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enterococcus faecalis virulence factors

Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Mona Nasaj, Seyed Masoud Mousavi
The present study was done to scrutinize the possible relation between infective genes and antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Considering the fact that the presence of recognized infective determinants among clinical isolates may promote the emergence of infections and persistence of Enterococci in hospital settings, which can lead to an increase in antimicrobial resistance. 175 E. faecalis and 67 E. faecium isolated from clinical specimens were used. The isolates were identified, and then antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed...
January 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
Stephanie E Woods, Mia T Lieberman, Francois Lebreton, Elise Trowel, César de la Fuente-Núñez, Joanne Dzink-Fox, Michael S Gilmore, James G Fox
Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance...
2017: PloS One
Yong-Heng Huang, Jin-Shui Lin, Jin-Cheng Ma, Hai-Hong Wang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is extremely resistant to triclosan. Previous studies have shown that P. aeruginosa encodes a triclosan-resistant enoyl-acyl-carrier protein reductase (ENR), FabV, and that deletion of fabV causes P. aeruginosa to be extremely sensitive to triclosan. In this report, we complemented a P. aeruginosa fabV deletion strain with several triclosan-resistant ENR encoding genes, including Vibrio cholerae fabV, Bacillus subtilis fabL and Enterococcus faecalis fabK. All complemented strains restored triclosan resistance to the level of the wild-type strain, which confirmed that triclosan-resistant ENR allows P...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Joon Yong Kim, Hye Seon Song, Yeon Bee Kim, Joseph Kwon, Jong-Soon Choi, Yong-Joon Cho, Byung-Yong Kim, Jin-Kyu Rhee, Jinjong Myoung, Young-Do Nam, Seong Woon Roh
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis, the type strain of the genus Enterococcus, is not only a commensal bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract in vertebrates and invertebrates, but also causes serious disease as an opportunistic pathogen. To date, genome sequences have been published for over four hundred E. faecalis strains; however, pathogenicity of these microbes remains complicated. To increase our knowledge of E. faecalis virulence factors, we isolated strain CBA7120 from the feces of an 81-year-old female from the Republic of Korea and performed a comparative genomic analysis...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Min-Chan Kim, Gun-Jo Woo
BACKGROUND: The emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococci is worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance was characterized and the effect of quinolone-resistance factors was analyzed in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (HLCR) Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients. RESULTS: Among the 81 ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus isolates, 46 showed high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance, resistance to other quinolone antibiotics, and multidrug resistance profiles...
October 28, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Mona Nasaj, Seyed Masoud Mousavi, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Arabestani
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of virulence determinants and vancomycin-resistant genes among Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium obtained from various clinical sources. METHODS: The study was performed on the 280 enterococcal isolated from clinical specimens in Hamadan hospitals, western Iran in 2012-14. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. The presence of vancomycin-resistant genes and virulence genes was investigated using PCR...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Edson Yukio Komiyama, Laura Soares Souto Lepesqueur, Cinthia Gomes Yassuda, Lakshman P Samaranayake, Nipuna B Parahitiyawa, Ivan Balducci, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito
Enterococci are considered as transient constituent components of the oral microbiome that may cause a variety of oral and systemic infections. As there is sparse data on the oral enterococcal prevalence, we evaluated the Enterococcus spp. and their virulence attributes including antimicrobial resistance in a healthy Brazilian cohort. A total of 240 individuals in different age groups were studied (children 4-11 yrs, adolescents 12-17 yrs, young adults 18-29 yrs, adults 30-59 yrs, elderly over 60 yrs). Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API 20 Strep and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing...
2016: PloS One
Sun Woong Hong, Jung Eun Baik, Seok-Seong Kang, Kee-Yeon Kum, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus faecalis is a pathogenic gram-positive bacterium closely associated with apical periodontitis. Although sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been used as a common endodontic irrigant to eradicate bacteria in the root canal, it has not been elucidated whether NaOCl attenuates the inflammatory response induced by the E. faecalis virulence factor lipoteichoic acid (EfLTA). METHODS: Structurally intact EfLTA purified from E. faecalis was treated with NaOCl at various concentrations and time periods...
October 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Jung Eun Baik, Hyuk-Il Choe, Sun Woong Hong, Seok-Seong Kang, Ki Bum Ahn, Kun Cho, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Enterococcus faecalis is associated with refractory apical periodontitis and its lipoteichoic acid (Ef.LTA) is considered as a major virulence factor. Although the binding proteins of Ef.LTA may play an important role for mediating infection and immunity in the oral cavity, little is known about Ef.LTA-binding proteins (Ef.LTA-BPs) in saliva. In this study, we identified salivary Ef.LTA-BPs with biotinylated Ef.LTA (Ef.LTA-biotin) through mass spectrometry. The biotinylation of Ef.LTA was confirmed by binding capacity with streptavidin-FITC on CHO/CD14/TLR2 cells...
September 2016: Molecular Immunology
Dorota Wojnicz, Dorota Tichaczek-Goska, Kamila Korzekwa, Marta Kicia, Andrzej B Hendrich
Drinking of cranberry fruit juice and application of commercial preparations containing the cranberry extracts are recommended in the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), especially in women with recurrent UTIs. Many studies focus on the activity of cranberries against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains. However, the knowledge of the cranberry effect on Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is limited. Therefore, the aim of our study was to establish the activity of commercial concentrated cranberry extract on the growth, virulence factors and biofilm formation of E...
December 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Kimberly A Kline, Amanda L Lewis
Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary-tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella...
April 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Marlos Barbosa-Ribeiro, Adriana De-Jesus-Soares, Alexandre A Zaia, Caio C R Ferraz, José F A Almeida, Brenda P F A Gomes
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of virulence factors and the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecalis isolates of teeth with failure of the endodontic treatment. METHODS: Twenty root canal samples were collected from teeth with apical periodontitis. E. faecalis was firstly identified based on phenotypic features and then by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, azithromycin, benzylpenicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, tetracycline, and vancomycin using the E test method...
July 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Shaynoor Dramsi, Hélène Bierne
Bacterial surface proteins constitute an amazing repertoire of molecules with important functions such as adherence, invasion, signalling and interaction with the host immune system or environment. In Gram-positive bacteria, many surface proteins of the "LPxTG" family are anchored to the peptidoglycan (PG) by an enzyme named sortase. While this anchoring mechanism has been clearly deciphered, less is known about the spatial organization of cell wall-anchored proteins in the bacterial envelope. Here, we review the question of the precise spatial and temporal positioning of LPxTG proteins in subcellular domains in spherical and ellipsoid bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis) and in the rod-shaped bacterium Listeria monocytogenes...
March 5, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Chandrani Das, Tarini Shankar Ghosh, Sharmila S Mande
Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) is one of the factors involved in virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Numerous research efforts have been made in the last decade towards characterizing the components of this secretion system. An extensive genome-wide analysis through compilation of isolated information is required to obtain a global view of diverse characteristics and pathogenicity-related aspects of this machinery. The present study suggests that differences in structural components (of T7SS) between Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, observed earlier in a few organisms, is indeed a global trend...
March 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Jihyun Yang, Ok-Jin Park, Jiseon Kim, Jung Eun Baik, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus faecalis is associated with persistent endodontic infection and refractory apical periodontitis. Recently, we have shown that heat-killed E. faecalis attenuates osteoclast differentiation. Because lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a major virulence factor of gram-positive bacteria, we investigated the effect of LTA from E. faecalis (EfLTA) on osteoclast differentiation. METHODS: EfLTA was purified through organic solvent extraction, hydrophobic interaction column chromatography, and ion exchange column chromatography...
April 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Tanya Strateva, Daniela Atanasova, Encho Savov, Guergana Petrova, Ivan Mitov
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of some virulence genes among 510 clinical Enterococcus spp. isolates and to assess the association of those genes with the species, infection site, and patient group (inpatients/outpatients). METHODS: Adhesins genes (aggregation substances agg and asa1 of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively), enterococcal surface protein (esp), endocarditis-specific antigen A (efaA), collagen-binding proteins (ace/acm)); invasins (hyaluronidase (hyl) and gelatinase (gelE)); cytotoxines (activation of cytolysin (cylA) in E...
March 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Johan Gagnière, Jennifer Raisch, Julie Veziant, Nicolas Barnich, Richard Bonnet, Emmanuel Buc, Marie-Agnès Bringer, Denis Pezet, Mathilde Bonnet
The gut microbiota acts as a real organ. The symbiotic interactions between resident micro-organisms and the digestive tract highly contribute to maintain the gut homeostasis. However, alterations to the microbiome caused by environmental changes (e.g., infection, diet and/or lifestyle) can disturb this symbiotic relationship and promote disease, such as inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. Colorectal cancer is a complex association of tumoral cells, non-neoplastic cells and a large amount of micro-organisms, and the involvement of the microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis is becoming increasingly clear...
January 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Emilia Guerrero-Ramos, Jorge Cordero, Diana Molina-González, Patrícia Poeta, Gilberto Igrejas, Carlos Alonso-Calleja, Rosa Capita
A total of 55 enterococci (45 Enterococcus faecium, 7 Enterococcus faecalis, and three Enterococcus durans) isolated from the meat of wild game animals (roe deer, boar, rabbit, pheasant, and pigeon) in North-Western Spain were tested for susceptibility to 14 antimicrobials by the disc diffusion method. All strains showed a multi-resistant phenotype (resistance to between three and 10 antimicrobials). The strains exhibited high percentages of resistance to erythromycin (89.1%), tetracycline (67.3%), ciprofloxacin (92...
February 2016: Food Microbiology
Hamid Heidari, Mohammad Emaneini, Hossein Dabiri, Fereshteh Jabalameli
The enterococci are emerging as a significant cause of hospital acquired infections. The pathogenesis of enterococci is attributed to the production of virulence factors and resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of genes encoding virulence factor, antimicrobial resistance determinant and molecular characteristic of enterococci isolated from burn patients. A total of 57 enterococci isolated from wound specimens of patients with burn injury were characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods...
January 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
A Kandričáková, A Lauková, V Strompfová
With an increasing number of pheasants as gamebirds being reared each year, these species are becoming a more prominent part of the workload of many veterinary practices. Only limited information can be found concerning the microflora of common pheasants. A significant part of the obligate microflora consists of lactic acid bacteria, including enterococci. In this study, faeces were sampled from 60 pheasants aged 16-17 weeks. Enterococcal counts reached 5.48±1.9 (log10) CFU/g. Strains (17) were taxonomically classified to the genus Enterococcus using the Maldi-Tof identification system; they were allotted to the species E...
2015: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
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