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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848950/the-rectal-mucosa-and-condomless-receptive-anal-intercourse-in-hiv-negative-msm-implications-for-hiv-transmission-and-prevention
#1
C F Kelley, C S Kraft, T Jb de Man, C Duphare, H-W Lee, J Yang, K A Easley, G K Tharp, M J Mulligan, P S Sullivan, S E Bosinger, R R Amara
Most HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM), the group that accounted for 67% of new US infections in 2014, occur via exposure to the rectal mucosa. However, it is unclear how the act of condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) may alter the mucosal immune environment in HIV-negative MSM. Here, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the rectal mucosal immune environment for the phenotype and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by CD4 and CD8 T cells, global transcriptomic analyses, and the composition of microbiota in HIV-negative MSM...
November 16, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832824/genome-of-the-asian-longhorned-beetle-anoplophora-glabripennis-a-globally-significant-invasive-species-reveals-key-functional-and-evolutionary-innovations-at-the-beetle-plant-interface
#2
Duane D McKenna, Erin D Scully, Yannick Pauchet, Kelli Hoover, Roy Kirsch, Scott M Geib, Robert F Mitchell, Robert M Waterhouse, Seung-Joon Ahn, Deanna Arsala, Joshua B Benoit, Heath Blackmon, Tiffany Bledsoe, Julia H Bowsher, André Busch, Bernarda Calla, Hsu Chao, Anna K Childers, Christopher Childers, Dave J Clarke, Lorna Cohen, Jeffery P Demuth, Huyen Dinh, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Amanda Dolan, Jian J Duan, Shannon Dugan, Markus Friedrich, Karl M Glastad, Michael A D Goodisman, Stephanie Haddad, Yi Han, Daniel S T Hughes, Panagiotis Ioannidis, J Spencer Johnston, Jeffery W Jones, Leslie A Kuhn, David R Lance, Chien-Yueh Lee, Sandra L Lee, Han Lin, Jeremy A Lynch, Armin P Moczek, Shwetha C Murali, Donna M Muzny, David R Nelson, Subba R Palli, Kristen A Panfilio, Dan Pers, Monica F Poelchau, Honghu Quan, Jiaxin Qu, Ann M Ray, Joseph P Rinehart, Hugh M Robertson, Richard Roehrdanz, Andrew J Rosendale, Seunggwan Shin, Christian Silva, Alex S Torson, Iris M Vargas Jentzsch, John H Werren, Kim C Worley, George Yocum, Evgeny M Zdobnov, Richard A Gibbs, Stephen Richards
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the genomic basis and evolution of wood-feeding in beetles. We undertook genome sequencing and annotation, gene expression assays, studies of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and other functional and comparative studies of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, a globally significant invasive species capable of inflicting severe feeding damage on many important tree species. Complementary studies of genes encoding enzymes involved in digestion of woody plant tissues or detoxification of plant allelochemicals were undertaken with the genomes of 14 additional insects, including the newly sequenced emerald ash borer and bull-headed dung beetle...
November 11, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798177/synaptic-contributions-to-receptive-field-structure-and-response-properties-in-the-rodent-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-of-the-thalamus
#3
Vandana Suresh, Ulaş M Çiftçioğlu, Xin Wang, Brittany M Lala, Kimberly R Ding, William A Smith, Friedrich T Sommer, Judith A Hirsch
: Comparative physiological and anatomical studies have greatly advanced our understanding of sensory systems. Many lines of evidence show that the murine lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has unique attributes, compared with other species such as cat and monkey. For example, in rodent, thalamic receptive field structure is markedly diverse, and many cells are sensitive to stimulus orientation and direction. To explore shared and different strategies of synaptic integration across species, we made whole-cell recordings in vivo from the murine LGN during the presentation of visual stimuli, analyzed the results with different computational approaches, and compared our findings with those from cat...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727130/recombinant-human-lactoferrin-modulates-human-pbmc-derived-macrophage-responses-to-bcg-and-lps
#4
Shen-An Hwang, Marian L Kruzel, Jeffrey K Actor
Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein found in mammalian mucosal secretions and granules of neutrophils, possesses several immune modulatory properties. Published reports indicate that lactoferrin enhances the efficacy of the tuberculosis vaccine, BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin), both by increasing macrophage and dendritic cell ability to stimulate receptive T cells and by modulating the inflammatory response. This report is the first to demonstrate the effects of a recombinant human lactoferrin (10 μg/mL) on human PBMC derived CD14(+) and CD16(+) macrophages stimulated with a strong (LPS, 10 ng/mL) or weaker (BCG, MOI 1:1) stimulator of inflammation...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717732/evidence-that-the-endometrial-microbiota-has-an-effect-on-implantation-success-or-failure
#5
Inmaculada Moreno, Francisco M Codoñer, Felipe Vilella, Diana Valbuena, Juan F Martinez-Blanch, Jorge Jimenez-Almazán, Roberto Alonso, Pilar Alamá, Jose Remohí, Antonio Pellicer, Daniel Ramon, Carlos Simon
BACKGROUND: Bacterial cells in the human body account for 1-3% of total body weight and are at least equal in number to human cells. Recent research has focused on understanding how the different bacterial communities in the body (eg, gut, respiratory, skin, and vaginal microbiomes) predispose to health and disease. The microbiota of the reproductive tract has been inferred from the vaginal bacterial communities, and the uterus has been classically considered a sterile cavity. However, while the vaginal microbiota has been investigated in depth, there is a paucity of consistent data regarding the existence of an endometrial microbiota and its possible impact in reproductive function...
December 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619769/mir-196a-overexpression-activates-the-mek-erk-signal-and-represses-the-progesterone-receptor-and-decidualization-in-eutopic-endometrium-from-women-with-endometriosis
#6
Min Zhou, Jing Fu, Li Xiao, Shiyuan Yang, Yong Song, Xianghui Zhang, Xue Feng, Huaqin Sun, Wenming Xu, Wei Huang
STUDY QUESTION: Do microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to aberrant progesterone receptor (PGR) expression in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: miR-196a upregulates MEK/ERK signalling, mediating a downregulation of PGR expression in the eutopic endometrium of women with minimal or mild endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Implantation failure is strongly suggested as an underlying cause for the observed infertility in minimal or mild endometriosis...
November 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606670/leftya-activates-the-epithelial-na-channel-enac-in-endometrial-cells-via-serum-and-glucocorticoid-inducible-kinase-sgk1
#7
Madhuri S Salker, Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Nour Alowayed, Ni Zeng, Anja T Umbach, Zoe Webster, Yogesh Singh, Jan J Brosens, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND: Serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase (SGK1) regulates several ion channels, including amiloride sensitive epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). SGK1 and ENaC in the luminal endometrium epithelium, are critically involved in embryo implantation, although little is known about their regulation. The present study explored whether SGK1 and ENaC are modulated by LEFTYA, a negative regulator of uterine receptivity. METHODS: Expression levels were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, ENaC channel activity by whole cell patch clamp and transepithelial current by Ussing chamber experiments...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511019/cell-specific-cholinergic-modulation-of-excitability-of-layer-5b-principal-neurons-in-mouse-auditory-cortex
#8
Ankur Joshi, Bopanna I Kalappa, Charles T Anderson, Thanos Tzounopoulos
UNLABELLED: The neuromodulator acetylcholine (ACh) is crucial for several cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, and learning and memory. Whereas, in most cases, the cellular circuits or the specific neurons via which ACh exerts its cognitive effects remain unknown, it is known that auditory cortex (AC) neurons projecting from layer 5B (L5B) to the inferior colliculus, corticocollicular neurons, are required for cholinergic-mediated relearning of sound localization after occlusion of one ear...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507772/localization-of-glutamatergic-gabaergic-and-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-african-cichlid-fish-astatotilapia-burtoni
#9
Karen P Maruska, Julie M Butler, Karen E Field, Danielle T Porter
Neural communication depends on release and reception of different neurotransmitters within complex circuits that ultimately mediate basic biological functions. We mapped the distribution of glutamatergic, GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the brain of the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni using in situ hybridization to label vesicular glutamate transporters (vglut1, vglut2.1, vglut3), glutamate decarboxylases (gad1, gad2), and choline acetyltransferase (chat). Cells expressing the glutamatergic markers vgluts 1-3 show primarily non-overlapping distribution patterns, with the most widespread expression observed for vglut2...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382130/correction-differential-t-cell-cytokine-receptivity-and-not-signal-quality-distinguishes-il-6-and-il-10-signaling-during-th17-differentiation
#10
Lindsay L Jones, Rajshekhar Alli, Bofeng Li, Terrence L Geiger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303404/chronic-inflammation-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells
#11
REVIEW
Nathan S Fay, Emily C Larson, Julie M Jameson
The epithelial tissues of the skin, lungs, reproductive tract, and intestines are the largest physical barriers the body has to protect against infection. Epithelial tissues are woven with a matrix of immune cells programed to mobilize the host innate and adaptive immune responses. Included among these immune cells are gamma delta T lymphocytes (γδ T cells) that are unique in their T cell receptor usage, location, and functions in the body. Stress reception by γδ T cells as a result of traumatic epithelial injury, malignancy, and/or infection induces γδ T cell activation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301293/glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-proteins-as-regulators-of-cortical-cytoskeleton
#12
REVIEW
G V Sharonov, M N Balatskaya, V A Tkachuk
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-AP) are important players in reception and signal transduction, cell adhesion, guidance, formation of immune synapses, and endocytosis. At that, a particular GPI-AP can have different activities depending on a ligand. It is known that GPI-AP oligomer creates a lipid raft in its base on plasma membrane, which serves as a signaling platform for binding and activation of src-family kinases. Yet, this does not explain different activities of GPI-APs. Meanwhile, it has been shown that short-lived actomyosin complexes are bound to GPI-APs through lipid rafts...
June 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262222/modulating-the-endometrial-epithelial-proteome-and-secretome-in-preparation-for-pregnancy-the-role-of-ovarian-steroid-and-pregnancy-hormones
#13
David W Greening, Hong P T Nguyen, Jemma Evans, Richard J Simpson, Lois A Salamonsen
UNLABELLED: Dialogue between an appropriately developed embryo and hormonally-primed endometrium is essential to achieve implantation and establish pregnancy. Importantly, the point-of-first-contact between the embryo and the maternal endometrium occurs at the endometrial luminal epithelium (LE). Implantation events occur within the uterine cavity microenvironment regulated by local factors. Defects in embryo-endometrial communication likely underlie unexplained infertility; enhanced knowledge of this communication, specifically at initial maternal-fetal contact may reveal targets to improve fertility...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27203421/biophysical-network-modelling-of-the-dlgn-circuit-different-effects-of-triadic-and-axonal-inhibition-on-visual-responses-of-relay-cells
#14
Thomas Heiberg, Espen Hagen, Geir Halnes, Gaute T Einevoll
Despite its prominent placement between the retina and primary visual cortex in the early visual pathway, the role of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) in molding and regulating the visual signals entering the brain is still poorly understood. A striking feature of the dLGN circuit is that relay cells (RCs) and interneurons (INs) form so-called triadic synapses, where an IN dendritic terminal can be simultaneously postsynaptic to a retinal ganglion cell (GC) input and presynaptic to an RC dendrite, allowing for so-called triadic inhibition...
May 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27156350/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-endometrial-markers
#15
Terhi T Piltonen
Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) present with several endometrial abnormalities possibly explaining some of the adverse endometrium-related outcomes in these women. PCOS and an increased miscarriage rate have been suggested to coincide, but the results are conflicting. Recent studies have also shown increased risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and premature delivery that may be related to altered decidualization/placentation in affected women. In the long run, PCOS per se is associated with the occurrence of endometrial cancer (EC), with obesity aggravating the risk...
April 1, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27122490/intrauterine-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-infusion-in-oocyte-donors-promotes-endometrial-synchrony-and-induction-of-early-decidual-markers-for-stromal-survival-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Michael R Strug, Renwei Su, James E Young, William G Dodds, Valerie I Shavell, Patricia Díaz-Gimeno, Maria Ruíz-Alonso, Carlos Simón, Bruce A Lessey, Richard E Leach, Asgerally T Fazleabas
STUDY QUESTION: Does a single intrauterine infusion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at the time corresponding to a Day 3 embryo transfer in oocyte donors induce favorable molecular changes in the endometrium for embryo implantation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Intrauterine hCG was associated with endometrial synchronization between endometrial glands and stroma following ovarian stimulation and the induction of early decidual markers associated with stromal cell survival...
July 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044077/pdgf-ab-and-5-azacytidine-induce-conversion-of-somatic-cells-into-tissue-regenerative-multipotent-stem-cells
#17
Vashe Chandrakanthan, Avani Yeola, Jair C Kwan, Rema A Oliver, Qiao Qiao, Young Chan Kang, Peter Zarzour, Dominik Beck, Lies Boelen, Ashwin Unnikrishnan, Jeanette E Villanueva, Andrea C Nunez, Kathy Knezevic, Cintia Palu, Rabab Nasrallah, Michael Carnell, Alex Macmillan, Renee Whan, Yan Yu, Philip Hardy, Shane T Grey, Amadeus Gladbach, Fabien Delerue, Lars Ittner, Ralph Mobbs, Carl R Walkley, Louise E Purton, Robyn L Ward, Jason W H Wong, Luke B Hesson, William Walsh, John E Pimanda
Current approaches in tissue engineering are geared toward generating tissue-specific stem cells. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of tissues, this approach has its limitations. An alternate approach is to induce terminally differentiated cells to dedifferentiate into multipotent proliferative cells with the capacity to regenerate all components of a damaged tissue, a phenomenon used by salamanders to regenerate limbs. 5-Azacytidine (AZA) is a nucleoside analog that is used to treat preleukemic and leukemic blood disorders...
April 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043408/the-intracellular-pathway-for-the-presentation-of-vitamin-b-related-antigens-by-the-antigen-presenting-molecule-mr1
#18
Hamish E G McWilliam, Sidonia B G Eckle, Alex Theodossis, Ligong Liu, Zhenjun Chen, Jacinta M Wubben, David P Fairlie, Richard A Strugnell, Justine D Mintern, James McCluskey, Jamie Rossjohn, Jose A Villadangos
The antigen-presenting molecule MR1 presents vitamin B-related antigens (VitB antigens) to mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells through an uncharacterized pathway. We show that MR1, unlike other antigen-presenting molecules, does not constitutively present self-ligands. In the steady state it accumulates in a ligand-receptive conformation within the endoplasmic reticulum. VitB antigens reach this location and form a Schiff base with MR1, triggering a 'molecular switch' that allows MR1-VitB antigen complexes to traffic to the plasma membrane...
May 2016: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030751/multiplexed-population-coding-of-stimulus-properties-by-leech-mechanosensory-cells
#19
Friederice Pirschel, Jutta Kretzberg
UNLABELLED: Sensory coding has long been discussed in terms of a dichotomy between spike timing and rate coding. However, recent studies found that in primate mechanoperception and other sensory systems, spike rates and timing of cell populations complement each other. They simultaneously carry information about different stimulus properties in a multiplexed way. Here, we present evidence for multiplexed encoding of tactile skin stimulation in the tiny population of leech mechanoreceptors, consisting of only 10 cells of two types with overlapping receptive fields...
March 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26983279/-the-regulating-effect-of-dipeptides-on-cell-proliferation-in-nerve-tissue-culture-in-mammals-and-on-associative-learning-in-insects
#20
N I Chalisova, T G Zachepilo, N G Kamyshev, N G Lopatina
The effect of dipeptides AspPro and AspSer and of their composing amino acids (asparagine acid--Asp, proline--Pro, serin--Ser) on the proliferative activity in the explants of cortex and subcortical structures of the rat brain and on the functional activity of CNS of the honeybee was studied. The square index defined as a proportion of the whole explant square to the square of its central zone was determined. The number of bees responded with the conditional reaction (proboscis extension in the direction to aromatized solution) after 1 min (short-term memory) and 180 min (long-term memory) was detected after single learning procedure...
November 2015: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
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