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enterococcus faecalis virulence factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791824/anti-enterococcal-activities-of-pentacyclic-triterpenes
#1
Dorota Wojnicz, Dorota Tichaczek-Goska, Kamila Korzekwa, Marta Kicia, Andrzej Hendrich
BACKGROUND: Asiatic (AA) and ursolic (UA) acids are widely studied phytochemicals, but their antimicrobial properties are still poorly understood. Therefore our research has focused on their activity against uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to determine the influence of AA and UA on the growth, cell morphology, virulence factors and biofilm formation by E. faecalis strains. MATERIAL AND METHODS: AA and UA were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742152/bacterial-size-matters-multiple-mechanisms-controlling-septum-cleavage-and-diplococcus-formation-are-critical-for-the-virulence-of-the-opportunistic-pathogen-enterococcus-faecalis
#2
Bartłomiej Salamaga, Tomasz K Prajsnar, Ana Jareño-Martinez, Joost Willemse, Martin A Bewley, Françoise Chau, Tassadit Ben Belkacem, Annemarie H Meijer, David H Dockrell, Stephen A Renshaw, Stéphane Mesnage
Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen frequently isolated in clinical settings. This organism is intrinsically resistant to several clinically relevant antibiotics and can transfer resistance to other pathogens. Although E. faecalis has emerged as a major nosocomial pathogen, the mechanisms underlying the virulence of this organism remain elusive. We studied the regulation of daughter cell separation during growth and explored the impact of this process on pathogenesis. We demonstrate that the activity of the AtlA peptidoglycan hydrolase, an enzyme dedicated to septum cleavage, is controlled by several mechanisms, including glycosylation and recognition of the peptidoglycan substrate...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735309/safety-evaluation-of-enterocin-producer-enterococcus-sp-strains-isolated-from-traditional-turkish-cheeses
#3
Mine Avcı, Banu Özden Tuncer
The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity and occurrence of bacteriocin structural genes in Enterococcus spp. isolated from different cheeses and also investigate some of their virulence factors. Enterococcus strains were isolated from 33 different cheeses. Enterococcus faecium (6 strains) and Enterococcus faecalis (5 strains) enterocin-producing strains were identified by 16S rDNA analyses. Structural genes entA, entB, entP and entX were detected in some isolates. Multiple enterocin structural genes were found in 7 strains...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707018/postoperative-enterococcus-faecalis-endophthalmitis-virulence-factors-leading-to-poor-visual-outcome
#4
Daisuke Todokoro, Takashi Suzuki, Shinichiro Kobayakawa, Haruyoshi Tomita, Yuichi Ohashi, Hideo Akiyama
Purpose Postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Enterococcus faecalis often results in poor visual outcome due to retinal destruction. We evaluated the virulence factors of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates and analyzed their relationship with retinal destruction and poor visual outcomes in postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis (PBE) following cataract surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. METHODS: E. faecalis isolates from nine acute-onset PBE cases were examined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA, plasmid isolation and pheromone response experiments...
July 13, 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676674/the-enterococcus-faecalis-virulence-factor-elra-interacts-with-the-human-four-and-a-half-lim-domains-protein-2
#5
Alexandre Jamet, Rozenn Dervyn, Nicolas Lapaque, Francesca Bugli, Naima G Perez-Cortez, Hervé M Blottière, Jean-Claude Twizere, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Brunella Posteraro, Pascale Serror, Emmanuelle Maguin
The commensal bacterium Enterococcus faecalis is a common cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. The increasing prevalence of multi-antibiotic resistant E. faecalis strains reinforces this public health concern. Despite numerous studies highlighting several pathology-related genetic traits, the molecular mechanisms of E. faecalis virulence remain poorly understood. In this work, we studied 23 bacterial proteins that could be considered as virulence factors or involved in the Enterococcus interaction with the host...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659548/pathogenicity-of-enterococci
#6
REVIEW
Yasuyoshi Ike
Enterococci belong to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of a wide variety of animals from insects and to human, and the commensal organism in humans and animals. The commensal/probiotic role of enterococci has evolved through thousands of years in mutual coexistence. Enterococcus have many favorable traits that have been appreciated in food fermentation and preservation, and many serve as probiotics to promote health. While lactobacillus have been shown to confer numerous benefits on and often regarded as health bringing organisms, enterococci have become more recognized as emerging human pathogens in recent years...
2017: Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584459/susceptibility-pattern-of-enterococci-at-tertiary-care-hospital
#7
Sadhana Sachan, Vinita Rawat, Umesh, Mukesh Kumar, Tripta Kaur, Preeti Chaturvedi
The study was aimed to characterize enterococci from various clinical specimens, to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and to explore the association between virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 283 clinical enterococcal isolates were speciated and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Virulence factors (hemolysin, gelatinase, and biofilm production) were detected phenotypically. Of the 283 enterococci isolated, 12 species were identified; predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis (82...
April 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578090/genotyping-antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-factor-gene-profiles-of-vancomycin-resistance-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-blood-culture
#8
Shahnaz Armin, Fatemeh Fallah, Abdollah Karimi, Marjan Rashidan, Mehdi Shirdust, Leila Azimi
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus spp. is the common of intestinal micro flora in humans but nowadays this gram-positive bacterium causes the variety of nosocomial infections. Resistance to antibiotic and also, presence of different virulence genes in the enterococcus spp. can change it to problematic microorganisms in the health care centers. The aim of this study was determined the genotyping, antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of vancomycin resistance Enterococcus faecalis isolated from blood culture...
May 31, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567146/virulence-factors-associated-with-enterococcus-faecalis-infective-endocarditis-a-mini-review
#9
REVIEW
Kristian T Madsen, Marianne N Skov, Sabine Gill, Michael Kemp
INTRODUCTION: The enterococci are accountable for up to 20% of all cases of infective endocarditis, with Enterococcus faecalis being the primary causative isolate. Infective endocarditis is a life-threatening infection of the endocardium that results in the formation of vegetations. Based on a literature review, this paper provides an overview of the virulence factors associated with E. faecalis infective endocarditis. Furthermore, it reports the effects of active or passive immunization against some of these involved factors...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566074/-evaluation-of-virulence-factors-in-enterococcus-species
#10
Ergun Mete, İlknur Kaleli, Nural Cevahir, Melek Demir, Yüksel Akkaya, Özgün Kiriş Satılmış
Enterococci have recently become important due to their increased isolation rates in community-based and nosocomial infections and resistance to many antibiotics, including glycopeptides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptible patterns and virulence factors of various clinical specimens; urine (n= 149), blood (n= 38), wound (n= 17), stool (n= 13), and other (n= 12) with a total of 229 enterococci including 138 E.faecalis and 91 E.faecium isolates. Aggregation factor (AF), enterococcus surface protein (esp), cytolysins and gelatinase encoding genes (asa1, esp, cylM, cylBcyl A, cylll, cylls, gelE, respectively) were investigated by molecular methods...
April 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536572/the-bacteriophage-ef-p29-efficiently-protects-against-lethal-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-and-alleviates-gut-microbiota-imbalance-in-a-murine-bacteremia-model
#11
Mengjun Cheng, Jiaming Liang, Yufeng Zhang, Liyuan Hu, Pengjuan Gong, Ruopeng Cai, Lei Zhang, Hao Zhang, Jinli Ge, Yalu Ji, Zhimin Guo, Xin Feng, Changjiang Sun, Yongjun Yang, Liancheng Lei, Wenyu Han, Jingmin Gu
Enterococcus faecalis is becoming an increasingly important opportunistic pathogen worldwide, especially because it can cause life-threatening nosocomial infections. Treating E. faecalis infections has become increasingly difficult because of the prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. faecalis strains. Because bacteriophages show specificity for their bacterial hosts, there has been a growth in interest in using phage therapies to combat the rising incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. In this study, we isolated a new lytic phage, EF-P29, which showed high efficiency and a broad host range against E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467378/molecular-mechanism-of-quorum-sensing-in-enterococcus-faecalis-its-role-in-virulence-and-therapeutic-approaches
#12
REVIEW
Liaqat Ali, Mohsan Ullah Goraya, Yasir Arafat, Muhammad Ajmal, Ji-Long Chen, Daojin Yu
Quorum-sensing systems control major virulence determinants in Enterococcusfaecalis, which causes nosocomial infections. The E. faecalis quorum-sensing systems include several virulence factors that are regulated by the cytolysin operon, which encodes the cytolysin toxin. In addition, the E. faecalis Fsr regulator system controls the expression of gelatinase, serine protease, and enterocin O16. The cytolysin and Fsr virulence factor systems are linked to enterococcal diseases that affect the health of humans and other host models...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384222/functional-studies-of-e-faecalis-rnase-j2-and-its-role-in-virulence-and-fitness
#13
Peng Gao, Kenneth L Pinkston, Agathe Bourgogne, Barbara E Murray, Ambro van Hoof, Barrett R Harvey
Post-transcriptional control provides bacterial pathogens a method by which they can rapidly adapt to environmental change. Dual exo- and endonucleolytic activities of RNase J enzymes contribute to Gram-positive RNA processing and decay. First discovered in Bacillus subtilis, RNase J1 plays a key role in mRNA maturation and degradation, while the function of the paralogue RNase J2 is largely unknown. Previously, we discovered that deletion of the Enterococcus faecalis rnjB gene significantly attenuates expression of a major virulence factor involved in enterococcal pathogenesis, the Ebp pili...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334141/distribution-of-antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-virulence-associated-factors-and-clustered-regularly-interspaced-palindromic-repeats-loci-in-isolates-of-enterococcus-faecalis-from-various-settings-and-genetic-lineages
#14
Iwona Gawryszewska, Katarzyna Malinowska, Alicja Kuch, Dorota Chrobak-Chmiel, Lucja Laniewska- Trokenheim, Waleria Hryniewicz, Ewa Sadowy
Enterococcus faecalis represents an important factor of hospital-associated infections (HAIs). The knowledge on its evolution from a commensal to an opportunistic pathogen is still limited; thus, we performed a study to characterise distribution of factors that may contribute to this adaptation. Using a collection obtained from various settings (hospitalised patients, community carriers, animals, fresh food, sewage, water), we investigated differences in antimicrobial susceptibility, distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes, virulence-associated determinants and phenotypes, and CRISPR loci in the context of the clonal relatedness of isolates...
March 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332345/high-incidence-of-virulence-factors-among-clinical-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-in-southwestern-iran
#15
Hamid Heidari, Somayeh Hasanpour, Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Mohammad Motamedifar
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, enterococci have emerged as an important agent responsible for hospital acquired infection. Several virulence factors contribute to the adherence, colonization, evasion of the host immune response, and pathogenicity and severity of the infection. Enterococcus faecalis is the most common and virulent species causing infections in hospitalized patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of genes encoding virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns of E...
March 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316009/safety-assessment-of-commensal-enterococci-from-dogs
#16
Ivana Kubašová, Viola Strompfová, Andrea Lauková
Enterococci form a complex, diverse, and very important group of bacteria from the technological and food safety aspect, or from the health-improving aspect as probiotics. Generally, enterococci are considered to be of low pathogenic potential, which is associated mostly with clinical strains. In these strains, production of virulence factors as well as resistance to many antimicrobial drugs could complicate treatment of nosocomial infections. Because there is a lack of information on incidence of these attributes in animal commensal enterococci, we screened 160 strains originating from feces of clinically healthy dogs in Eastern Slovakia (n = 105)...
March 18, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270110/comparative-genomics-of-enterococcus-spp-isolated-from-bovine-feces
#17
Alicia G Beukers, Rahat Zaheer, Noriko Goji, Kingsley K Amoako, Alexandre V Chaves, Michael P Ward, Tim A McAllister
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus is ubiquitous in nature and is a commensal of both the bovine and human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It is also associated with clinical infections in humans. Subtherapeutic administration of antibiotics to cattle selects for antibiotic resistant enterococci in the bovine GI tract. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) may be present in enterococci following antibiotic use in cattle. If located on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) their dissemination between Enterococcus species and to pathogenic bacteria may be promoted, reducing the efficacy of antibiotics...
March 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258002/molecular-assessment-of-virulence-determinants-hospital-associated-marker-is16gene-and-prevalence-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-soil-borne-enterococcus-species
#18
Syed Abid Ali, Hassan Bin-Asif, Khwaja Ali Hasan, Marium Rehman, Atiya Abbasi
Enterococci, no more regarded as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) organism, are emerging as an important source of nosocomial infections worldwide. The main contributors in pathogenesis of enterococci are the presence of various virulent factors and antibiotic resistance genes. We aimed to examine the prevalence, dissemination, antibiotic resistance and virulent factors associated with enterococci from bulk soil (BS). A total of 372 enterococci were isolated from 500 soil samples. PCR was used to identify the isolates up to species level and for carriage of 16 virulence genes including hospital associated marker (i...
April 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184339/correlation-between-infective-factors-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-enterococci-clinical-isolates-in-west-of-iran
#19
Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Mona Nasaj, Seyed Masoud Mousavi
The present study was done to scrutinize the possible relation between infective genes and antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Considering the fact that the presence of recognized infective determinants among clinical isolates may promote the emergence of infections and persistence of Enterococci in hospital settings, which can lead to an increase in antimicrobial resistance. 175 E. faecalis and 67 E. faecium isolated from clinical specimens were used. The isolates were identified, and then antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed...
January 2017: Chonnam Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081148/characterization-of-multi-drug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-cephalic-recording-chambers-in-research-macaques-macaca-spp
#20
Stephanie E Woods, Mia T Lieberman, Francois Lebreton, Elise Trowel, César de la Fuente-Núñez, Joanne Dzink-Fox, Michael S Gilmore, James G Fox
Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance...
2017: PloS One
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