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enterococcus faecalis virulence factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334141/distribution-of-antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-virulence-associated-factors-and-crispr-loci-in-isolates-of-enterococcus-faecalis-from-various-settings-and-genetic-lineages
#1
Iwona Gawryszewska, Katarzyna Malinowska, Alicja Kuch, Dorota Chrobak-Chmiel, Lucja Laniewska-Trokenheim, Waleria Hryniewicz, Ewa Sadowy
Enterococcus faecalis represents an important factor of hospital-associated infections (HAIs). The knowledge on its evolution from a commensal to an opportunistic pathogen is still limited, thus we performed a study to characterize distribution of factors that may contribute to this adaptation. Using a collection obtained from various settings (hospitalized patients, community carriers, animals, fresh food, sewage, water) we investigated differences in antimicrobial susceptibility, distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes, virulence-associated determinants and phenotypes, and CRISPR loci in the context of the clonal relatedness of isolates...
March 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332345/high-incidence-of-virulence-factors-among-clinical-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-in-southwestern-iran
#2
Hamid Heidari, Somayeh Hasanpour, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Mohammad Motamedifar
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, enterococci have emerged as an important agent responsible for hospital acquired infection. Several virulence factors contribute to the adherence, colonization, evasion of the host immune response, and pathogenicity and severity of the infection. Enterococcus faecalis is the most common and virulent species causing infections in hospitalized patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of genes encoding virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns of E...
March 13, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316009/safety-assessment-of-commensal-enterococci-from-dogs
#3
Ivana Kubašová, Viola Strompfová, Andrea Lauková
Enterococci form a complex, diverse, and very important group of bacteria from the technological and food safety aspect, or from the health-improving aspect as probiotics. Generally, enterococci are considered to be of low pathogenic potential, which is associated mostly with clinical strains. In these strains, production of virulence factors as well as resistance to many antimicrobial drugs could complicate treatment of nosocomial infections. Because there is a lack of information on incidence of these attributes in animal commensal enterococci, we screened 160 strains originating from feces of clinically healthy dogs in Eastern Slovakia (n = 105)...
March 18, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270110/comparative-genomics-of-enterococcus-spp-isolated-from-bovine-feces
#4
Alicia G Beukers, Rahat Zaheer, Noriko Goji, Kingsley K Amoako, Alexandre V Chaves, Michael P Ward, Tim A McAllister
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus is ubiquitous in nature and is a commensal of both the bovine and human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It is also associated with clinical infections in humans. Subtherapeutic administration of antibiotics to cattle selects for antibiotic resistant enterococci in the bovine GI tract. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) may be present in enterococci following antibiotic use in cattle. If located on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) their dissemination between Enterococcus species and to pathogenic bacteria may be promoted, reducing the efficacy of antibiotics...
March 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258002/molecular-assessment-of-virulence-determinants-hospital-associated-marker-is16gene-and-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-soil-borne-enterococcus-species
#5
Syed Abid Ali, Hassan Bin-Asif, Khwaja Ali Hasan, Marium Rehman, Atiya Abbasi
Enterococci, no more regarded as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) organism, are emerging as an important source of nosocomial infections worldwide. The main contributors in pathogenesis of enterococci are the presence of various virulent factors and antibiotic resistance genes. We aimed to examine the prevalence, dissemination, antibiotic resistance and virulent factors associated with enterococci from bulk soil (BS). A total of 372 enterococci were isolated from 500 soil samples. PCR was used to identify the isolates up to species level and for carriage of 16 virulence genes including hospital associated marker (i...
February 28, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184339/correlation-between-infective-factors-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-enterococci-clinical-isolates-in-west-of-iran
#6
Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Mona Nasaj, Seyed Masoud Mousavi
The present study was done to scrutinize the possible relation between infective genes and antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Considering the fact that the presence of recognized infective determinants among clinical isolates may promote the emergence of infections and persistence of Enterococci in hospital settings, which can lead to an increase in antimicrobial resistance. 175 E. faecalis and 67 E. faecium isolated from clinical specimens were used. The isolates were identified, and then antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed...
January 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081148/characterization-of-multi-drug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-cephalic-recording-chambers-in-research-macaques-macaca-spp
#7
Stephanie E Woods, Mia T Lieberman, Francois Lebreton, Elise Trowel, César de la Fuente-Núñez, Joanne Dzink-Fox, Michael S Gilmore, James G Fox
Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965638/functional-characterization-of-triclosan-resistant-enoyl-acyl-carrier-protein-reductase-fabv-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Yong-Heng Huang, Jin-Shui Lin, Jin-Cheng Ma, Hai-Hong Wang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is extremely resistant to triclosan. Previous studies have shown that P. aeruginosa encodes a triclosan-resistant enoyl-acyl-carrier protein reductase (ENR), FabV, and that deletion of fabV causes P. aeruginosa to be extremely sensitive to triclosan. In this report, we complemented a P. aeruginosa fabV deletion strain with several triclosan-resistant ENR encoding genes, including Vibrio cholerae fabV, Bacillus subtilis fabL and Enterococcus faecalis fabK. All complemented strains restored triclosan resistance to the level of the wild-type strain, which confirmed that triclosan-resistant ENR allows P...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924153/genome-sequence-of-a-commensal-bacterium-enterococcus-faecalis-cba7120-isolated-from-a-korean-fecal-sample
#9
Joon Yong Kim, Hye Seon Song, Yeon Bee Kim, Joseph Kwon, Jong-Soon Choi, Yong-Joon Cho, Byung-Yong Kim, Jin-Kyu Rhee, Jinjong Myoung, Young-Do Nam, Seong Woon Roh
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis, the type strain of the genus Enterococcus, is not only a commensal bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract in vertebrates and invertebrates, but also causes serious disease as an opportunistic pathogen. To date, genome sequences have been published for over four hundred E. faecalis strains; however, pathogenicity of these microbes remains complicated. To increase our knowledge of E. faecalis virulence factors, we isolated strain CBA7120 from the feces of an 81-year-old female from the Republic of Korea and performed a comparative genomic analysis...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790716/characterization-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-quinolone-resistance-factors-in-high-level-ciprofloxacin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-obtained-from-fresh-produce-and-fecal-samples-of-patients
#10
Min-Chan Kim, Gun-Jo Woo
BACKGROUND: The emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococci is worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance was characterized and the effect of quinolone-resistance factors was analyzed in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (HLCR) Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients. RESULTS: Among the 81 ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus isolates, 46 showed high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance, resistance to other quinolone antibiotics, and multidrug resistance profiles...
October 28, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648425/prevalence-of-virulence-factors-and-vancomycin-resistant-genes-among-enterococcus-faecalis-and-e-faecium-isolated-from-clinical-specimens
#11
Mona Nasaj, Seyed Masoud Mousavi, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini, Mohammad Reza Arabestani
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of virulence determinants and vancomycin-resistant genes among Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium obtained from various clinical sources. METHODS: The study was performed on the 280 enterococcal isolated from clinical specimens in Hamadan hospitals, western Iran in 2012-14. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) methods. The presence of vancomycin-resistant genes and virulence genes was investigated using PCR...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631785/enterococcus-species-in-the-oral-cavity-prevalence-virulence-factors-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility
#12
Edson Yukio Komiyama, Laura Soares Souto Lepesqueur, Cinthia Gomes Yassuda, Lakshman P Samaranayake, Nipuna B Parahitiyawa, Ivan Balducci, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito
Enterococci are considered as transient constituent components of the oral microbiome that may cause a variety of oral and systemic infections. As there is sparse data on the oral enterococcal prevalence, we evaluated the Enterococcus spp. and their virulence attributes including antimicrobial resistance in a healthy Brazilian cohort. A total of 240 individuals in different age groups were studied (children 4-11 yrs, adolescents 12-17 yrs, young adults 18-29 yrs, adults 30-59 yrs, elderly over 60 yrs). Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API 20 Strep and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520407/sodium-hypochlorite-inactivates-lipoteichoic-acid-of-enterococcus-faecalis-by-deacylation
#13
Sun Woong Hong, Jung Eun Baik, Seok-Seong Kang, Kee-Yeon Kum, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus faecalis is a pathogenic gram-positive bacterium closely associated with apical periodontitis. Although sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been used as a common endodontic irrigant to eradicate bacteria in the root canal, it has not been elucidated whether NaOCl attenuates the inflammatory response induced by the E. faecalis virulence factor lipoteichoic acid (EfLTA). METHODS: Structurally intact EfLTA purified from E. faecalis was treated with NaOCl at various concentrations and time periods...
October 2016: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474971/human-salivary-proteins-with-affinity-to-lipoteichoic-acid-of-enterococcus-faecalis
#14
Jung Eun Baik, Hyuk-Il Choe, Sun Woong Hong, Seok-Seong Kang, Ki Bum Ahn, Kun Cho, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Enterococcus faecalis is associated with refractory apical periodontitis and its lipoteichoic acid (Ef.LTA) is considered as a major virulence factor. Although the binding proteins of Ef.LTA may play an important role for mediating infection and immunity in the oral cavity, little is known about Ef.LTA-binding proteins (Ef.LTA-BPs) in saliva. In this study, we identified salivary Ef.LTA-BPs with biotinylated Ef.LTA (Ef.LTA-biotin) through mass spectrometry. The biotinylation of Ef.LTA was confirmed by binding capacity with streptavidin-FITC on CHO/CD14/TLR2 cells...
September 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456160/study-of-the-impact-of-cranberry-extract-on-the-virulence-factors-and-biofilm-formation-by-enterococcus-faecalis-strains-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infections
#15
Dorota Wojnicz, Dorota Tichaczek-Goska, Kamila Korzekwa, Marta Kicia, Andrzej B Hendrich
Drinking of cranberry fruit juice and application of commercial preparations containing the cranberry extracts are recommended in the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs), especially in women with recurrent UTIs. Many studies focus on the activity of cranberries against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains. However, the knowledge of the cranberry effect on Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is limited. Therefore, the aim of our study was to establish the activity of commercial concentrated cranberry extract on the growth, virulence factors and biofilm formation of E...
December 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227294/gram-positive-uropathogens-polymicrobial-urinary-tract-infection-and-the-emerging-microbiota-of-the-urinary-tract
#16
Kimberly A Kline, Amanda L Lewis
Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary-tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella...
April 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27221594/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-characterization-of-virulence-genes-of-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-from-teeth-with-failure-of-the-endodontic-treatment
#17
Marlos Barbosa-Ribeiro, Adriana De-Jesus-Soares, Alexandre A Zaia, Caio C R Ferraz, José F A Almeida, Brenda P F A Gomes
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of virulence factors and the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecalis isolates of teeth with failure of the endodontic treatment. METHODS: Twenty root canal samples were collected from teeth with apical periodontitis. E. faecalis was firstly identified based on phenotypic features and then by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, azithromycin, benzylpenicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, tetracycline, and vancomycin using the E test method...
July 2016: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025379/spatial-organization-of-cell-wall-anchored-proteins-at-the-surface-of-gram-positive-bacteria
#18
Shaynoor Dramsi, Hélène Bierne
Bacterial surface proteins constitute an amazing repertoire of molecules with important functions such as adherence, invasion, signalling and interaction with the host immune system or environment. In Gram-positive bacteria, many surface proteins of the "LPxTG" family are anchored to the peptidoglycan (PG) by an enzyme named sortase. While this anchoring mechanism has been clearly deciphered, less is known about the spatial organization of cell wall-anchored proteins in the bacterial envelope. Here, we review the question of the precise spatial and temporal positioning of LPxTG proteins in subcellular domains in spherical and ellipsoid bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis) and in the rod-shaped bacterium Listeria monocytogenes...
March 5, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949095/in-silico-dissection-of-type-vii-secretion-system-components-across-bacteria-new-directions-towards-functional-characterization
#19
Chandrani Das, Tarini Shankar Ghosh, Sharmila S Mande
Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) is one of the factors involved in virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Numerous research efforts have been made in the last decade towards characterizing the components of this secretion system. An extensive genome-wide analysis through compilation of isolated information is required to obtain a global view of diverse characteristics and pathogenicity-related aspects of this machinery. The present study suggests that differences in structural components (of T7SS) between Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, observed earlier in a few organisms, is indeed a global trend...
March 2016: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920932/lipoteichoic-acid-of-enterococcus-faecalis-inhibits-the-differentiation-of-macrophages-into-osteoclasts
#20
Jihyun Yang, Ok-Jin Park, Jiseon Kim, Jung Eun Baik, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
INTRODUCTION: Enterococcus faecalis is associated with persistent endodontic infection and refractory apical periodontitis. Recently, we have shown that heat-killed E. faecalis attenuates osteoclast differentiation. Because lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a major virulence factor of gram-positive bacteria, we investigated the effect of LTA from E. faecalis (EfLTA) on osteoclast differentiation. METHODS: EfLTA was purified through organic solvent extraction, hydrophobic interaction column chromatography, and ion exchange column chromatography...
April 2016: Journal of Endodontics
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