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autoimmune diabetes

Kavita J Rawat, Nilakshi H Sabnis, Udit Saraf, Gaurav Surana
Vitamin D functions as a vitamin as well as a hormone. Its major skeletal actions are complemented by varied extra-skeletal functions. During the past decade, association between Vitamin D and its role in various non-skeletal morbidities have been recognized. It plays a role in decreasing the risk of many chronic illnesses like allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, cancers, infections and cardiovascular disease. We report the case of a middle aged female with chronic quadriparesis and new onset anemia associated with Vitamin D deficiency...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Tina M Mitre, Anmar Khadra, Massimo Pietropaolo
The expression level of tissue-restricted autoantigens (TSA) in the thymus is crucial for the negative selection of autoreactive T cells during central tolerance. The autoimmune regulator factor (AIRE) plays an important role in the positive regulation of these TSA in medullary thymic epithelial cells and, consequently, in the negative selection of high-avidity autoreactive T cells. Recent studies, however, revealed that thymic islet cell autoantigen (ICA69) expression level in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, prone to developing type 1 diabetes (T1D), is reduced due to an increase in the binding affinity of AIRE to the Ica1-promoter region, which regulates ICA69 protein synthesis...
October 17, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
Monika Ryba-Stanisławowska, Paulina Werner, Maria Skrzypkowska, Agnieszka Brandt, Jolanta Myśliwska
IL-33 is an IL-1 cytokine family member, with ability to induce both Th1 and Th2 immune responses. It binds to ST2 receptor, whose deficiency is associated with enhanced inflammatory response. The most recent studies have shown the immunoregulatory effect of IL-33 on Tregs in animal models. As type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune, inflammatory disease, where Treg defects have been described, we aimed to analyze the in vitro influence of recombinant IL-33 on quantitative properties of regulatory CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) T cells...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Yoichi Oikawa, Hajime Tanaka, Junko Uchida, Yoshihiro Atsumi, Masaya Osawa, Takeshi Katsuki, Toshihide Kawai, Akira Shimada
Slowly progressive insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM), believed to be caused by β-cell destruction through islet-cell autoimmunity, gradually progresses to an insulin-dependent state over time. Although the presence of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) is required for the diagnosis of SPIDDM, a recent change in the GADA assay kit from radioimmunoassay (RIA) to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) yields mismatched GADA test results between the two kits, leading to confusion in understanding the pathological conditions of SPIDDM in Japan...
October 18, 2016: Endocrine Journal
Xiaojing Wang, Fan Ping, Cuijuan Qi, Xinhua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS-2), also known as Schmidt's syndrome, is an uncommon disorder characterized by the coexistence of Addison's disease with thyroid autoimmune disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. Addison's disease as the obligatory component is potentially life-threatening. Unfortunately, the delayed diagnosis of Addison's disease is common owing to its rarity and the nonspecific clinical manifestation. METHODS: Here we reported a case of 38-year-old female patient who presented with 2 years' history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and received levothyroxine replacement...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aziz Homayouni Rad, Farnaz Sahhaf, Tohid Hassanalilou, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed, Negar Motayagheni, Ahmad-Reza Soroush, Mina Javadi, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian, Leila Khalili
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus, a condition of multifactorial origin, is related to the intestinal microbiota by numerous molecular mechanisms. Controlling the vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes needs a natural and safe solution. Probiotics, known as live microorganisms that exert health benefits to the host, have anti-diabetic property. OBJECTIVE: This review will highlight the current evidences in probiotic effectiveness and future prospects for exploring probiotic therapy in the prevention and control of diabetes...
October 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Thashi Chang, Bethan Lang, Angela Vincent
BACKGROUND: Stiff person syndrome is a highly disabling, progressive autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system characterized by muscle rigidity and spasms. Stiff person syndrome is rare, but is believed to be under diagnosed with only 14 cases been reported among a 1.7 billion population in South Asia. We report the first authenticated case from Sri Lanka. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old Sri Lankan female presented with difficulty in walking and recurrent falls due to progressive muscular rigidity in her lower limbs and trunk with superimposed muscle spasms that occurred in response to unexpected noise, startle or emotional upset...
October 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Gabriela Barcenas-Morales, Peter Jandus, Rainer Döffinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concise overview of the field of anticytokine autoantibodies with a focus on recent developments. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in particular in the analysis of autoantibodies to IFNγ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IFN-1 are presented. The target epitope for anti-IFNγ autoantibodies has been found to have high homology to a protein from Aspergillus suggesting molecular mimicry as a mechanism of breaking self-tolerance...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Brian H Cohen, Michael P Gaspar, Alan H Daniels, Edward Akelman, Patrick M Kane
Double crush syndrome (DCS), as it is classically defined, is a clinical condition composed of neurological dysfunction due to compressive pathology at multiple sites along a single peripheral nerve. The traditional definition of DCS is narrow in scope because many systemic pathologic processes, such as diabetes mellitus, drug-induced neuropathy, vascular disease and autoimmune neuronal damage, can have deleterious effects on nerve function. Multifocal neuropathy is a more appropriate term describing the multiple etiologies (including compressive lesions) that may synergistically contribute to nerve dysfunction and clinical symptoms...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery
Mathew Clement, James A Pearson, Stephanie Gras, Hugo A van den Berg, Anya Lissina, Sian Llewellyn-Lacey, Mark D Willis, Tamsin Dockree, James E McLaren, Julia Ekeruche-Makinde, Emma Gostick, Neil P Robertson, Jamie Rossjohn, Scott R Burrows, David A Price, F Susan Wong, Mark Peakman, Ania Skowera, Linda Wooldridge
CD8(+) T-cells play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes. However, drugs that target the entire CD8(+) T-cell population are not desirable because the associated lack of specificity can lead to unwanted consequences, most notably an enhanced susceptibility to infection. Here, we show that autoreactive CD8(+) T-cells are highly dependent on CD8 for ligand-induced activation via the T-cell receptor (TCR). In contrast, pathogen-specific CD8(+) T-cells are relatively CD8-independent...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Katarzyna Osipowicz, Agnieszka Kalinska-Bienias, Cezary Kowalewski, Katarzyna Wozniak
Haemodialysis is the most frequent form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in patients with end-stage renal disorder (ESRD). Patients with ESRD frequently develop skin problems, mainly xerosis, pruritus and hyperpigmentation, as well as bullous diseases, mainly porphyria or pseudoporphyria and, in some cases, bullous pemphigoid (BP). BP is the most common autoimmune sub-epidermal blistering disease, and it predominantly affects elderly people. Clinically, BP is characterised by generalised pruritic, bullous eruptions and urticaria-like lesions...
October 17, 2016: International Wound Journal
Chantal Kuhn, Rafael M Rezende, Andre Pires da Cunha, Fabrice Valette, Francisco J Quintana, Lucienne Chatenoud, Howard L Weiner
CD3-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) treats autoimmune disease in animal models and has shown promise in clinical trials of type 1 diabetes. Whereas intravenous administration of CD3-specific mAb acts primarily by transient depletion of activated effector T cells, oral CD3-specific mAb acts primarily by the induction Tregs. We investigated whether oral CD3-specific mAb inhibits disease in non obese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop autoimmune diabetes, closely resembling human type 1 diabetes...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
Imran M Paruk, Yasmeen Ganie, Sureka Maharaj, Fraser J Pirie, Vasudevan G Naidoo, Ntombifikile M Nkwanyana, Hilary L Dinnematin, Pratistadevi K Ramdial, Ayesha A Motala
OBJECTIVE: Data on the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and gastric autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Africa are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of antithyroid peroxidase (TPO-A) and antiparietal cell antibody (PCA) in patients with T1DM at a tertiary diabetes clinic in Durban, South Africa. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study among subjects attending the adult T1DM clinic at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Hospital...
October 14, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Zeinab A Elkabbany, Nancy S Elbarbary, Eman A Ismail, Nesrine A Mohamed, Dina Ragab, Shereen Abdel Alem, Yasmine M Ezzat, Sarah S Maurice, Noha U Hashem
AIM: To identify the prevalence and effect of hepatopathies of different etiologies among pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using transient elastography (TE) and its relation to glycemic control. METHODS: One hundred T1DM patients were studied focusing on liver functions, fasting lipid profile, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hepatitis C virus (HCV), serum immunoglobulins, autoimmune antibodies; anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA), and anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody (anti-LKM)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Santhosh Kumar Vr, Hans-Joachim Anders
Cathepsins are a class of proteases with diverse biological activities inside and, in part, also outside cells. Recent studies suggest that cathepsins are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and in disease activity of autoimmune immune complex glomerulonephritis. Targeting specific cathepsins with suitable antagonists may hold promises for therapeutic interventions.
November 2016: Kidney International
Jennifer Gamboa Jackman, Hemraj Juwarker, Luke P Poveromo, Howard Levinson, Kam W Leong, Bruce A Sullenger
Dying cells release nucleic acids (NA) and NA-containing complexes that activate inflammatory pathways of immune cells. Sustained activation of these pathways contributes to chronic inflammation frequently encountered in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In this study, grafting of cationic polymers onto a nanofibrous mesh enabled local scavenging of negatively charged pro-inflammatory molecules in the extracellular space. Nucleic acid scavenging nanofibers (NASFs) formed from poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) conjugated with 1...
October 14, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Berglind Jonsdottir, Christer Larsson, Annelie Carlsson, Gun Forsander, Sten Anders Ivarsson, Åke Lernmark, Johnny Ludvigsson, Claude Marcus, Ulf Samuelsson, Eva Örtqvist, Helena Elding Larsson
CONTEXT: Screening of autoimmune thyroid disease in children and young adults with Type 1 diabetes is important but vary greatly between clinics. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine the predictive value of thyroid autoantibodies, thyroid function, islet autoantibodies, and HLA- DQ at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes for autoimmune thyroid disease during subsequent follow-up. SETTING: 43 Paediatric Endocrinology units Sweden. Design, patients and main outcome measures: At diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes, samples from 2433 children were analysed for autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb), thyroglobulin (TGAb), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulin (IAA), insulinoma-associated protein-2 (IA-2A), and the three variants of the zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8W/R/QA) as well as HLA-DQA1-B1 genotypes and thyroid function...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Rahul Krishnan, David Ko, Clarence E Foster, Wendy Liu, A M Smink, Bart de Haan, Paul De Vos, Jonathan R T Lakey
Transplantation of alginate-encapsulated islets has the potential to treat patients suffering from type I diabetes, a condition characterized by an autoimmune attack against insulin-secreting beta cells. However, there are multiple immunological challenges associated with this procedure, all of which must be adequately addressed prior to translation from trials in small animal and nonhuman primate models to human clinical trials. Principal threats to graft viability include immune-mediated destruction triggered by immunogenic alginate impurities, unfavorable polymer composition and surface characteristics, and release of membrane-permeable antigens, as well as damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by the encapsulated islets themselves...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Fabio Arturo Grieco, Guido Sebastiani, Jonas Juan-Mateu, Olatz Villate, Laura Marroqui, Laurence Ladrière, Ksenya Tugay, Romano Regazzi, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Francesco Dotta, Décio L Eizirik
Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease leading to beta cell destruction. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression and organ formation. They participate in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, but the nature of miRNAs contributing to beta cell death in T1D and their target genes remain to be clarified.We performed a miRNA expression profile on human islet preparations exposed to the cytokines IL-1β+IFN-γ. Confirmation of miRNAs and target genes modification in human beta cells was performed by real-time qPCR...
October 13, 2016: Diabetes
Archana Prabahar, Jeyakumar Natarajan
Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are incurable but suppressible diseases whose molecular mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. In this work, we selected five systemic autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (ATD) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and integrated their heterogeneous data such as miRNA, transcription factor (TF), target genes and protein-protein interactions involved in these AIDs to understand their roles at different functional levels of miRNA such as transcription initiation, gene regulatory network formation and post transcriptional regulation...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
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