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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728327/non-melanocytic-skin-cancers-of-the-head-and-neck-a-clinical-study-in-jeju-province
#1
Jae Kyoung Kang, Byung Min Yun, Jung-Kook Song, Myoung Soo Shin
BACKGROUND: Jeju Island is geographically and socioeconomically distinct from the mainland of South Korea. Thus, the presentation and management of non-melanocytic skin cancers (NMSC) of the head and neck may differ from those in other regions of the country. We compared the clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of NMSC on Jeju Island with the findings of similar regional studies. METHODS: Patient data, including age, sex, diagnosis, tumor site, treatment, and recurrence, were obtained from the medical and pathology records of patients diagnosed with NMSC between January 2010 and June 2015...
July 2017: Archives of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727603/nodular-lesion-in-cheek-with-a-hair-tuft
#2
David Ayala, Inés Escandell, Jose M Martin
Trichostasis spinulosa is a rarely diagnosed disorder of the pilosebaceous unit, characterized by retention of telogen hairs within the dilated follicles. A hair tuft can be seen protruding from the follicles. We present a case of trichostasis spinulosa associated with intradermal melanocytic nevi, where dermoscopy helps to identify this entity.
August 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726920/pheomelanin-molecular-vibration-is-associated-with-mitochondrial-ros-production-in-melanocytes-and-systemic-oxidative-stress-and-damage
#3
Ismael Galván, Alberto Jorge, María García-Gil
Vibrations in covalent bonds affect electron delocalization within molecules, as reported in polymers. If synthesized by living cells, the electron delocalization of polymers affects the stabilization of cellular free radicals, but biomolecular vibration has never been considered a potential source of cytotoxicity. Here we show that the vibrational characteristics of natural pheomelanin and eumelanin contribute to feather color expression in four poultry breeds with different melanin-based pigmentation patterns, but only the vibrational characteristics of pheomelanin are related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria of melanocytes and to systemic levels of cellular oxidative stress and damage...
July 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726212/melasma-an-up-to-date-comprehensive-review
#4
REVIEW
Oluwatobi A Ogbechie-Godec, Nada Elbuluk
Melasma is a common acquired condition of symmetric hyperpigmentation, typically occurring on the face, with higher prevalence in females and darker skin types. Multiple etiologies, including light exposure, hormonal influences, and family history, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Overall prevalence ranges widely at 1-50%, since values are typically calculated within a specific ethnic population within a geographic region. Histologically, melasma can display increased epidermal and/or dermal pigmentation, enlarged melanocytes, increased melanosomes, solar elastosis, dermal blood vessels, and, occasionally, perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates...
July 19, 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725654/stem-cells-from-human-hair-follicles-first-mechanical-isolation-for-immediate-autologous-clinical-use-in-androgenetic-alopecia-and-hair-loss
#5
Pietro Gentile, Maria G Scioli, Alessandra Bielli, Augusto Orlandi, Valerio Cervelli
BACKGROUND: Hair follicles are known to contain a well-characterized niche for adult stem cells: the bulge, which contains epithelial and melanocytic stem cells. Stem cells in the hair bulge, a clearly demarcated structure within the lower permanent portion of hair follicles, can generate the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicle structures, and sebaceous glands. The bulge epithelial stem cells can also reconstitute in an artificial in vivo system to a new hair follicle. METHODS: In this study, we have developed a new method to isolate human adult stem cells by mechanical centrifugation of punch biopsy from human hair follicles without culture condition...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725344/complete-response-of-mediastinal-clear-cell-sarcoma-to-pembrolizumab-with-radiotherapy
#6
Samuel Marcrom, Jennifer F De Los Santos, Robert M Conry
BACKGROUND: Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare, aggressive soft tissue sarcoma thought to derive from neural crest and characterized by a 12;22 translocation. The resulting fusion protein directly activates expression of the melanocyte master transcription factor and drives the same down-stream pathways in CCS and melanoma leading to significant clinical parallels between these malignancies. Striking success of immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma has promoted interest in immunotherapy of CCS...
2017: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721529/-dermoscopy-for-malignant-and-benign-skin-tumors-indication-and-standardized-terminology
#7
A Blum, J Kreusch, W Stolz, H Haenssle, R Braun, R Hofmann-Wellenhof, P Tschandl, I Zalaudek, H Kittler
Dermoscopy has a high diagnostic accuracy in pigmented and nonpigmented malignant and benign skin tumors. These microscopic in vivo examinations with polarized and nonpolarized light are effective in the early detection of malignant skin tumors and reduce the number of unnecessary excisions of benign skin tumors. The selection of the skin lesions is crucial for the diagnostic accuracy of the dermoscopic examination. Not only large pigmented skin lesions, but also small hypo-, de-, or nonpigmented skin lesions, should be examined dermatoscopically as well as skin lesions that have changed in shape and/or color...
July 18, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719436/melanocytic-nevus-does-not-metastasize
#8
Kristin L Sticco, Alyssa Feiner, Sheng Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717756/primary-cervicomedullary-junction-melanocytic-melanoma-an-illustrated-case-report
#9
Abhishek Mahajan, Rakesh Jalali
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716760/properties-of-purified-cyp2r1-in-a-reconstituted-membrane-environment-and-its-25-hydroxylation-of-20-hydroxyvitamin-d3
#10
Chloe Y S Cheng, Tae-Kang Kim, Saowanee Jeayeng, Andrzej T Slominski, Robert C Tuckey
Recent studies indicate that CYP2R1 is the major 25-hydroxylase catalyzing the first step in vitamin D activation. Since the catalytic properties of CYP2R1 have been poorly studied to date and it is a membrane protein, we examined the purified enzyme in a membrane environment. CYP2R1 was expressed in E. coli and purified by nickel affinity- and hydrophobic interaction-chromatography and assayed in a reconstituted membrane system comprising phospholipid vesicles plus purified human NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716435/reference-values-for-skin-microanatomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-ex%C3%A2-vivo-studies
#11
Haoming Xu, Maira Fonseca, Zachary Wolner, Esther Chung, Xinyuan Wu, Shamir Geller, Stephen W Dusza, Antonio P DeRosa, Ashfaq A Marghoob, Klaus J Busam, Allan C Halpern, Michael A Marchetti
BACKGROUND: Few studies have characterized reference values of normal human skin microanatomy parameters. OBJECTIVE: To quantify histologic measurements of epidermal thickness, melanocyte density, hair follicle density, and eccrine gland density as a function of age and anatomic site. METHOD: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases for articles published through May 25, 2017. Two reviewers independently screened 2016 articles; 327 relevant articles and 151 additional articles found via forward or reference citations underwent full-text review by 1 of 4 reviewers for relevance, data extraction, and critical appraisal...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715145/the-autophagy-receptor-adaptor-p62-is-up-regulated-by-uva-radiation-in-melanocytes-and-in-melanoma-cells
#12
Ashley Sample, Baozhong Zhao, Chunli Wu, Steven Qian, Xianglin Shi, Andrew Aplin, Yu-Ying He
UVA (315-400 nm) is the most abundant in sunlight and is used in indoor tanning beds. However, much remains to be understood about the regulation of the UVA damage response in melanocytes and melanoma. Here we show that UVA, but not the shorter waveband UVB (280-315 nm), up-regulates adaptor protein p62 in an Nrf2- and ROS-dependent manner, suggesting a UVA-specific effect on p62 regulation. UVA-induced p62 up-regulation was inhibited by a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant or Nrf2 knockdown. In addition, p62 knockdown inhibited UVA-induced ROS production and Nrf2 up-regulation...
July 17, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715139/uvb-exposure-of-a-humanized-skin-model-reveals-unexpected-dynamic-of-keratinocyte-proliferation-and-wnt-inhibitor-balancing
#13
Teresa Michalczyk, Thomas Biedermann, Sophie Böttcher-Haberzeth, Agnes S Klar, Martin Meuli, Ernst Reichmann
We developed human dermo-epidermal skin substitutes which are presently applied in phase I and II clinical trials. Here we used these very same skin equivalents containing melanocytes, named MelSkin, as an experimental skin model. We investigated the effects of UVB irradiation on the skin grafts transplanted on immune-compromised rats. The irradiation induces a strong wound healing response going along with massive proliferation of basal keratinocytes, basically quiescent under non-irradiated, homeostatic conditions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714883/nmr-insights-into-the-structure-function-relationships-in-the-binding-of-melanocortin-analogues-to-the-mc1r-receptor
#14
Maurício Morais, Héctor Zamora-Carreras, Paula D Raposinho, Maria Cristina Oliveira, David Pantoja-Uceda, João D G Correia, M Angeles Jiménez
Linear and cyclic analogues of the α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) targeting the human melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) are of pharmacological interest for detecting and treating melanoma. The central sequence of α-MSH (His-Phe-Arg-Trp) has been identified as being essential for receptor binding. To deepen current knowledge on the molecular basis for α-MSH bioactivity, we aimed to understand the effect of cycle size on receptor binding. To that end, we synthesised two macrocyclic isomeric α-MSH analogues, c[NH-NO₂-C₆H₃-CO-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-Lys-NH₂ (CycN-K6) and c[NH-NO₂-C₆H₃-CO-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys-Lys]-NH₂ (CycN-K7)...
July 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714107/the-braf-and-nras-mutation-prevalence-in-dermoscopic-subtypes-of-acquired-naevi-reveals-constitutive-mapk-pathway-activation
#15
J M Tan, L N Tom, K Jagirdar, D Lambie, H Schaider, R A Sturm, H P Soyer, M S Stark
BACKGROUND: Acquired naevi can have unique dermoscopic patterns that correspond to distinct microanatomical growth patterns. Previous studies on acquired naevi stratified according to dermoscopic pattern, focused on the frequency of somatic BRAF mutations, whereas NRAS mutations remained to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the BRAF and NRAS mutation prevalence and activation of the MAPK pathway in distinct dermoscopic subtypes of acquired naevi. METHODS: Common mutations present in BRAF and NRAS were assessed in 40 globular, reticular, and peripheral rim of globules (PG) subtypes of acquired naevi from 27 participants (19 male, 8 female; mean age 46...
July 17, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713981/neuroendocrine-factors-the-missing-link-in-non%C3%A2-melanoma-skin-cancer-review
#16
Mihai Lupu, Ana Caruntu, Constantin Caruntu, Laura Maria Lucia Papagheorghe, Mihaela Adriana Ilie, Vlad Voiculescu, Daniel Boda, Constantin Carolina, Cristiana Tanase, Maria Sifaki, Nikolaos Drakoulis, Charalampos Mamoulakis, George Tzanakakis, Monica Neagu, Demetrios A Spandidos, Boris N Izotov, Aristides M Tsatsakis
Non‑melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common form of cancer worldwide, comprising 95% of all cutaneous malignancies and approximately 40% of all cancers. In spite of intensive efforts aimed towards awareness campaigns and sun‑protective measures, epidemiological data indicate an increase in the incidence of NMSC. This category of skin cancers has many common environmental triggers. Arising primarily on sun‑exposed skin, it has been shown that ultraviolet radiation is, in the majority of cases, the main trigger involved in the pathogenesis of NMSC...
July 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713957/soyasaponin%C3%A2-ag-inhibits-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-msh%C3%A2-induced-melanogenesis-in-b16f10-melanoma-cells-via-the-downregulation-of-trp%C3%A2-2
#17
Seung Hwan Yang, Aristides M Tsatsakis, George Tzanakakis, Hong-Suk Kim, Bao Le, Maria Sifaki, Demetrios A Spandidos, Chigen Tsukamoto, Kirill S Golokhvast, Boris N Izotov, Gyuhwa Chung
Saponins, which are glycosylated, represent a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of soyasaponin Ag, a secondary metabolite extracted from soybean, on α‑melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α‑MSH)‑induced melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. To elucidate the mechanisms through which soyasaponin Ag inhibits melanin synthesis, we performed cellular tyrosinase activity assays and analyzed the expression of the melanogenesis‑related genes, tyrosinase, tyrosinase‑related protein (TRP)‑1 and TRP‑2...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713672/bap1-a-tumor-suppressor-gene-driving-malignant-mesothelioma
#18
REVIEW
Mitchell Cheung, Joseph R Testa
Like cancer generally, malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a genetic disease at the cellular level. DNA copy number analysis of mesothelioma specimens has revealed a number of recurrent sites of chromosomal loss, including 3p21.1, 9p21.3, and 22q12.2. The key inactivated driver genes located at 9p21.1 and 22q12.2 were discovered two decades ago as being the tumor suppressor loci CDKN2A and NF2, respectively. Only relatively recently was the BAP1 gene determined to be the driver gene at 3p21.1 that is somatically inactivated...
June 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712540/aqueous-humor-tyrosinase-activity-is-indicative-of-iris-melanocyte-toxicity
#19
Sarmistha Mahanty, Ankush A Kawali, Shruthi Shirur Dakappa, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Mathew Kurian, Varun Kharbanda, Rohit Shetty, Subba Rao Gangi Setty
Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones (FQLs) are commonly used to treat ocular infections but are also known to cause dermal melanocyte toxicity. The release of dispersed pigments from the iris into the aqueous humor has been considered a possible ocular side effect of the systemic administration of FQLs such as Moxifloxacin, and this condition is known as bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT). Bilateral acute depigmentation of iris (BADI) is a similar condition, with iris pigment released into the aqueous, but it has not been reported as a side effect of FQL...
July 13, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711237/precise-role-of-dermal-fibroblasts-on-melanocyte-pigmentation
#20
REVIEW
Yinjuan Wang, Céline Viennet, Sophie Robin, Jean-Yves Berthon, Li He, Philippe Humbert
Dermal fibroblasts are traditionally recognized as synthesizing, remodeling and depositing collagen and extracellular matrix, the structural framework for tissues, helping to bring thickness and firmness to the skin. However, the role of fibroblasts on skin pigmentation arouses concern recently. More is known about the interactions between epidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes. This review highlights the importance of fibroblast-derived melanogenic paracrine mediators in the regulation of melanocyte activities...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
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