Kalabis, Meenhard Herlyn
In the vertebrate embryo, melanocytes arise from the neural crest, migrate to and colonize the basal layer within the skin and skin appendages. Post-migratory melanocytes are securely attached to the basement membrane, and their morphology, growth, adhesion, and migration are under control of neighboring keratinocytes. Melanoma is a malignant tumor originated from melanocytes or their progenitor cells. During melanocyte transformation and melanoma progression, melanocytes lose their interactions with keratinocytes, resulting in uncontrolled proliferation and invasion of the malignant cells...
September 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Michael D West, Igor Nasonkin, David Larocca, Karen B Chapman, Francois Binette, Hal Sternberg
The complexity of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) fate represents both opportunity and challenge. In theory, all somatic cell types can be differentiated from hPSCs, opening the door to many opportunities in transplant medicine. However, such clinical applications require high standards of purity and identity, that challenge many existing protocols. This underscores the need for increasing precision in the description of cell identity during hPSC differentiation. We highlight one salient example, namely, the numerous published reports of hPSC-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
2016: Current Stem Cell Reports
G A Bozhok, O S Sidorenko, E M Plaksina, T M Gurina, A N Sukach, V S Kholodnyy, V D Ustichenko, S B Bilyavskaya, T P Bondarenko, E I Legach
Stem/progenitor cells are thought to have the potential in the treatment of severe neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, sympathoadrenal progenitors expressing specific markers of neural crest derivatives and capable to differentiate into neurons were discovered in adult bovine and human adrenal glands, but there was no reported data on cryopreservation of sympathoadrenal progenitors. The aim of the present study was to examine the neural differentiation potential of sympathoadrenal progenitors derived from fresh and cryopreserved neonatal porcine adrenal glands...
October 2016: Cryobiology
Chian A Chang, David A Pattison, Richard W Tothill, Grace Kong, Tim J Akhurst, Rodney J Hicks, Michael S Hofman
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas (PCC) and paragangliomas (PGL) are neuroendocrine tumours arising from pluripotent neural crest stem cells and are associated with neurons of the autonomic nervous system. PCCs/PGLs are often hereditary and multifocal, and their biologic behaviour and metabolic activity vary making imaging of these tumours challenging. The imaging gold standard has been I-123 MIBG complemented by CT or MRI. PGLs being neuroendocrine tumours express somatostatin receptors enabling imaging with Ga-68 DOTA-coupled peptides such as DOTATATE...
2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Qinglu Song, Songtao Yuan, Qin An, Yinyin Chen, Frank Fuxiang Mao, Yizhi Liu, Qinghuai Liu, Guoping Fan
Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are a monolayer of cells covering the inner-side of cornea, playing a pivotal role in keeping the cornea transparent. Because adult CECs have no proliferative capacity, the loss of CECs during aging or under pathological conditions would lead to corneal edema, eventually leading to the blindness. Clinically, donated CECs have been successfully transplanted to treat the diseases of CEC deficiency; however, the source of CEC donation is very limited. As an alternative cell source for CEC transplantation, CEC-like cells can be obtained via in vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells...
October 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Béla Z Schmidt, Martin Lehmann, Simon Gutbier, Erastus Nembo, Sabrina Noel, Lena Smirnova, Anna Forsby, Jürgen Hescheler, Hasan X Avci, Thomas Hartung, Marcel Leist, Julianna Kobolák, András Dinnyés
Neurotoxicity and developmental neurotoxicity are important issues of chemical hazard assessment. Since the interpretation of animal data and their extrapolation to man is challenging, and the amount of substances with information gaps exceeds present animal testing capacities, there is a big demand for in vitro tests to provide initial information and to prioritize for further evaluation. During the last decade, many in vitro tests emerged. These are based on animal cells, human tumour cell lines, primary cells, immortalized cell lines, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells...
August 4, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Oriana Trubiani, Simone Guarnieri, Francesca Diomede, Maria A Mariggiò, Ilaria Merciaro, Caterina Morabito, Marcos F X B Cavalcanti, Lucio Cocco, Giulia Ramazzotti
Stem cells isolated from human adult tissue niche represent a promising source for neural differentiation. Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) originating from the neural crest are particularly suitable for induction of neural commitment. In this study, under xeno-free culture conditions, in undifferentiated hPDLSCs and in hPDLSCs induced to neuronal differentiation by basic Fibroblast Growth Factor, the level of some neural markers have been analyzed. The hPDLSCs spontaneously express Nestin, a neural progenitor marker...
November 2016: Cellular Signalling
Johanna Nyffeler, Christiaan Karreman, Heidrun Leisner, Yong Jun Kim, Gabsang Lee, Tanja Waldmann, Marcel Leist
Migration of neural crest cells (NCCs) is one of the pivotal processes of human fetal development. Malformations arise, if NCC migration and differentiation are impaired genetically or by toxicants. In the currently available test systems for migration inhibition of NCC (MINC), the manual generation of a cell-free space results in extreme operator dependencies, and limits throughput. Therefore, a new test format was established here. The assay avoids scratching by plating cells around a commercially available circular stopper...
July 27, 2016: ALTEX
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