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High blood flow

Eva E Buschmann, Philipp Hillmeister, Anja Bondke Persson, David S Liebeskind, Lea Schlich, Robert Kamenzky, Andreas Busjahn, Ivo R Buschmann, Peter Bramlage, Andreas Hetzel, Matthias Reinhard
BACKGROUND: External counterpulsation improves cerebral perfusion velocity in acute stroke and may stimulate collateral artery growth. However, whether (non-acute) at-risk patients with high-grade carotid artery disease may benefit from counterpulsation needs to be validated. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (71±6.5 years, 5 women) with asymptomatic unilateral chronic severe ICA stenosis (>70%) or occlusion were randomized to receive 20 min active counterpulsation followed by sham treatment or vice versa...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Christopher R Neal, Kenton Arkill, James Stephen Bell, Kai B Betteridge, David O Bates, C Peter Winlove, Andrew Hj Salmon, Steven J Harper
To investigate human glomerular structure under conditions of physiological perfusion we have analysed fresh and perfusion fixed normal human glomeruli at physiological hydrostatic and oncotic pressures using serial resin section reconstruction, confocal, multiphoton and electron microscope imaging. Afferent and efferent arterioles (21.5{plus minus}1.2µm and 15.9{plus minus}1.2µm diameter), recognised from vascular origins, lead into previously undescribed wider regions (43.2{plus minus}2.8 µm and 38.4{plus minus}4...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Christos G Mihos, Sheila L Klassen, Evin Yucel
Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular disease in the elderly and is associated with poor outcomes. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in high-risk patients. Herein, we describe the gender-related differences in baseline characteristics and pathophysiologic response to severe AS, imaging considerations unique to females, and short- and long-term outcomes after TAVR. Women undergoing TAVR are older and frailer, have less cardiovascular comorbidities, smaller femoral artery size, better left ventricular systolic function, hypertrophied and small left ventricles leading to a higher incidence of paradoxical low-flow low-gradient AS, and a greater prevalence of porcelain aorta, smaller aortic annulus size, and lower coronary ostia heights...
June 19, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Maha Jahangir, Marrium Nawaz, Fareha Jabbar, Fahad Khan, Nimra Hasnain
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital abnormality, which accounts for 20-40% of all the adult patients with congenital heart diseases. Due to the slow velocity of shunt flow, ASD has a negligible risk for infective endocarditis (IE). However, intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) is a potential cause for IE. IE remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Our case report demonstrates the atypical presentation of IE in an ASD patient. The diagnosis was made on the basis of modified Duke criteria, and blood cultures were found out to be positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
April 15, 2018: Curēus
Min Wang, Chen Zhang, Tian Tian, Teng Zhang, Ruiqing Wang, Fengjiao Han, Chaoqin Zhong, Mingqiang Hua, Daoxin Ma
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbors an immune suppression environment, featured by increased regulatory T cells (Tregs). The expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (TNFR2) on Tregs could be used to identify the maximally suppressive Treg population, and TNF-α furtherly promoted the expansion and function of Tregs via TNFR2 in mice. However, the role of TNF-α has not been determined in AML patients. In view of high levels of TNF-α and Tregs in AML patients, we hypothesized that the increased frequency of Tregs may rely on TNF-α-TNFR2 pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yuko Ogawa, Masahiro Tsuji, Emi Tanaka, Mikiya Miyazato, Jun Hino
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of proteins that induce the formation of bone and the development of the nervous system. BMP-3b, also known as growth and differentiation factor 10, is a member of the BMPs that is highly expressed in the developing and adult brain. BMP-3b is therefore thought to play an important role in the brain even after physiological neurogenesis has completed. BMP-3b is induced in peri-infarct neurons in aged brains and is one of the most highly upregulated genes during the initiation of axonal sprouting...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Mei-Sa Wang, Yi-Bo Du, Hui-Ming Huang, Zhong-Ling Zhu, Shuang-Shuang Du, Shao-Yong Chen, Hong-Ping Zhao, Zhao Yan
Silkworm cocoon was recorded to cure carbuncle in the Compendium of Materia Medica. Previous studies have demonstrated that the supplemental silk protein sericin exhibits anticancer activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of silk fibroin peptide (SFP) extracted from silkworm cocoons against human lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and its possible anticancer mechanisms. SFP that we prepared had high content of glycine (~ 30%) and showed a molecular weight of ~ 10 kDa. Intragastric administration of SFP (30 g/kg/d) for 14 days did not affect the weights, vital signs, routine blood indices, and blood biochemical parameters in mice...
June 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
B Song, Y-J Tang, W-G Zhang, C-C Wan, Y Chen, L-J Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is widely involved in cell proliferation and invasion regulation. Enhanced expression or function of ERK1 is important for leukemia. Abnormal down-regulation of microRNA (miR)-143 is correlated with leukemia pathogenesis, indicating possible tumor-suppressing role. Bioinformatics analysis showed the existence of complementary binding sites between miR-143 and ERK1. This study aims to investigate whether the miR-143 plays a role in mediating ERK1 expression and proliferation and apoptosis of leukemia cells...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Fabian A Kari, Babak Saravi, Sonja Krause, Luisa Puttfarcken, Johannes Scheumann, Katharina Förster, Bartosz Rylski, Sven Maier, Ulrich Göbel, Matthias Siepe, Martin Czerny, Friedhelm Beyersdorf
OBJECTIVES: Anterior radiculomedullary arteries (ARMAs) link dorsal segmental arteries and the intraspinal compartment of the spinal collateral network. The number of thoracic ARMA is highly variable from one person to another. The impact of the number of ARMAs on spinal cord perfusion during thoracic aortic procedures is unknown. We investigated the influence of the number of thoracic ARMAs on spinal cord perfusion in an aortic surgical large animal model. METHODS: Twenty-six pigs were included (20 treatment animals, 6 sham animals, weight 34 ± 3 kg)...
July 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Jérémie Bettoni, Gwénaël Pagé, Anne-Virginie Salsac, Jean-Marc Constans, Sylvie Testelin, Bernard Devauchelle, Olivier Balédent, Stéphanie Dakpé
Owing to the lack of databases of blood flow distributions in the external carotid branches, surgeons currently rely on per-operative imaging and on their experience to choose the recipient vessels for microsurgical facial reconstructions. But, thanks to three-dimensional phase contrast angiography (PCA) and kinematic CINE phase contrast (PC) sequences, MRI technologies have the potential to provide quantitative anatomical and hemodynamic information without injection of contrast agent. Having developed and optimized PC-MRI sequences for the small facial vessels, our objective was to investigate the haemodynamic and blood flow distribution in the external carotid branches...
June 19, 2018: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
Alexei A Kamshilin, Maxim A Volynsky, Olga Khayrutdinova, Dilyara Nurkhametova, Laura Babayan, Alexander V Amelin, Oleg V Mamontov, Rashid Giniatullin
BACKGROUND: The non-invasive biomarkers of migraine can help to develop the personalized medication of this disorder. In testing of the antimigraine drugs the capsaicin-induced skin redness with activated TRPV1 receptors in sensory neurons associated with the release of the migraine mediator CGRP has already been widely used. METHODS: Fourteen migraine patients (mean age 34.6 ± 10.2 years) and 14 healthy volunteers (mean age 29.9 ± 9.7 years) participated in the experiment...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Mario Barilani, Federica Banfi, Silvia Sironi, Enrico Ragni, Salomé Guillaumin, Francesca Polveraccio, Lorenzo Rosso, Monica Moro, Giuseppe Astori, Michela Pozzobon, Lorenza Lazzari
Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are isolated from a plethora of tissue sources for cell therapy purposes. In 2006, the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) published minimal guidelines to define MSC identity. Nevertheless, many independent studies demonstrated that cells meeting the ISCT criteria possessed heterogeneous phenotypes and functionalities, heavily influenced by culture conditions. In this study, human MSC derived from many adult (bone marrow and adipose tissue) or fetal (cord blood, Wharton's jelly, umbilical cord perivascular compartment and amniotic fluid) tissues were investigated...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuwei Xiang, Bin Huang, Jichun Zhao, Hankui Hu, Ding Yuan, Yi Yang
This study was to analyze the outcomes of left subclavian artery (LSA) revascularization during thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) for type B aortic dissections (TBAD). From 2011 to 2017, TBAD patients who underwent LSA revascularization during TEVAR were enrolled. Technical success, endoleaks, mortality, complication, reintervention, and patency of target vessels were analyzed. 38 patients were included, 14 underwent carotid-subclavian bypass (CSB), and 24 underwent chimney graft (CG) implantation. Technical success rates were 92...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Harutoyo Hirano, Renjo Takama, Ryo Matsumoto, Hiroshi Tanaka, Hiroki Hirano, Zu Soh, Teiji Ukawa, Tsuneo Takayanagi, Haruka Morimoto, Ryuji Nakamura, Noboru Saeki, Haruki Hashimoto, Shogo Matsui, Shinji Kishimoto, Nozomu Oda, Masato Kajikawa, Tatsuya Maruhashi, Masashi Kawamoto, Masao Yoshizumi, Yukihito Higashi, Toshio Tsuji
This paper proposes a novel non-invasive method for assessing the vascular endothelial function of lower-limb arteries based on the dilation rate of air-cuff plethysmograms measured using the oscillometric approach. The principle of evaluating vascular endothelial function involves flow-mediated dilation. In the study conducted, blood flow in the dorsal pedis artery was first monitored while lower-limb cuff pressure was applied using the proposed system. The results showed blood flow was interrupted when the level of pressure was at least 50 mmHg higher than the subject's lower-limb systolic arterial pressure and that blood flow velocity increased after cuff release...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephan Lang, Kirsten Bruderek, Cordelia Kaspar, Benedikt Höing, Oliver Kanaan, Nina Dominas, Timon Hussain, Freya Droege, Christian Peter Eyth, Boris Hadaschik, Sven Brandau
PURPOSE: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous group of pathologically expanded myeloid cells with immunosuppressive activity. In human disease three major MDSC subpopulations can be defined as monocytic M-MDSC, granulocytic PMN-MDSC and early stage e-MDSC, which lack myeloid lineage markers of the former two subsets. It was the purpose of this study to determine and compare the immunosuppressive capacity and clinical relevance of each of these subsets in patients with solid cancer...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Brian A Scansen
There remain areas of uncertainty in optimal technique, preferred candidates, and expected outcome for small animal patients undergoing cardiac intervention. This article highlights issues within interventional cardiology that are in need of study and offers the author's opinion and experience on topics such as variants of pulmonary valve anatomy and alternatives to conventional balloon dilation for pulmonary valve stenosis, patient selection for cutting or high-pressure balloon dilation of aortic valvar or subaortic stenosis, occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus in very small dogs, ductal stenting in conditions with reduced pulmonary blood flow, and alternative considerations for vascular access and closure...
June 16, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Christine Mohn, Olav Vassend, Stein Knardahl
Background and purpose Psychophysiological factors may contribute to the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Both local orofacial and systemic responses have been investigated. However, most studies have concentrated on physiological responding during cognitive challenges, while responses during painful tasks may be highly relevant for the development of chronic pain conditions. Moreover, the relationship between experimental challenges and physiological responding may be influenced by affective responses during the experimental tasks, an issue not often considered in the literature...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Hatem Kalawy, Britt-Marie Stålnacke, Martin Fahlström, Lars Öhberg, Felix Linetsky, Håkan Alfredson
Background The presence of high blood flow in the structurally abnormal and painful regions of tendinosis, but not in the normal pain-free tendons, was recently confirmed by colour Doppler (CD) ultrasound (US). Biopsies from the regions with high blood flow demonstrated the presence of sympathetic and sensitive nerve fibres juxtapositioned to neovessels. Grey-scale US and CD are reliable methods used to evaluate structural homogeneity, thickness, and blood flow in the peripheral tendons. The aim of this study was to utilize CD to qualitatively evaluate for the presence of abnormal high blood flow in paravertebral tissues after whiplash injuries in patients with chronic neck pain...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Chao Wu, Zujin Luo, Baosen Pang, Wenyi Wang, Mingqin Deng, Rong Jin, Xirennayi Muhataer, Yafang Li, Qifeng Li, Xiaohong Yang
Background/Aims Pigeon breeder's lung (PBL) results from Th1/Th2 cell imbalance. B cells inhibit the immune activity of Th1, and EBF3 is a key B cell factor. This study explored the relationship between EBF3 and Th1/Th2 imbalance in chronic PBL cases complicated with pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Methods Twenty Uygur PBL+PF patients, 20 pigeon breeders without PBL or PF, and 20 healthy individuals without pigeon breeding history constituted the patient I, negative control, and normal control groups, respectively...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ayşe Ağbaş, Nur Canpolat, Salim Çalışkan, Alev Yılmaz, Hakan Ekmekçi, Mark Mayes, Helen Aitkenhead, Franz Schaefer, Lale Sever, Rukshana Shroff
Randomized trials in adults have shown reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality on hemodiafiltration (HDF) compared to high-flux hemodialysis (HD), but the mechanisms leading to improved outcomes are not clear. We studied biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, anti-oxidant capacity and endothelial dysfunction in 22 children (13 female, age 8-15 years). All children received HD for at least 3 months, and were then switched to HDF, keeping all dialysis related parameters and dialysis time constant...
2018: PloS One
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