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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448895/incidence-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-treated-with-sglt2-inhibitors-and-other-antihyperglycemic-agents
#1
Yiting Wang, Mehul Desai, Patrick B Ryan, Frank J DeFalco, Martijn J Schuemie, Paul E Stang, Jesse A Berlin, Zhong Yuan
AIMS: To estimate and compare incidence of diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) among patients with type 2 diabetes who are newly treated with SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) versus non-SGLT2i antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs) in actual clinical practice. METHODS: A new-user cohort study design using a large insurance claims database in the US. DKA incidence was compared between new users of SGLT2i and new users of non-SGLT2i AHAs pair-matched on exposure propensity scores (EPS) using Cox regression models...
April 13, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448874/regulation-and-roles-of-cd26-dppiv-in-hematopoiesis-and-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Zeynab Aliyari Serej, Abbas Ebrahimi Kalan, Ahmad Mehdipour, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV),(1) on the surface of certain cells, where it is also referred to as CD26, is involved in a vast majority of biological and pathological processes. CD26/DPPIV function contributes to cancer and tumor metastasis as well as inhibition of its expression which alters the expression of immune response-related genes. CD26/DPPIV is a widely distributed multifunctional integral membrane and secreted protein that is defined as early predictive biomarker in HIV, cancer and autoimmunity diseases like diabetes and multiple sclerosis...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446858/a-case-of-autoimmune-polyglandular-syndrome-ype-2-associated-with-atypical-form-of-scleromyxedema
#3
Oleksander Prylutskyi, Olga Prylutska, Anatoliy Degonskyi, Kseniia Tkachenko
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 represents an uncommon endocrine disorder composed by Addison's disease with autoimmune thyroid disease (Schmidt's syndrome) and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. Scleromyxedema is a rare progressive cutaneous mucinosis usually associated with systemic involvement and paraproteinemia. To the best of our knowledge, there is no case report of Schmidt's syndrome associated with scleromyxedema. CASE DETAILS: A 34-year-old woman was admitted to Donetsk Clinical Territorial Medical Association due to acute general weakness, reduced vision, dryness of integuments, memory decline, fatigue, weight loss, rash on the face trunk and extremities...
September 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444954/clinical-presentation-and-outcome-of-children-with-central-diabetes-insipidus-associated-with-a-self-limited-or-transient-pituitary-stalk-thickening-diagnosed-as-infundibuloneurohypophysitis
#4
J Schaefers, M Cools, K De Waele, I Gies, V Beauloye, P Lysy, I Francois, D Beckers, J De Schepper
OBJECTIVE: Despite lymphocytic or autoimmune infundibuloneurohypophysitis (INH) is an increasingly recognized etiology in children with central diabetes insipidus, clinical data on epidemiology (clinical evolution, predisposing factors, complications), diagnosis and management of this entity are limited and mostly based on published case reports. The aim of this study was to gain a broader insight in the natural history of this disease by analyzing the clinical presentation, radiological pituitary stalk changes, associated autoimmunity and hormonal deficiencies in children with CDI and a self-limiting or transient stalk thickening (ST), diagnosed as autoimmune INH, during the last 15 years in four Belgian university hospitals...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444216/dietary-metabolites-derived-from-gut-microbiota-critical-modulators-of-epigenetic-changes-in-mammals
#5
Mohd Iqbal Bhat, Rajeev Kapila
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of commensal microorganisms, collectively known as the microbiota. The microbiota is a critical source of environmental stimuli and, thus, has a tremendous impact on the health of the host. The microbes within the microbiota regulate homeostasis within the gut, and any alteration in their composition can lead to disorders that include inflammatory bowel disease, allergy, autoimmune disease, diabetes, mental disorders, and cancer. Hence, restoration of the gut flora following changes or imbalance is imperative for the host...
April 22, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440768/clinical-and-metabolic-profile-of-patients-with-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-in-specialized-care-in-madrid
#6
Alfonso Arranz Martín, Edurne Lecumberri Pascual, Miguel Ángel Brito Sanfiel, Víctor Andía Melero, Lia Nattero Chavez, Iván Sánchez López, Gloria Cánovas Molina, Francisco Arrieta Blanco, Noemí González Perez Del Villar
OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical characteristics of patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), and to ascertain their metabolic control and associated chronic complications. METHODS: Patients with DM attending specialized medical care in Madrid who met the following criteria: age at diagnosis of DM >30years, initial insulin independence for at least 6months and positive GAD antibodies were enrolled. Clinical profiles, data on LADA diagnosis, associated autoimmunity, C-peptide levels, therapeutic regimen, metabolic control, and presence of chronic complications were analyzed...
January 2017: Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440755/dysfunctional-immunometabolic-effects-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-increased-cardiometabolic-risk-potential-epidemiological-alert-in-america
#7
Martin Rosas-Peralta, Michael F Holick, Gabriela Borrayo-Sánchez, Alejandra Madrid-Miller, Erick Ramírez-Árias, Efrain Arizmendi-Uribe
Vitamin D deficiency is a serious public health problem worldwide that affects not only skeletal health, but also a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, there is still skepticism because of the lack of randomized, controlled trials to support association studies on the benefits of vitamin D for non-skeletal health. This review was based on articles published during the 1980-2015 obtained from the Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, MEDLINE and PubMed, and focuses on recent challenges with regard to the definition of vitamin D deficiency and how to achieve optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels from dietary sources, supplements, and sun exposure...
March 2017: Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439640/the-elusive-role-of-b-lymphocytes-and-islet-autoantibodies-in-human-type-1-diabetes
#8
EDITORIAL
Stef J Bloem, Bart O Roep
The role of B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in humans is not entirely evident. These cells are presumed to be important, but this assumption is largely based on animal models of autoimmune diabetes, where compelling evidence for the contribution of both B lymphocytes and insulin-specific autoantibodies to this disease is in place. For humans, this is much less the case; the exact way in which B lymphocytes and/or autoantibodies may contribute to type 1 diabetes is not yet known but the possibilities include a pathogenic function ('fire'), or they may represent a surrogate of loss of immune tolerance to beta cells ('smoke') or, indeed, they could be a marker of an attempt at immune regulation ('ice water')...
April 24, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438758/diabetes-mellitus-and-acquired-haemophilia-new-association
#9
Carlos Tavares Bello, Yuliya Vasylenko, José Esteves, Carlos Augusto Vasconcelos
Diabetes mellitus encompasses a group of highly prevalent carbohydrate metabolic disorders with an increasing incidence. Some subtypes are thought to be associated with other immune-mediated diseases. Acquired haemophilia on the other hand is a quite rare autoimmune disease that is thought to be secondary to the emergence of inhibiting anticoagulation factor VIII antibodies (inhibitors) in patients with previously normal haemostatic function. More recently, numerous different diseases have been associated with acquired haemophilia namely immune-mediated diseases, drugs and solid and haematologic neoplasms...
April 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438156/relative-contribution-of-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-loci-to-the-genetic-etiology-of-adult-onset-non-insulin-requiring-autoimmune-diabetes
#10
Rajashree Mishra, Alessandra Chesi, Diana L Cousminer, Mohammad I Hawa, Jonathan P Bradfield, Kenyaita M Hodge, Vanessa C Guy, Hakon Hakonarson, Didac Mauricio, Nanette C Schloot, Knud B Yderstræde, Benjamin F Voight, Stanley Schwartz, Bernhard O Boehm, Richard David Leslie, Struan F A Grant
BACKGROUND: In adulthood, autoimmune diabetes can present as non-insulin-requiring diabetes, termed as 'latent autoimmune diabetes in adults' (LADA). In this study, we investigated established type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic loci in a large cohort of LADA cases to assess where LADA is situated relative to these two well-characterized, classic forms of diabetes. METHODS: We tested the association of T1D and T2D GWAS-implicated loci in 978 LADA cases and 1057 non-diabetic controls of European ancestry using a linear mixed model...
April 25, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437437/use-of-short-interfering-rna-delivered-by-cationic-liposomes-to-enable-efficient-down-regulation-of-ptpn22-gene-in-human-t-lymphocytes
#11
Valentina Perri, Marsha Pellegrino, Francesca Ceccacci, Anita Scipioni, Stefania Petrini, Elena Gianchecchi, Anna Lo Russo, Serena De Santis, Giovanna Mancini, Alessandra Fierabracci
Type 1 diabetes and thyroid disease are T cell-dependent autoimmune endocrinopathies. The standard substitutive administration of the deficient hormones does not halt the autoimmune process; therefore, development of immunotherapies aiming to preserve the residual hormonal cells, is of crucial importance. PTPN22 C1858T mutation encoding for the R620W lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase variant, plays a potential pathophysiological role in autoimmunity. The PTPN22 encoded protein Lyp is a negative regulator of T cell antigen receptor signaling; R620W variant, leading to a gain of function with paradoxical reduced T cell activation, may represent a valid therapeutic target...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436760/diabetes-management-by-probiotics-current-knowledge-and-future-pespective
#12
Aziz Homayouni-Rad, Ahmad-Reza Soroush, Leila Khalili, Leila Norouzi-Panahi, Zahra Kasaie, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed
Diabetes mellitus, a multifactorial disorder, is related to the intestinal microbiota via numerous molecular mechanisms. The vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes and its associated complications requires a natural and safe solution. There is a growing evidence of gut microbiota effi ciency in improving insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and metabolic complications in diabetic patients. Probiotics are defi ned as live microorganisms that, when ingested in adequate amounts, exert health benefi ts to the host...
April 24, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432571/cell-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes-current-and-future-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Yasaman Aghazadeh, Maria Cristina Nostro
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is defined by an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing β-cells located in the endocrine part of the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans. As exogenous insulin administration fails at preventing severe complications associated with this disease, cell replacement therapies are being considered as a means to treat T1D. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the challenges associated with current strategies and discuss the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment of T1D...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431796/lessons-learned-from-twins-in-autoimmune-and-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Elena Generali, Angela Ceribelli, Maria Antonietta Stazi, Carlo Selmi
Autoimmunity and chronic inflammation recognize numerous shared factors and, as a result, the resulting diseases frequently coexist in the same patients or respond to the same treatments. Among the convenient truths of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, there is now agreement that these are complex conditions in which the individual genetic predisposition provides a rate of heritability. The concordance rates in monozygotic and dizygotic twins allows to estimate the weight of the environment in determining disease susceptibility, despite recent data supporting that only a minority of immune markers depend on hereditary factors...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431241/akt-pkb-signaling-navigating-the-network
#15
REVIEW
Brendan D Manning, Alex Toker
The Ser and Thr kinase AKT, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), was discovered 25 years ago and has been the focus of tens of thousands of studies in diverse fields of biology and medicine. There have been many advances in our knowledge of the upstream regulatory inputs into AKT, key multifunctional downstream signaling nodes (GSK3, FoxO, mTORC1), which greatly expand the functional repertoire of AKT, and the complex circuitry of this dynamically branching and looping signaling network that is ubiquitous to nearly every cell in our body...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426686/reactive-oxygen-species-are-required-for-driving-efficient-and-sustained-aerobic-glycolysis-during-cd4-t-cell-activation
#16
Dana M Previte, Erin C O'Connor, Elizabeth A Novak, Christina P Martins, Kevin P Mollen, Jon D Piganelli
The immune system is necessary for protecting against various pathogens. However, under certain circumstances, self-reactive immune cells can drive autoimmunity, like that exhibited in type 1 diabetes (T1D). CD4+ T cells are major contributors to the immunopathology in T1D, and in order to drive optimal T cell activation, third signal reactive oxygen species (ROS) must be present. However, the role ROS play in mediating this process remains to be further understood. Recently, cellular metabolic programs have been shown to dictate the function and fate of immune cells, including CD4+ T cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426649/the-importance-of-appropriate-initial-bacterial-colonization-of-the-intestine-in-newborn-child-and-adult-health
#17
REVIEW
W Allan Walker
The fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment and is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut/blood stream which crosses the placenta and enters the amniotic fluid. This intestinal exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life and has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Intestinal crosstalk with colonizing bacteria in the developing intestine affects the infant's adaptation to extrauterine life (immune homeostasis) and provides protection against disease expression (allergy, autoimmune disease, obesity, etc...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424732/evidence-for-loss-in-identity-de-differentiation-and-trans-differentiation-of-islet-%C3%AE-cells-in-type-2-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Chad S Hunter, Roland W Stein
The two main types of diabetes mellitus have distinct etiologies, yet a similar outcome: loss of islet β-cell function that is solely responsible for the secretion of the insulin hormone to reduce elevated plasma glucose toward euglycemic levels. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has traditionally been characterized by autoimmune-mediated β-cell death leading to insulin-dependence, whereas type 2 diabetes (T2D) has hallmarks of peripheral insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and cell death. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that, especially during T2D, key components of β-cell failure involves: (1) loss of cell identity, specifically proteins associated with mature cell function (e...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424681/the-spontaneous-autoimmune-neuromyopathy-in-icosl-nod-mice-is-cd4-t-cell-and-interferon-%C3%AE-dependent
#19
Claire Briet, Gwladys Bourdenet, Ute C Rogner, Chantal Becourt, Isabelle Tardivel, Laurent Drouot, Christophe Arnoult, Jean-Claude do Rego, Nicolas Prevot, Charbel Massaad, Olivier Boyer, Christian Boitard
Abrogation of ICOS/ICOS ligand (ICOSL) costimulation prevents the onset of diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse but, remarkably, yields to the development of a spontaneous autoimmune neuromyopathy. At the pathological level, ICOSL(-/-) NOD mice show stronger protection from insulitis than their ICOS(-/-) counterparts. Also, the ICOSL(-/-) NOD model carries a limited C57BL/6 region containing the Icosl nul mutation, but, in contrast to ICOS(-/-) NOD mice, no gene variant previously reported as associated to NOD diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422000/fibromyalgia-in-300-adult-index-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiency
#20
James C Barton, Luigi F Bertoli, Jackson C Barton, Ronald T Acton
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the prevalence and clinical and laboratory associations of fibromyalgia in adults with primary immunodeficiency (immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSD) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of these observations in 300 non-Hispanic white adult index patients with recurrent/severe respiratory tract infections and IgGSD or CVID: age; sex; IgGSD; fibromyalgia; chronic fatigue; autoimmune conditions (ACs); interstitial cystitis (IC); diabetes; body mass index; serum Ig isotypes; blood lymphocytes and subsets; and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A and -B types and haplotypes...
April 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
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