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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615555/imaging-neuronal-activity-in-the-optic-tectum-of-late-stage-larval-zebrafish
#1
Katharina Bergmann, Paola Meza Santoscoy, Konstantinos Lygdas, Yulia Nikolaeva, Ryan B MacDonald, Vincent T Cunliffe, Anton Nikolaev
The zebrafish is an established model to study the development and function of visual neuronal circuits in vivo, largely due to their optical accessibility at embryonic and larval stages. In the past decade multiple experimental paradigms have been developed to study visually-driven behaviours, particularly those regulated by the optic tectum, the main visual centre in lower vertebrates. With few exceptions these techniques are limited to young larvae (7-9 days post-fertilisation, dpf). However, many forms of visually-driven behaviour, such as shoaling, emerge at later developmental stages...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447367/endometrial-natural-killer-nk-cells-reveal-a-tissue-specific-receptor-repertoire
#2
D Feyaerts, T Kuret, B van Cranenbroek, S van der Zeeuw-Hingrez, O W H van der Heijden, A van der Meer, I Joosten, R G van der Molen
STUDY QUESTION: Is the natural killer (NK) cell receptor repertoire of endometrial NK (eNK) cells tissue-specific? SUMMARY ANSWER: The NK cell receptor (NKR) expression profile in pre-pregnancy endometrium appears to have a unique tissue-specific phenotype, different from that found in NK cells in peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are finely tuned towards the reception of an allogeneic fetus. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: NK cells are important for successful pregnancy...
February 13, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419567/recent-methamphetamine-use-is-associated-with-increased-rectal-mucosal-inflammatory-cytokines-regardless-of-hiv-1-serostatus
#3
Jennifer A Fulcher, Steven Shoptaw, Solomon B Makgoeng, Julie Elliott, F Javier Ibarrondo, Amy Ragsdale, Ron Brookmeyer, Peter A Anton, Pamina M Gorbach
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use increases the risk of HIV-1 infection among seronegative users, and can exacerbate disease progression in HIV-positive users. The biological mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. In this cross-sectional pilot study, we examine the associations between recent methamphetamine use and inflammation in the rectal mucosa and peripheral blood compartments in HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: HIV-seronegative and seropositive MSM participants were enrolled (N=24)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397924/dehydroepiandrosterone-enhances-decidualization-in-women-of-advanced-reproductive-age
#4
Douglas A Gibson, Ioannis Simitsidellis, Olympia Kelepouri, Hilary O D Critchley, Philippa T K Saunders
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the androgen precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells isolated from women of advanced reproductive age. DESIGN: In vitro study. SETTING: University research institute. PATIENT(S): Proliferative phase primary human endometrial stromal fibroblasts (hESFs) were isolated from women of advanced reproductive age (n = 16; mean age, 44...
February 1, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377888/biophysical-network-modeling-of-the-dlgn-circuit-effects-of-cortical-feedback-on-spatial-response-properties-of-relay-cells
#5
Pablo Martínez-Cañada, Milad Hobbi Mobarhan, Geir Halnes, Marianne Fyhn, Christian Morillas, Francisco Pelayo, Gaute T Einevoll
Despite half-a-century of research since the seminal work of Hubel and Wiesel, the role of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) in shaping the visual signals is not properly understood. Placed on route from retina to primary visual cortex in the early visual pathway, a striking feature of the dLGN circuit is that both the relay cells (RCs) and interneurons (INs) not only receive feedforward input from retinal ganglion cells, but also a prominent feedback from cells in layer 6 of visual cortex. This feedback has been proposed to affect synchronicity and other temporal properties of the RC firing...
January 29, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374060/s-glutathionylation-of-estrogen-receptor-alpha-affects-dendritic-cell-function
#6
Jie Zhang, Zhi-Wei Ye, Wei Chen, Yefim Manevich, Shikhar Mehrotra, Lauren E Ball, Yvonne M Janssen-Heininger, Kenneth D Tew, Danyelle M Townsend
Glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP) is a thiolase that catalyzes the addition of glutathione (GSH) to receptive cysteines in target proteins, producing an S-glutathionylated residue. Accordingly, previous studies have reported that S-glutathionylation is constitutively decreased in cells from mice lacking GSTP (Gstp1/p2-/-). Here, we found that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDDC) from Gstp1/p2-/- mice have proliferation rates that are greater than those in their WT counterparts (Gstp1/p2+/+). Moreover, Gstp1/p2-/- BMDCC had increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and decreased GSH:glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratios...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370409/does-the-endometrial-gene-expression-of-fertile-women-vary-within-and-between-cycles
#7
Gloria E Evans, Gregory T M Phillipson, Peter H Sykes, Les A McNoe, Cristin G Print, John J Evans
STUDY QUESTION: Does gene expression of putative endometrial implantation markers vary in expression between menstrual cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER: In fertile women the expression of certain genes exhibits a pattern of stable regulation.which is not affected even when sampled twice in one cycle. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Successful implantation occurs in a minority of IVF embryo transfers. In contrast to knowledge regarding the ovulatory process, there is a sparse understanding of endometrial genes critical to implantation...
January 23, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326273/spatial-representations-of-self-and-other-in-the-hippocampus
#8
Teruko Danjo, Taro Toyoizumi, Shigeyoshi Fujisawa
An animal's awareness of its location in space depends on the activity of place cells in the hippocampus. How the brain encodes the spatial position of others has not yet been identified. We investigated neuronal representations of other animals' locations in the dorsal CA1 region of the hippocampus with an observational T-maze task in which one rat was required to observe another rat's trajectory to successfully retrieve a reward. Information reflecting the spatial location of both the self and the other was jointly and discretely encoded by CA1 pyramidal cells in the observer rat...
January 12, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315421/development-of-a-new-comprehensive-and-reliable-endometrial-receptivity-map-er-map-er-grade-based-on-rt-qpcr-gene-expression-analysis
#9
M Enciso, J P Carrascosa, J Sarasa, P A Martínez-Ortiz, S Munné, J A Horcajadas, J Aizpurua
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to determine the receptivity status of an endometrium by combined quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) expression analysis of genes involved in endometrial proliferation and immunity? SUMMARY ANSWER: The new ER Map®/ER Grade® test can predict endometrial receptivity status by RT-qPCR using a new panel of genes involved in endometrial proliferation and the maternal immune response associated to embryonic implantation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The human endometrium reaches a receptive status adequate for embryonic implantation around Days 19-21 of the menstrual cycle...
February 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288426/high-glucose-levels-impact-visual-response-properties-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-c57-mice-an-in-vitro-physiological-study
#10
Yuan Zhou, Chunxia Xiao, Mingliang Pu
This study investigated visual response properties of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) under high glucose levels. Extracellular single-unit responses of RGCs from mouse retinas were recorded. And the eyecup was prepared as a flat mount in a recording chamber and superfused with Ames medium. The averaged RF size of the ON RGCs (34.1±2.9, n=14) was significantly smaller than the OFF RGCs under the HG (49.3±0.3, n=12) (P<0.0001) conditions. The same reduction pattern was also observed in the osmotic control group (HM) between ON and OFF RGCs (P<0...
December 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283386/the-abrogation-of-phosphorylation-plays-a-relevant-role-in-the-ccr5-signalosome-formation-with-natural-antibodies-to-ccr5
#11
Assunta Venuti, Claudia Pastori, Gabriel Siracusano, Rosamaria Pennisi, Agostino Riva, Massimo Tommasino, Maria Teresa Sciortino, Lucia Lopalco
The exposure to CCR5 (CC chemokine receptor 5) specific natural antibodies in vitro produces a Class B β-arrestin2-dependent CCR5 retention with the aid of ERK1, due to the formation of a CCR5 signalosome, which remains stable for at least 48 h. Considering that β-arrestins and MAPKs are receptive to environmental signals, their signal complexes could be one of the key junction for GPCRs internalization related signal transduction. Here, we demonstrate that, in T cells, the phosphorylation status of either CCR5 receptor or ERK1 protein is necessary to drive the internalized receptor into the early endosomes, forming the CCR5 signalosome...
December 28, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243855/non-invasive-placentation-in-the-marsupials-macropus-eugenii-macropodidae-and-trichosurus-vulpecula-phalangeridae-involves-redistribution-of-uterine-desmoglein-2
#12
Melanie K Laird, Hanon McShea, Christopher R Murphy, Bronwyn M McAllan, Geoff Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree, Michael B Thompson
In mammalian pregnancy, the uterus is remodeled to become receptive to embryonic implantation. Since non-invasive placentation in marsupials is likely derived from invasive placentation, and is underpinned by intra-uterine conflict between mother and embryo, species with non-invasive placentation may employ a variety of molecular mechanisms to maintain an intact uterine epithelium and to prevent embryonic invasion. Identifying such modifications to the uterine epithelium of marsupial species with non-invasive placentation is key to understanding how conflict is mediated during pregnancy in different mammalian groups...
January 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236385/lipoxygenases-and-their-metabolites-in-formation-of-plant-stress-tolerance
#13
REVIEW
L M Babenko, M M Shcherbatiuk, T D Skaterna, I V Kosakivska
The review focuses on the analysis of new information concerning molecular enzymology of lipoxygenases – proteins involved in lipid peroxidation and found in animals and plants. Modern concept of structural features, catalytic characteristics and functions of lipoxygenase family enzymes as well as products of their catalytic activity in plants have been discussed and summarized. Issues of enzyme localization in plant cells and tissues, evolution and distribution of lipoxygenases, involvement in production of signaling substances involved in formation of adaptation response to abiotic and biotic stress factors and in regulation of lipoxygenase signal system activity are highlighted...
January 2017: Ukrainian Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211874/prevalence-incidence-and-clearance-of-anal-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-infection-among-hiv-infected-men-in-the-sun-study
#14
Pragna Patel, Tim Bush, Erna Milunka Kojic, Lois Conley, Elizabeth R Unger, Teresa M Darragh, Keith Henry, John Hammer, Gerome Escota, Joel M Palefsky, John T Brooks
Background: The natural history of anal human papilloma virus (HPV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men is unknown. Methods: Annually, from 2004 to 2012, we examined baseline prevalence, incidence, and clearance of anal HPV infection at 48 months, and associated factors among HIV-infected men. Results: We examined 403 men who have sex with men (MSM) and 96 men who have sex with women (MSW) (median age 42 years for both, 78% versus 81% prescribed cART, median CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count 454 versus 379 cells/mm3, and 74% versus 75% had undetectable viral load, respectively)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073617/preimplantation-factor-pif-promotes-hla-g-e-f-c-expression-in-jeg-3-choriocarcinoma-cells-and-endogenous-progesterone-activity
#15
Miya Soukaina Hakam, Jose Maria Miranda-Sayago, Soren Hayrabedyan, Krassimira Todorova, Patrick Simon Spencer, Asma Jabeen, Eytan R Barnea, Nelson Fernandez
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pregnancy success requires mandatory maternal tolerance of the semi/ allogeneic embryo involving embryo-derived signals. Expression levels of PreImplantation Factor (PIF), a novel peptide secreted by viable embryos, correlate with embryo development, and its early detection in circulation correlates with a favourable pregnancy outcome. PIF enhances endometrial receptivity to promote embryo implantation. Via the p53 pathway, it increases trophoblast invasion, improving cell survival / immune privilege...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025991/crystal-structure-of-a-tapbpr-mhc-i-complex-reveals-the-mechanism-of-peptide-editing-in-antigen-presentation
#16
Jiansheng Jiang, Kannan Natarajan, Lisa F Boyd, Giora I Morozov, Michael G Mage, David H Margulies
Central to CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity is the recognition of peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I (p-MHC I) proteins displayed by antigen-presenting cells. Chaperone-mediated loading of high-affinity peptides onto MHC I is a key step in the MHC I antigen presentation pathway. However, the structure of MHC I with a chaperone that facilitates peptide loading has not been determined. We report the crystal structure of MHC I in complex with the peptide editor TAPBPR (TAP-binding protein-related), a tapasin homolog...
November 24, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025060/adrenomedullin-improves-fertility-and-promotes-pinopodes-and-cell-junctions-in-the-peri-implantation-endometrium
#17
Brooke C Matson, Stephanie L Pierce, Scott T Espenschied, Eric Holle, Imani H Sweatt, Eric S Davis, Robert Tarran, Steven L Young, Trudy A Kohout, Marcel van Duin, Kathleen M Caron
Implantation is a complex event demanding contributions from both embryo and endometrium. Despite advances in assisted reproduction, endometrial receptivity defects persist as a barrier to successful implantation in women with infertility. We previously demonstrated that maternal haploinsufficiency for the endocrine peptide adrenomedullin (AM) in mice confers a subfertility phenotype characterized by defective uterine receptivity and sparse epithelial pinopode coverage. The strong link between AM and implantation suggested the compelling hypothesis that administration of AM prior to implantation may improve fertility, protect against pregnancy complications, and ultimately lead to better maternal and fetal outcomes...
September 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986534/spatial-scale-of-receptive-fields-in-the-visual-sector-of-the-cat-thalamic-reticular-nucleus
#18
Cristina Soto-Sánchez, Xin Wang, Vishal Vaingankar, Friedrich T Sommer, Judith A Hirsch
Inhibitory projections from the visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus to the lateral geniculate nucleus complete the earliest feedback loop in the mammalian visual pathway and regulate the flow of information from retina to cortex. There are two competing hypotheses about the function of the thalamic reticular nucleus. One regards the structure as a thermostat that uniformly regulates thalamic activity through negative feedback. Alternatively, the searchlight hypothesis argues for a role in focal attentional modulation through positive feedback, consistent with observations that behavioral state influences reticular activity...
October 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936781/coordinate-expression-of-pan-neuronal-and-functional-signature-genes-in-sympathetic-neurons
#19
U Ernsberger, M Kramer, K Tsarovina, T Deller, H Rohrer
Neuron subtypes of the mature nervous system differ in the expression of characteristic marker genes while they share the expression of generic neuronal genes. The regulatory logic that maintains subtype-specific and pan-neuronal genes is not well understood. To begin to address this issue, we analyze RNA sequencing results from whole sympathetic ganglia and single sympathetic neurons in the mouse. We focus on gene products involved in the neuronal cytoskeleton, neurotransmitter synthesis and storage, transmitter release and reception and electrical information processing...
November 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771871/predicting-nk-cell-subsets-using-gene-expression-levels-in-peripheral-blood-and-endometrial-biopsy-specimens
#20
Michael L Davies, Svetlana V Dambaeva, Dimantha Katukurundage, Miroslava Repak, Alice Gilman-Sachs, Joanne Kwak-Kim, Kenneth D Beaman
PROBLEM: In molecular analysis of tissue biopsy specimens, one crucial aspect is characterization of immune cell populations. This is especially important for evaluation of uterine receptivity by assessing levels of lymphocyte populations including CD56(bright) CD16- uterine NK cells and CD56(dim) CD16+ conventional NK cells. Our objective was to investigate whether measuring total RNA transcripts from a tissue specimen would accurately reflect immune cell levels and be a new technique to assess immune cell subsets...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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