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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443413/vascular-access-for-therapeutic-plasma-exchange
#1
REVIEW
Tina S Ipe, Marisa B Marques
Therapeutic plasma exchange is an apheresis modality in which plasma is separated from the blood cellular components ex vivo, discarded, and replaced with an isosmotic fluid (most commonly 5% albumin) to maintain appropriate oncotic pressure in the patient. Therapeutic plasma exchange is used in the treatment of many diseases and indications. The recent seventh edition of the American Society for Apheresis guidelines indicates approximately 72 diseases and 116 indications for which therapeutic plasma exchange may be effective...
February 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443052/intravital-microscopy-of-tumor-associated-vasculature-using-advanced-dorsal-skinfold-window-chambers-on-transgenic-fluorescent-mice
#2
Ann L B Seynhaeve, Timo L M Ten Hagen
Tumor and tumor vessel development, as well as tumor response to therapeutics, are highly dynamic biological processes. Histology provides static information and is often not sufficient for a correct interpretation. Intravital evaluation, in which a process is followed in time, provides extra and often unexpected information. With the creation of transgenic animals expressing cell-specific markers and live cell tracers, improvements to imaging equipment, and the development of several imaging chambers, intravital microscopy has become an important tool to better understand biological processes...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441350/perioperative-goal-directed-therapy-using-invasive-uncalibrated-pulse-contour-analysis
#3
Bernd Saugel, Daniel A Reuter
"Perioperative goal-directed therapy" (PGDT) aims at an optimization of basic and advanced global hemodynamic variables to maintain adequate oxygen delivery to the end-organs. PGDT protocols help to titrate fluids, vasopressors, or inotropes to hemodynamic target values. There is considerable evidence that PGDT can improve patient outcome in high-risk patients if both fluids and inotropes are administered to target hemodynamic variables reflecting blood flow. Despite this evidence, PGDT strategies aiming at an optimization of blood flow seem to be not well implemented in routine clinical care...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440719/prefrontal-gaba-levels-hippocampal-resting-perfusion-and-the-risk-of-psychosis
#4
Gemma Modinos, Fatma Şimşek, Matilda Azis, Matthijs Bossong, Ilaria Bonoldi, Carly Samson, Beverly Quinn, Jesus Perez, Matthew R Broome, Fernando Zelaya, David J Lythgoe, Oliver D Howes, James M Stone, Anthony A Grace, Paul Allen, Philip McGuire
Preclinical models propose that the onset of psychosis is associated with hippocampal hyperactivity, thought to be driven by cortical GABAergic interneuron dysfunction and disinhibition of pyramidal neurons. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that resting hippocampal perfusion is increased in subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis, but how this may be related to GABA concentrations is unknown. The present study used a multimodal neuroimaging approach to address this issue in UHR subjects. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling imaging were acquired to investigate the relationship between medial prefrontal (MPFC) GABA+ levels (including some contribution from macromolecules) and hippocampal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 36 individuals at UHR of psychosis, based on preclinical evidence that MPFC dysfunction is involved in hippocampal hyperactivity...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436001/effects-of-pulsatile-blood-flow-on-oxygenator-performance
#5
Lotte Schraven, Andreas Kaesler, Christian Flege, Rüdger Kopp, Thomas Schmitz-Rode, Ulrich Steinseifer, Jutta Arens
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is mainly used for the therapy of acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive lung disease. In the last years, the development of these systems underwent huge steps in optimization, but there are still problems with thrombus formation, clogging, and thus insufficient gas exchange. One idea of ECMO optimization is a pulsatile blood flow through the oxygenator, but this is still a controversy discussion. Analyzing available publications, it was not possible to identify a general statement about the effect of pulsatile blood flow on the gas exchange performance...
February 13, 2018: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435587/a-disease-associated-microrna-cluster-links-inflammatory-pathways-and-an-altered-composition-of-leukocyte-subsets-to-noninfectious-uveitis
#6
Fleurieke H Verhagen, Cornelis P J Bekker, Marzia Rossato, Sanne Hiddingh, Lieuwe de Vries, Abhinandan Devaprasad, Aridaman Pandit, Jeannette Ossewaarde-van Norel, Ninette Ten Dam, Maartje C A Moret-Pot, Saskia M Imhof, Joke H de Boer, Timothy R D J Radstake, Jonas J W Kuiper
Purpose: The cause of noninfectious uveitis (NIU) is poorly understood but is considered to be mediated by a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and-relatively unexplored-epigenetic factors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding small RNAs that are important epigenetic regulators implicated in pathologic signaling. Therefore, we mapped the circulating miRNA-ome of NIU patients and studied miRNA perturbations within the broader context of the immune system. Methods: We designed a strategy to robustly identify changes in the miRNA profiles of two independent cohorts totaling 54 untreated patients with active and eye-restricted disease and 26 age-matched controls...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434934/effects-of-disodium-cantharidinate-on-dendritic-cells-of-patients-with-bladder-carcinoma
#7
Guang-Hui Zang, Rui Li, Rong-Sheng Zhou, Lin Hao, Hou-Guang He, Wen-Da Zhang, Yang Dong, Cong-Hui Han
The present study explored the effects of disodium cantharidinate (DC) on the peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells of patients with bladder carcinoma. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the 15 cases of urinary bladder carcinoma of middle and advanced stage were separated, and dendritic cells were prepared. The morphological changes of dendritic cells were observed. Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression levels of CD1a and CD83 on dendritic cell surface. MTT assay was utilized to measure the proliferation ability of allogeneic lymphocyte stimulated by DC...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434277/three-dimensional-3d-tetra-culture-brain-on-chip-platform-for-organophosphate-toxicity-screening
#8
Youngmi Koo, Brian T Hawkins, Yeoheung Yun
Organophosphate-based compounds (OPs) represent a significant threat to warfighters (nerve agents) and civilian populations (pesticides). There is a pressing need to develop in vitro brain models that correlate to the in vivo brain to rapidly study OPs for neurotoxicity. Here we report on a microfluidic-based three-dimensional, four-cell tissue construct consisting of 1) a blood-brain barrier that has dynamic flow and membrane-free culture of the endothelial layer, and 2) an extracellular matrix (ECM)-embedded tissue construct with neuroblastoma, microglia, and astrocytes...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433968/dynamic-stress-computed-tomography-myocardial-perfusion-for-detecting-myocardial-ischemia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Minjie Lu, Shuli Wang, Arlene Sirajuddin, Andrew E Arai, Shihua Zhao
BACKGROUND: Comparing to SPECT and MRI, with higher temporal and spatial resolution and development of radiation dose reduction, myocardial computed tomography perfusion has emerged as a potential method for evaluation of hemodynamic myocardial ischemia. This meta-analysis systematically analyzed the performance of dynamic CT myocardial perfusion (DCTMP) to diagnose myocardial ischemia (MI) with clinically established reference methods [MR/SPECT/PET perfusion and fractional flow reserve (FFR)] as the reference standard...
February 10, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432887/role-of-brain-neuroinflammatory-factors-on-hypertension-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#10
Ennio Avolio, Teresa Pasqua, Anna Di Vito, Gilda Fazzari, Gabriella Cardillo, Raffaella Alò, Maria Carmela Cerra, Tullio Barni, Tommaso Angelone, Marcello Canonaco
It is already widely known that the different brain areas involved in blood pressure control, are highly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of this condition. Of particular concern are hypertensive and neuroinflammatory-dependent injuries that by modifying blood flow account for artery structural and functional alterations. It was thus our intention to establish if expression changes of some key brain neuroinflammatory factors like caspase-1,3, NF-kB, IL-1β and NLRP3, which are known to control blood pressure, are actively involved with inflammation regulatoryevents in a highly valuable spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432596/high-turnover-of-tissue-macrophages-contributes-to-tuberculosis-reactivation-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-rhesus-macaques
#11
Marcelo J Kuroda, Chie Sugimoto, Yanhui Cai, Kristen M Merino, Smriti Mehra, Mariluz Araínga, Chad J Roy, Cecily C Midkiff, Xavier Alvarez, Elizabeth S Didier, Deepak Kaushal
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) profoundly affect the immune system and synergistically accelerate disease progression. It is believed that CD4+ T-cell depletion by HIV is the major cause of immunodeficiency and reactivation of latent TB. Previous studies demonstrated that blood monocyte turnover concurrent with tissue macrophage death from virus infection better predicted AIDS onset than CD4+ T-cell depletion in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431520/beneficial-effects-of-acute-trans-resveratrol-supplementation-in-treated-hypertensive-patients-with-endothelial-dysfunction
#12
B C A A Marques, M Trindade, J C F Aquino, A R Cunha, R O Gismondi, M F Neves, W Oigman
Endothelial dysfunction is a surrogate marker of cardiovascular risk. Resveratrol is known to improve endothelial function in animals, however, clinical trials are limited. We hypothesized that the acute trans-resveratrol supplementation improves endothelial function in treated hypertensive patients with endothelial dysfunction. Twenty-four hypertensive patients between 45 and 65 years-old with baseline endothelial dysfunction were enrolled in a randomized, cross-over, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
February 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430274/direct-enrichment-of-pathogens-from-physiological-samples-of-high-conductivity-and-viscosity-using-h-filter-and-positive-dielectrophoresis
#13
Dongyang Cai, Qiaolian Yi, Chaohua Shen, Ying Lan, Gerald Urban, Wenbin Du
The full potential of microfluidic techniques as rapid and accurate methods for the detection of disease-causing agents and foodborne pathogens is critically limited by the complex sample preparation process, which commonly comprises the enrichment of bacterial cells to detectable levels. In this manuscript, we describe a microfluidic device which integrates H-filter desalination with positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for direct enrichment of bacterial cells from physiological samples of high conductivity and viscosity, such as cow's milk and whole human blood...
January 2018: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428948/ratio-of-immune-response-to-tumor-burden-predicts-survival-via-regulating-functions-of-lymphocytes-and-monocytes-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#14
Hongfei Ji, Xingjian Niu, Lei Yin, Yiran Wang, Lan Huang, Qijia Xuan, Liru Li, Han Zhang, Jingtong Li, Yue Yang, Weiwei An, Qingyuan Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive disease, and is the most common type of lymphoma in adults. Although significant progress in treatment has been made using chemotherapy combinations, there exist a large amount of relapse or refractory cases. Thus, effective clinical biomarkers for DLBCL are urgently needed. Our study aims to explore the predictive significance of using the immune response to tumor burden ratio [defined as the lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR)/lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels] in 184 DLBCL patients and the potential mechanism underlying the use of the LMR to tumor burden ratio in predicting patient survival...
February 2, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428931/increased-expression-of-the-innate-immune-receptor-tlr10-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-association-with-ros-mediated-oxidative-stress
#15
Sardar Sindhu, Nadeem Akhter, Shihab Kochumon, Reeby Thomas, Ajit Wilson, Steve Shenouda, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Rasheed Ahmad
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Metabolic diseases such as obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D) are known to be associated with chronic low-grade inflammation called metabolic inflammation together with an oxidative stress milieu found in the expanding adipose tissue. The innate immune Toll-like receptors (TLR) such as TLR2 and TLR4 have emerged as key players in metabolic inflammation; nonetheless, TLR10 expression in the adipose tissue and its significance in obesity/T2D remain unclear. METHODS: TLR10 gene expression was determined in the adipose tissue samples from healthy non-diabetic and T2D individuals, 13 each, using real-time RT-PCR...
January 30, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428622/targeted-increase-in-pulmonary-blood-flow-in-a-bidirectional-glenn-circulation
#16
Samuel L Casella, Aditya Kaza, Pedro Del Nido, James E Lock, Audrey Marshall
Objective In patients with a Glenn shunt and unilateral pulmonary vascular abnormalities, supplemental pulmonary blood flow may improve antegrade flow in the target lung and may permit eventual Fontan completion, while mitigating the risks of uncontrolled additional flow to the contralateral lung. We attempted this by inserting a small aortopulmonary shunt into the affected pulmonary artery and banding the central pulmonary artery. .Methods We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent this procedure from 2000-2015...
February 8, 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427702/high-brain-distribution-of-a-new-central-nervous-system-drug-candidate-despite-its-p-glycoprotein-mediated-efflux-at-the-mouse-blood-brain-barrier
#17
Camille Taccola, Sylvaine Cartot-Cotton, Delphine Valente, Pascal Barneoud, Catherine Aubert, Valérie Boutet, Fabienne Gallen, Murielle Lochus, Sophie Nicolic, Agnès Dodacki, Maria Smirnova, Salvatore Cisternino, Xavier Declèves, Fanchon Bourasset
Efficacy of drugs aimed at treating central nervous system (CNS) disorders rely partly on their ability to cross the cerebral endothelium, also called the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which constitutes the main interface modulating exchanges of compounds between the brain and blood. In this work, we used both, conventional pharmacokinetics (PK) approach and in situ brain perfusion technique to study the blood and brain PK of PKRinh, an inhibitor of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) activation, in mice...
February 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427551/quantitative-urine-test-strip-reading-for-leukocyte-esterase-and-hemoglobin-peroxidase
#18
Matthijs N Oyaert, Jonas Himpe, Marijn M Speeckaert, Veronique V Stove, Joris R Delanghe
BACKGROUND: Recently, urine test strip readers have become available for automated test strip analysis. We explored the possibilities of the Sysmex UC-3500 automated urine chemistry analyzer based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor technology with regard to accuracy of leukocyte esterase and hemoglobin peroxidase results. We studied the influence of possible confounders on these measurements. METHODS: Reflectance data of leukocyte esterase and hemoglobin peroxidase were measured using CMOS technology on the Sysmex UC-3500 automated urine chemistry analyzer...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427527/ubc-nepal-expedition-the-use-of-oral-antioxidants-does-not-alter-cerebrovascular-function-at-sea-level-or-high-altitude
#19
Alex B Hansen, Ryan L Hoiland, Nia C S Lewis, Michael M Tymko, Joshua C Tremblay, Michael Stembridge, Daniela Nowak-Flück, Howard H Carter, Damian M Bailey, Philip N Ainslie
Hypoxia is associated with an increased systemic and cerebral formation of free radicals and associated reactants that may be linked to impaired cerebral vascular function a neurological sequela. To what extent oral antioxidants prophylaxis impacts cerebrovascular function in humans throughout the course of acclimatization to the hypoxia of terrestrial high-altitude has not been examined. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of orally ingested antioxidants at clinically relevant doses (vitamin C, E, and alpha-lipoic acid) on cerebrovascular regulation at sea-level (344 m; n = 12; female n = 2 participants), and at high altitude (5050 m; n = 9; female n = 2), in a randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blinded crossover design...
February 10, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427440/investigation-of-pumping-mechanism-for-non-newtonian-blood-flow-with-ac-electrothermal-forces-in-a-microchannel-by-hybrid-boundary-element-method-and-immersed-boundary-lattice-boltzmann-method
#20
Qinlong Ren
Efficient pumping of blood flow in a microfluidic device is essential for rapid detection of bacterial bloodstream infections (BSI) using alternating current (AC) electrokinetics. Compared with AC electroosmosis (ACEO) phenomenon, the advantage of AC electrothermal (ACET) mechanism is its capability of pumping biofluids with high electrical conductivities at a relatively high AC voltage frequency. In the current work, the microfluidic pumping of non-Newtonian blood flow using ACET forces is investigated in detail by modeling its multi-physics process with hybrid boundary element method (BEM) and immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IB-LBM)...
February 10, 2018: Electrophoresis
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