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T cell recepter

Shen-An Hwang, Marian L Kruzel, Jeffrey K Actor
Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein found in mammalian mucosal secretions and granules of neutrophils, possesses several immune modulatory properties. Published reports indicate that lactoferrin enhances the efficacy of the tuberculosis vaccine, BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin), both by increasing macrophage and dendritic cell ability to stimulate receptive T cells and by modulating the inflammatory response. This report is the first to demonstrate the effects of a recombinant human lactoferrin (10 μg/mL) on human PBMC derived CD14(+) and CD16(+) macrophages stimulated with a strong (LPS, 10 ng/mL) or weaker (BCG, MOI 1:1) stimulator of inflammation...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Inmaculada Moreno, Francisco M Codoñer, Felipe Vilella, Diana Valbuena, Juan F Martinez-Blanch, Jorge Jimenez-Almazán, Roberto Alonso, Pilar Alamá, Jose Remohí, Antonio Pellicer, Daniel Ramon, Carlos Simon
BACKGROUND: Bacterial cells in the human body account for 1-3% of total body weight and are at least equal in number to human cells. Recent research has focused on understanding how the different bacterial communities in the body (eg, gut, respiratory, skin, and vaginal microbiomes) predispose to health and disease. The microbiota of the reproductive tract has been inferred from the vaginal bacterial communities, and the uterus has been classically considered a sterile cavity. However, while the vaginal microbiota has been investigated in depth, there is a paucity of consistent data regarding the existence of an endometrial microbiota and its possible impact in reproductive function...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Min Zhou, Jing Fu, Li Xiao, Shiyuan Yang, Yong Song, Xianghui Zhang, Xue Feng, Huaqin Sun, Wenming Xu, Wei Huang
STUDY QUESTION: Do microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to aberrant progesterone receptor (PGR) expression in the eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: miR-196a upregulates MEK/ERK signalling, mediating a downregulation of PGR expression in the eutopic endometrium of women with minimal or mild endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Implantation failure is strongly suggested as an underlying cause for the observed infertility in minimal or mild endometriosis...
September 12, 2016: Human Reproduction
Madhuri S Salker, Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Nour Alowayed, Ni Zeng, Anja T Umbach, Zoe Webster, Yogesh Singh, Jan J Brosens, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND: Serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase (SGK1) regulates several ion channels, including amiloride sensitive epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). SGK1 and ENaC in the luminal endometrium epithelium, are critically involved in embryo implantation, although little is known about their regulation. The present study explored whether SGK1 and ENaC are modulated by LEFTYA, a negative regulator of uterine receptivity. METHODS: Expression levels were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, ENaC channel activity by whole cell patch clamp and transepithelial current by Ussing chamber experiments...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ankur Joshi, Bopanna I Kalappa, Charles T Anderson, Thanos Tzounopoulos
UNLABELLED: The neuromodulator acetylcholine (ACh) is crucial for several cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, and learning and memory. Whereas, in most cases, the cellular circuits or the specific neurons via which ACh exerts its cognitive effects remain unknown, it is known that auditory cortex (AC) neurons projecting from layer 5B (L5B) to the inferior colliculus, corticocollicular neurons, are required for cholinergic-mediated relearning of sound localization after occlusion of one ear...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Karen P Maruska, Julie M Butler, Karen E Field, Danielle T Porter
Neural communication depends on release and reception of different neurotransmitters within complex circuits that ultimately mediate basic biological functions. We mapped the distribution of glutamatergic, GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the brain of the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni using in situ hybridization to label vesicular glutamate transporters (vglut1, vglut2.1, vglut3), glutamate decarboxylases (gad1, gad2), and choline acetyltransferase (chat). Cells expressing the glutamatergic markers vgluts 1-3 show primarily non-overlapping distribution patterns, with the most widespread expression observed for vglut2...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Lindsay L Jones, Rajshekhar Alli, Bofeng Li, Terrence L Geiger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Nathan S Fay, Emily C Larson, Julie M Jameson
The epithelial tissues of the skin, lungs, reproductive tract, and intestines are the largest physical barriers the body has to protect against infection. Epithelial tissues are woven with a matrix of immune cells programed to mobilize the host innate and adaptive immune responses. Included among these immune cells are gamma delta T lymphocytes (γδ T cells) that are unique in their T cell receptor usage, location, and functions in the body. Stress reception by γδ T cells as a result of traumatic epithelial injury, malignancy, and/or infection induces γδ T cell activation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
G V Sharonov, M N Balatskaya, V A Tkachuk
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-AP) are important players in reception and signal transduction, cell adhesion, guidance, formation of immune synapses, and endocytosis. At that, a particular GPI-AP can have different activities depending on a ligand. It is known that GPI-AP oligomer creates a lipid raft in its base on plasma membrane, which serves as a signaling platform for binding and activation of src-family kinases. Yet, this does not explain different activities of GPI-APs. Meanwhile, it has been shown that short-lived actomyosin complexes are bound to GPI-APs through lipid rafts...
June 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
David W Greening, Hong P T Nguyen, Jemma Evans, Richard J Simpson, Lois A Salamonsen
UNLABELLED: Dialogue between an appropriately developed embryo and hormonally-primed endometrium is essential to achieve implantation and establish pregnancy. Importantly, the point-of-first-contact between the embryo and the maternal endometrium occurs at the endometrial luminal epithelium (LE). Implantation events occur within the uterine cavity microenvironment regulated by local factors. Defects in embryo-endometrial communication likely underlie unexplained infertility; enhanced knowledge of this communication, specifically at initial maternal-fetal contact may reveal targets to improve fertility...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Thomas Heiberg, Espen Hagen, Geir Halnes, Gaute T Einevoll
Despite its prominent placement between the retina and primary visual cortex in the early visual pathway, the role of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) in molding and regulating the visual signals entering the brain is still poorly understood. A striking feature of the dLGN circuit is that relay cells (RCs) and interneurons (INs) form so-called triadic synapses, where an IN dendritic terminal can be simultaneously postsynaptic to a retinal ganglion cell (GC) input and presynaptic to an RC dendrite, allowing for so-called triadic inhibition...
May 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Terhi T Piltonen
Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) present with several endometrial abnormalities possibly explaining some of the adverse endometrium-related outcomes in these women. PCOS and an increased miscarriage rate have been suggested to coincide, but the results are conflicting. Recent studies have also shown increased risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and premature delivery that may be related to altered decidualization/placentation in affected women. In the long run, PCOS per se is associated with the occurrence of endometrial cancer (EC), with obesity aggravating the risk...
April 1, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Michael R Strug, Renwei Su, James E Young, William G Dodds, Valerie I Shavell, Patricia Díaz-Gimeno, Maria Ruíz-Alonso, Carlos Simón, Bruce A Lessey, Richard E Leach, Asgerally T Fazleabas
STUDY QUESTION: Does a single intrauterine infusion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at the time corresponding to a Day 3 embryo transfer in oocyte donors induce favorable molecular changes in the endometrium for embryo implantation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Intrauterine hCG was associated with endometrial synchronization between endometrial glands and stroma following ovarian stimulation and the induction of early decidual markers associated with stromal cell survival...
July 2016: Human Reproduction
Vashe Chandrakanthan, Avani Yeola, Jair C Kwan, Rema A Oliver, Qiao Qiao, Young Chan Kang, Peter Zarzour, Dominik Beck, Lies Boelen, Ashwin Unnikrishnan, Jeanette E Villanueva, Andrea C Nunez, Kathy Knezevic, Cintia Palu, Rabab Nasrallah, Michael Carnell, Alex Macmillan, Renee Whan, Yan Yu, Philip Hardy, Shane T Grey, Amadeus Gladbach, Fabien Delerue, Lars Ittner, Ralph Mobbs, Carl R Walkley, Louise E Purton, Robyn L Ward, Jason W H Wong, Luke B Hesson, William Walsh, John E Pimanda
Current approaches in tissue engineering are geared toward generating tissue-specific stem cells. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of tissues, this approach has its limitations. An alternate approach is to induce terminally differentiated cells to dedifferentiate into multipotent proliferative cells with the capacity to regenerate all components of a damaged tissue, a phenomenon used by salamanders to regenerate limbs. 5-Azacytidine (AZA) is a nucleoside analog that is used to treat preleukemic and leukemic blood disorders...
April 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hamish E G McWilliam, Sidonia B G Eckle, Alex Theodossis, Ligong Liu, Zhenjun Chen, Jacinta M Wubben, David P Fairlie, Richard A Strugnell, Justine D Mintern, James McCluskey, Jamie Rossjohn, Jose A Villadangos
The antigen-presenting molecule MR1 presents vitamin B-related antigens (VitB antigens) to mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells through an uncharacterized pathway. We show that MR1, unlike other antigen-presenting molecules, does not constitutively present self-ligands. In the steady state it accumulates in a ligand-receptive conformation within the endoplasmic reticulum. VitB antigens reach this location and form a Schiff base with MR1, triggering a 'molecular switch' that allows MR1-VitB antigen complexes to traffic to the plasma membrane...
May 2016: Nature Immunology
Friederice Pirschel, Jutta Kretzberg
UNLABELLED: Sensory coding has long been discussed in terms of a dichotomy between spike timing and rate coding. However, recent studies found that in primate mechanoperception and other sensory systems, spike rates and timing of cell populations complement each other. They simultaneously carry information about different stimulus properties in a multiplexed way. Here, we present evidence for multiplexed encoding of tactile skin stimulation in the tiny population of leech mechanoreceptors, consisting of only 10 cells of two types with overlapping receptive fields...
March 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
N I Chalisova, T G Zachepilo, N G Kamyshev, N G Lopatina
The effect of dipeptides AspPro and AspSer and of their composing amino acids (asparagine acid--Asp, proline--Pro, serin--Ser) on the proliferative activity in the explants of cortex and subcortical structures of the rat brain and on the functional activity of CNS of the honeybee was studied. The square index defined as a proportion of the whole explant square to the square of its central zone was determined. The number of bees responded with the conditional reaction (proboscis extension in the direction to aromatized solution) after 1 min (short-term memory) and 180 min (long-term memory) was detected after single learning procedure...
November 2015: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
Manipriya Ravindran, Prakash Amborium, B Umamaheswari, Gokul Ramani, Binu Ninan
BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures are a common manifestation of brain dysfunction. Neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has rapidly become the study of choice for the evaluation of central nervous systems disorders in newborns. According to a study conducted in Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, diffusion Restriction (DR) changes in the MRI is a good indicator of cell dysfunction (reversible or irreversible) within one week of insult. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to find the association of DR changes in MRI of brain for neonatal seizures with long term neurodevelopment outcome...
October 2015: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Lindsay L Jones, Rajshekhar Alli, Bofeng Li, Terrence L Geiger
How a large number of cytokines differentially signal through a small number of signal transduction pathways is not well resolved. This is particularly true for IL-6 and IL-10, which act primarily through STAT3 yet induce dissimilar transcriptional programs leading alternatively to pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. Kinetic differences in signaling, sustained to IL-10 and transient to IL-6, are critical to this in macrophages. T cells are also key targets of IL-6 and IL-10, yet how differential signaling in these cells leads to divergent cellular fates is unclear...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Guilherme M Xavier, Maisa Seppala, William Barrell, Anahid A Birjandi, Finn Geoghegan, Martyn T Cobourne
The Hedgehog signalling pathway plays a fundamental role in orchestrating normal craniofacial development in vertebrates. In particular, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is produced in three key domains during the early formation of the head; neuroectoderm of the ventral forebrain, facial ectoderm and the pharyngeal endoderm; with signal transduction evident in both ectodermal and mesenchymal tissue compartments. Shh signalling from the prechordal plate and ventral midline of the diencephalon is required for appropriate division of the eyefield and forebrain, with mutation in a number of pathway components associated with Holoprosencephaly, a clinically heterogeneous developmental defect characterized by a failure of the early forebrain vesicle to divide into distinct halves...
July 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
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