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Mitochondria cAMP

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501614/shaping-mitochondrial-dynamics-the-role-of-camp-signalling
#1
Giulietta Di Benedetto, Andrea Gerbino, Konstantinos Lefkimmiatis
In recent years, our idea of mitochondria evolved from "mere" energy and metabolite producers to key regulators of many cellular functions. In order to preserve and protect their functional status, these organelles engage a number of dynamic processes that allow them to decrease accumulated burden and maintain their homeostasis. Indeed, mitochondria can unite (fusion), divide (fission), position themselves strategically in the cell (motility/trafficking) and if irreversibly damaged or dysfunctional eliminated (mitophagy)...
May 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500222/energy-requirements-of-odor-transduction-in-the-chemosensory-cilia-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons-rely-on-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-glycolytic-processing-of-extracellular-glucose
#2
Pablo S Villar, Ricardo Delgado, Cecilia Vergara, Juan G Reyes, Juan Bacigalupo
The mechanisms that power the physiological events occuring in cilia, flagella and microvilli are of fundamental importance for the functions of these important and ubicuous organelles. The olfactory epithelium (OE) is mostly populated by ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and surrounding sustentacular cells (SCs) with apical microvilli. The only OSN dendrite extends to the surface forming a knob projecting several chemosensory cilia of approximately 50 x 0.2 μm, devoid of inner membranes embedded in a mucus layer...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493341/design-and-validation-of-the-first-cell-impermeant-melatonin-receptor-agonist
#3
Florence Gbahou, Erika Cecon, Guillaume Viault, Romain Gerbier, Frederic Jean-Alphonse, Angeliki Karamitri, Gérald Guillaumet, Philippe Delagrange, Robert M Friedlander, Jean-Pierre Vilardaga, Franck Suzenet, Ralf Jockers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The paradigm that G protein-coupled receptors are able to prolong or initiate cellular signaling through intracellular receptors recently emerged. Melatonin binds to G protein-coupled MT1 and MT2 receptors. Different from most other hormones targeting GPCRs, melatonin and its synthetic analogs are amphiphilic molecules easily penetrating into cells, but the existence of intracellular receptors is still unclear mainly due to a lack of appropriate tools. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We therefore designed and synthesized a series of hydrophilic melatonin receptor ligands coupled to the Cy3 cyanin fluorophore to reliably monitor its inability of cellular penetration...
May 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479382/characterization-and-expression-of-star2a-and-star2b-in-the-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#4
Dongdong Liang, Zhaofei Fan, Shenda Weng, Shuang Jiao, Zhihao Wu, Yuxia Zou, Xungang Tan, Jun Li, Peijun Zhang, Feng You
Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein 2 (StAR2) is a key protein in transporting cholesterol from the outer mitochondria membrane to the inner mitochondria membrane for sex steroid synthesis. In this study, two StAR2 gene isoforms, StAR2a and StAR2b, were isolated from the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus gonads. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that their expression levels were higher in testis than those in ovary. StAR2a was mainly expressed in the thecal cells and ooplasm of ovary, and Leydig cells and spermatid of testis according to the results of in situ hybridization...
May 4, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463107/pde2a2-regulates-mitochondria-morphology-and-apoptotic-cell-death-via-local-modulation-of-camp-pka-signalling
#5
Stefania Monterisi, Miguel J Lobo, Craig Livie, John C Castle, Michael Weinberger, George Baillie, Nicoletta C Surdo, Nshunge Musheshe, Alessandra Stangherlin, Eyal Gottlieb, Rory Maizels, Mario Bortolozzi, Massimo Micaroni, Manuela Zaccolo
cAMP/PKA signalling is compartmentalised with tight spatial and temporal control of signal propagation underpinning specificity of response. The cAMP-degrading enzymes, phosphodiesterases (PDEs), localise to specific subcellular domains within which they control local cAMP levels and are key regulators of signal compartmentalisation. Several components of the cAMP/PKA cascade are located to different mitochondrial sub-compartments, suggesting the presence of multiple cAMP/PKA signalling domains within the organelle...
May 2, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457938/parp-inhibition-protects-mitochondria-and-reduces-ros-production-via-parp-1-atf4-mkp-1-mapk-retrograde-pathway
#6
Eniko Hocsak, Viktor Szabo, Nikoletta Kalman, Csenge Antus, Anna Cseh, Katalin Sumegi, Krisztian Eros, Zoltan Hegedus, Ferenc Gallyas, Balazs Sumegi, Boglarka Racz
Oxidative stress induces DNA breaks and PARP-1 activation which initiates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell death through pathways not yet identified. Here, we show the mechanism by which PARP-1 influences these processes via PARylation of activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) responsible for MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression and thereby regulates MAP kinases. PARP inhibitor, or silencing, of PARP induced MKP-1 expression by ATF4-dependent way, and inactivated JNK and p38 MAP kinases...
April 27, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455626/influences-of-flavones-on-cell-viability-and-camp-dependent-steroidogenic-gene-regulation-in-ma-10-leydig-cells
#7
Michelle Cormier, Firas Ghouili, Pauline Roumaud, William Bauer, Mohamed Touaibia, Luc J Martin
Testicular Leydig cells are major contributors of androgen synthesis and secretion, which play an important role in testis development, normal masculinization, maintenance of spermatogenesis, and general male fertility. The rate-limiting step in testosterone biosynthesis involves the transfer of cholesterol to the mitochondrial inner membrane by the steroidogenic acute regulatory (Star) protein, a critical factor in steroid hormone biosynthesis. Once inside the mitochondria, cholesterol is metabolized by the steroidogenic enzyme Cyp11a1 to pregnenolone, which is further converted to testosterone by the action of other steroidogenic enzymes...
April 28, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395332/acetamiprid-inhibits-testosterone-synthesis-by-affecting-the-mitochondrial-function-and-cytoplasmic-adenosine-triphosphate-production-in-rat-leydig-cells%C3%A2
#8
Deying Kong, Jidong Zhang, Xiaohui Hou, Shibin Zhang, Jun Tan, Yuanshou Chen, Weirong Yang, Junwei Zeng, Yong Han, Xiaohong Liu, Delin Xu, Renlian Cai
The insecticide acetamiprid is used to control noxious agricultural pests. However, it can cause mammalian toxicity. We evaluated the reproductive toxicity of acetamiprid in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were given oral acetamiprid alone or with vitamin E for 35 days. Rat plasma testosterone concentration and sperm quality decreased significantly as the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) increased after exposure. At the same time, acetamiprid increased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (NO) levels of Leydig cells...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387563/curcumin-upregulates-antioxidant-defense-lon-protease-and-heat-shock-protein-70-under-hyperglycemic-conditions-in-human-hepatoma-cells
#9
Shivona Gounden, Anil Chuturgoon
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) regulates mitochondrial antioxidant (AO) defense and improves mitochondrial disorders. Curcumin protects mitochondria; however, the mechanisms need investigation. We postulated that curcumin increases AO defense under hyperglycemic conditions in HepG2 cells through SIRT3-mediated mechanisms. Cell viability was determined in HepG2 cells cultured with 5 mM glucose, 19.9 mM mannitol, vehicle control, 10 mM glucose, and 30 mM glucose in the absence or presence of curcumin for 24 h. SIRT3, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and Lon protein expressions were determined using western blot...
May 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351484/hypocapnic-hypothesis-of-leigh-disease
#10
Ewa Pronicka
Leigh syndrome (LS) is a neurogenetic disorder of children caused by mutations in at least 75 genes which impair mitochondrial bioenergetics. The changes have typical localization in basal ganglia and brainstem, and typical histological picture of spongiform appearance, vascular proliferation and gliosis. ATP deprivation, free radicals and lactate accumulation are suspected to be the causes. Hypocapnic hypothesis proposed in the paper questions the energy deprivation as the mechanism of LS. We assume that the primary harmful factor is hypocapnia (decrease in pCO2) and respiratory alkalosis (increase in pH) due to hyperventilation, permanent or in response to stress...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336949/induction-of-apoptosis-and-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-by-camp-signaling-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#11
Bang-Jau You, Ni Tien, Miin-Huey Lee, Bo-Ying Bao, Yih-Shyuan Wu, Tsung-Chi Hu, Hong-Zin Lee
Apoptosis is an essential physiological process that controls many important biological functions. However, apoptosis signaling in relation to secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plants and fungi remains a mystery. The fungus Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine worldwide, but the biosynthetic regulation of its active ingredients (ganoderic acids, GAs) is poorly understood. We investigated the role of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in fungal apoptosis and GA biosynthesis in G...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254846/rhoa-inhibits-the-hypoxia-induced-apoptosis-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-chondrocytes-via-positively-regulating-the-creb-phosphorylation
#12
Kai Zhang, Dianming Jiang
Chondrocytes that are embedded within the growth plate or the intervertebral disc are sensitive to environmental stresses, such as inflammation and hypoxia. However, little is known about the molecular signalling pathways underlining the hypoxia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in chondrocytes. In the present study, we firstly examined the hypoxia-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and the activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) signalling in human chondrocyte cell line, C28/I2 and then investigated the regulatory role of RhoA, a well-recognized apoptosis suppressor, in such process, with gain-of-function strategy...
April 30, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202681/components-of-the-mitochondrial-camp-signalosome
#13
REVIEW
Stefania Monterisi, Manuela Zaccolo
3'-5'-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signalling is activated by different extracellular stimuli and mediates many diverse processes within the same cell. It is now well established that in order to translate into the appropriate cellular function multiple extracellular inputs, which may act simultaneously on the same cell, the cAMP/PKA signalling pathway is compartmentalised. Multimolecular complexes are organised at specific subcellular sites to generate spatially confined signalosomes, which include effectors, modulators and targets of the pathway...
February 8, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096195/multifunctional-mitochondrial-epac1-controls-myocardial-cell-death
#14
Loubina Fazal, Marion Laudette, Sílvia Paula-Gomes, Sandrine Pons, Caroline Conte, Florence Tortosa, Pierre Sicard, Yannis Sainte-Marie, Malik Bisserier, Olivier Lairez, Alexandre Lucas, Jérôme Roy, Bijan Ghaleh, Jérémy Fauconnier, Jeanne Mialet-Perez, Frank Lezoualc'h
RATIONALE: Although the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) is physiologically beneficial in the heart, it largely contributes to cardiac disease progression when dysregulated. Current evidence suggests that cAMP is produced within mitochondria. However, mitochondrial cAMP signaling and its involvement in cardiac pathophysiology are far from being understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of MitEpac1 (mitochondrial exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1) in ischemia/reperfusion injury...
February 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890624/mitochondrial-camp-prevents-apoptosis-modulating-sirt3-protein-level-and-opa1-processing-in-cardiac-myoblast-cells
#15
Anna Signorile, Arcangela Santeramo, Grazia Tamma, Tommaso Pellegrino, Susanna D'Oria, Paolo Lattanzio, Domenico De Rasmo
Mitochondria, responding to a wide variety of signals, including oxidative stress, are critical in regulating apoptosis that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. A number of mitochondrial proteins and pathways have been found to be involved in the mitochondrial dependent apoptosis mechanism, such as optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), deacetylase enzyme and cAMP signal. In the present work we report a network among OPA1, Sirt3 and cAMP in ROS-dependent apoptosis...
February 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862857/casticin-induced-apoptotic-cell-death-and-altered-associated-gene-expression-in-human-colon-cancer-colo-205-cells
#16
Hung-Sheng Shang, Jia-You Liu, Hsu-Feng Lu, Han-Sun Chiang, Chia-Hain Lin, Ann Chen, Yuh-Feng Lin, Jing-Gung Chung
Casticin, a polymethoxyflavone, derived from natural plant Fructus Viticis exhibits biological activities including anti-cancer characteristics. The anti-cancer and alter gene expression of casticin on human colon cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Flow cytometric assay was used to measure viable cell, cell cycle and sub-G1 phase, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) productions, level of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm ) and caspase activity. Western blotting assay was used to detect expression of protein level associated with cell death...
November 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836641/2-3-cyclic-nucleotide-3-phosphodiesterase-as-a-messenger-of-protection-of-the-mitochondrial-function-during-melatonin-treatment-in-aging
#17
Yulia Baburina, Irina Odinokova, Tamara Azarashvili, Vladimir Akatov, John J Lemasters, Olga Krestinina
The process of aging is considered to be tightly related to mitochondrial dysfunction. One of the causes of aging is an increased sensitivity to the induction of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in the inner membrane of mitochondria. Melatonin, a natural antioxidant, is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. The role of melatonin whose level decreases with aging is well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that long-term treatment of aged rats with melatonin improved the functional state of mitochondria; thus, the Ca(2+) capacity was enhanced and mitochondrial swelling was deaccelerated in mitochondria...
January 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815506/plasma-membrane-origin-of-the-steroidogenic-pool-of-cholesterol-used-in-hormone-induced-acute-steroid-formation-in-leydig-cells
#18
Sathvika Venugopal, Daniel Benjamin Martinez-Arguelles, Seimia Chebbi, Françoise Hullin-Matsuda, Toshihide Kobayashi, Vassilios Papadopoulos
Hormone-sensitive acute steroid biosynthesis requires trafficking of cholesterol from intracellular sources to the inner mitochondrial membrane. The precise location of the intracellular cholesterol and its transport mechanism are uncertain. Perfringolysin O, produced by Clostridium perfringens, binds cholesterol. Its fourth domain (D4) retains cholesterol-binding properties but not cytotoxicity. We transfected steroidogenic MA-10 cells of mouse Leydig cell tumors with the mCherry-D4 plasmid. Tagged D4 with fluorescent proteins enabled us to track cholesterol...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649969/epac2-rap1-signaling-regulates-reactive-oxygen-species-production-and-susceptibility-to-cardiac-arrhythmias
#19
Zhaokang Yang, Hannah M Kirton, Moza Al-Owais, Jérôme Thireau, Sylvain Richard, Chris Peers, Derek S Steele
AIMS: In the heart, β1-adrenergic signaling involves cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) acting via both protein kinase-A (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac): a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Rap1. Inhibition of Epac-Rap1 signaling has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for both cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, previous work suggests that impaired Rap1 signaling may have detrimental effects on cardiac function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of Epac2-Rap1 signaling on the heart using both in vivo and in vitro approaches...
October 27, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531991/regulation-of-star-by-the-n-terminal-domain-and-coinduction-of-sik1-and-tis11b-znf36l1-in-single-cells
#20
Jinwoo Lee, Tiegang Tong, Haichuan Duan, Yee Hoon Foong, Ibrahim Musaitif, Takeshi Yamazaki, Colin Jefcoate
The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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