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Transcription regulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241471/the-roles-of-histone-demethylase-jmjd3-in-osteoblast-differentiation-and-apoptosis
#1
REVIEW
Di Yang, Bo Yu, Haiyan Sun, Lihong Qiu
Posttranslational modifications including histone methylation regulate gene transcription through directly affecting the structure of chromatin. Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) is observed at the promoters of a wide variety of important genes, especially for mammalian development, and contributes to gene silencing. Demethylase Jumonji domain-containing 3 (Jmjd3) catalyzes the transition of H3K27me3 to H3K27me1, therefore from a repressive to an active status of gene expression. Jmjd3 plays important roles in cell differentiation, inflammation, and tumorigenesis by targeting distinct transcription factors...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241467/role-of-protein-phosphatase-2a-in-osteoblast-differentiation-and-function
#2
REVIEW
Hirohiko Okamura, Kaya Yoshida, Hiroyuki Morimoto, Jumpei Teramachi, Kazuhiko Ochiai, Tatsuji Haneji, Akihito Yamamoto
The reversible phosphorylation of proteins plays hugely important roles in a variety of cellular processes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. These processes are strictly controlled by protein kinases (phosphorylation) and phosphatases (de-phosphorylation). Here we provide a brief history of the study of protein phosphorylation, including a summary of different types of protein kinases and phosphatases. One of the most physiologically important serine/threonine phosphatases is PP2A. This review provides a description of the phenotypes of various PP2A transgenic mice and further focuses on the known functions of PP2A in bone formation, including its role in osteoblast differentiation and function...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241436/gomisin-n-inhibits-melanogenesis-through-regulating-the-pi3k-akt-and-mapk-erk-signaling-pathways-in-melanocytes
#3
Jae Kyoung Chae, Lalita Subedi, Minsun Jeong, Yong Un Park, Chul Young Kim, Hakwon Kim, Sun Yeou Kim
Gomisin N, one of the lignan compounds found in Schisandra chinensis has been shown to possess anti-oxidative, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-inflammatory activities in various studies. Here we report, for the first time, the anti-melenogenic efficacy of Gomisin N in mammalian cells as well as in zebrafish embryos. Gomisin N significantly reduced the melanin content without cellular toxicity. Although it was not capable of modulating the catalytic activity of mushroom tyrosinase in vitro, Gomisin N downregulated the expression levels of key proteins that function in melanogenesis...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241431/the-role-of-carbohydrate-response-element-binding-protein-in-intestinal-and-hepatic-fructose-metabolism
#4
REVIEW
Katsumi Iizuka
Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption...
February 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241425/heat-shock-factor-1-depletion-sensitizes-a172-glioblastoma-cells-to-temozolomide-via-suppression-of-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties
#5
Chang-Nim Im, Hye Hyeon Yun, Jeong-Hwa Lee
Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), a transcription factor activated by various stressors, regulates proliferation and apoptosis by inducing expression of target genes, such as heat shock proteins and Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) interacting cell death suppressor (BIS). HSF1 also directly interacts with BIS, although it is still unclear whether this interaction is critical in the regulation of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). In this study, we examined whether small interfering RNA-mediated BIS knockdown decreased protein levels of HSF1 and subsequent nuclear localization under GSC-like sphere (SP)-forming conditions...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241144/mediator-structure-and-rearrangements-required-for-holoenzyme-formation
#6
Kuang-Lei Tsai, Xiaodi Yu, Sneha Gopalan, Ti-Chun Chao, Ying Zhang, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Kenji Murakami, Ronald C Conaway, Joan W Conaway, Francisco J Asturias
The conserved Mediator co-activator complex has an essential role in the regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription in all eukaryotes. Understanding the structure and interactions of Mediator is crucial for determining how the complex influences transcription initiation and conveys regulatory information to the basal transcription machinery. Here we present a 4.4 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy map of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mediator in which conserved Mediator subunits are individually resolved...
March 1, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241141/enl-links-histone-acetylation-to-oncogenic-gene-expression-in-acute-myeloid-leukaemia
#7
Liling Wan, Hong Wen, Yuanyuan Li, Jie Lyu, Yuanxin Xi, Takayuki Hoshii, Julia K Joseph, Xiaolu Wang, Yong-Hwee E Loh, Michael A Erb, Amanda L Souza, James E Bradner, Li Shen, Wei Li, Haitao Li, C David Allis, Scott A Armstrong, Xiaobing Shi
Cancer cells are characterized by aberrant epigenetic landscapes and often exploit chromatin machinery to activate oncogenic gene expression programs. Recognition of modified histones by 'reader' proteins constitutes a key mechanism underlying these processes; therefore, targeting such pathways holds clinical promise, as exemplified by the development of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitors. We recently identified the YEATS domain as an acetyl-lysine-binding module, but its functional importance in human cancer remains unknown...
March 1, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241139/transcription-control-by-the-enl-yeats-domain-in-acute-leukaemia
#8
Michael A Erb, Thomas G Scott, Bin E Li, Huafeng Xie, Joshiawa Paulk, Hyuk-Soo Seo, Amanda Souza, Justin M Roberts, Shiva Dastjerdi, Dennis L Buckley, Neville E Sanjana, Ophir Shalem, Behnam Nabet, Rhamy Zeid, Nana K Offei-Addo, Sirano Dhe-Paganon, Feng Zhang, Stuart H Orkin, Georg E Winter, James E Bradner
Recurrent chromosomal translocations producing a chimaeric MLL oncogene give rise to a highly aggressive acute leukaemia associated with poor clinical outcome. The preferential involvement of chromatin-associated factors as MLL fusion partners belies a dependency on transcription control. Despite recent progress made in targeting chromatin regulators in cancer, available therapies for this well-characterized disease remain inadequate, prompting the need to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, using unbiased CRISPR-Cas9 technology to perform a genome-scale loss-of-function screen in an MLL-AF4-positive acute leukaemia cell line, we identify ENL as an unrecognized gene that is specifically required for proliferation in vitro and in vivo...
March 1, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241135/an-atlas-of-human-long-non-coding-rnas-with-accurate-5-ends
#9
Chung-Chau Hon, Jordan A Ramilowski, Jayson Harshbarger, Nicolas Bertin, Owen J L Rackham, Julian Gough, Elena Denisenko, Sebastian Schmeier, Thomas M Poulsen, Jessica Severin, Marina Lizio, Hideya Kawaji, Takeya Kasukawa, Masayoshi Itoh, A Maxwell Burroughs, Shohei Noma, Sarah Djebali, Tanvir Alam, Yulia A Medvedeva, Alison C Testa, Leonard Lipovich, Chi-Wai Yip, Imad Abugessaisa, Mickaël Mendez, Akira Hasegawa, Dave Tang, Timo Lassmann, Peter Heutink, Magda Babina, Christine A Wells, Soichi Kojima, Yukio Nakamura, Harukazu Suzuki, Carsten O Daub, Michiel J L de Hoon, Erik Arner, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Piero Carninci, Alistair R R Forrest
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are largely heterogeneous and functionally uncharacterized. Here, using FANTOM5 cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) data, we integrate multiple transcript collections to generate a comprehensive atlas of 27,919 human lncRNA genes with high-confidence 5' ends and expression profiles across 1,829 samples from the major human primary cell types and tissues. Genomic and epigenomic classification of these lncRNAs reveals that most intergenic lncRNAs originate from enhancers rather than from promoters...
March 1, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241067/cyclin-y-mediated-transcript-profiling-reveals-several-important-functional-pathways-regulated-by-cyclin-y-in-hippocampal-neurons
#10
I-Seul Joe, Jong-Hwan Kim, Hanna Kim, Jung-Hwa Hong, Mirang Kim, Mikyoung Park
Cyclin Y (CCNY), which is a cyclin protein known to play a role in cell division, is unexpectedly and thus interestingly expressed in non-proliferating neuronal cells. There have been only a few studies reporting the neuronal functions of CCNY in synapse remodeling and hippocampal long-term potentiation. Therefore, we here provide global and comprehensive information on the putative functions of CCNY in biological and functional pathways in neuronal systems. We adopted high-throughput RNA-sequencing technology for analyzing transcriptomes regulated by CCNY and utilized bioinformatics for identifying putative molecules, biological processes, and functional pathways that are possibly connected to CCNY functions in hippocampal neuronal cells of rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241052/osbpl10-rxra-and-lipid-metabolism-confer-african-ancestry-protection-against-dengue-haemorrhagic-fever-in-admixed-cubans
#11
Beatriz Sierra, Petr Triska, Pedro Soares, Gissel Garcia, Ana B Perez, Eglys Aguirre, Marisa Oliveira, Bruno Cavadas, Béatrice Regnault, Mayling Alvarez, Didye Ruiz, David C Samuels, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Luisa Pereira, Maria G Guzman
Ethnic groups can display differential genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases. The arthropod-born viral dengue disease is one such disease, with empirical and limited genetic evidence showing that African ancestry may be protective against the haemorrhagic phenotype. Global ancestry analysis based on high-throughput genotyping in admixed populations can be used to test this hypothesis, while admixture mapping can map candidate protective genes. A Cuban dengue fever cohort was genotyped using a 2.5 million SNP chip...
February 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241048/targeted-proteome-analysis-of-single-gene-deletion-strains-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-lacking-enzymes-in-the-central-carbon-metabolism
#12
Fumio Matsuda, Syohei Kinoshita, Shunsuke Nishino, Atsumi Tomita, Hiroshi Shimizu
Central carbon metabolism is controlled by modulating the protein abundance profiles of enzymes that maintain the essential systems in living organisms. In this study, metabolic adaptation mechanisms in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated by direct determination of enzyme abundance levels in 30 wild type and mutant strains. We performed a targeted proteome analysis using S. cerevisiae strains that lack genes encoding the enzymes responsible for central carbon metabolism. Our analysis revealed that at least 30% of the observed variations in enzyme abundance levels could be explained by global regulatory mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241045/effects-upon-metabolic-pathways-and-energy-production-by-sb-iii-and-as-iii-sb-iii-oxidase-gene-aioa-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-gw4
#13
Jingxin Li, Birong Yang, Manman Shi, Kai Yuan, Wei Guo, Mingshun Li, Gejiao Wang
Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240846/identification-of-a-low-frequency-missense-variant-in-e2f-transcription-factor-7-associated-with-colorectal-cancer-risk-in-a-chinese-population
#14
Ai Ye Guo, Kan Zhai, Jin Ling Xu, Jin Long Hu, Lan Gao
Background: Transcription factors regulate gene expression and play important role in tumor genesis. Especially, the E2F transcription factor family controls the cell cycle and regulate many tumor suppressors. Missense variants in E2F family genes, which change the amino acid sequence, may alter the capacity for DNA binding or the protein structure, leading to a functional alteration. Material and Methods: We here searched for missense variants in E2F transcription family genes (E2F1~E2F8) and identified two (rs2075995 for E2F2 and rs3829295 for E2F7) with minor allele frequencies >0...
1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240777/a-laboratory-simulation-of-arabidopsis-seed-dormancy-cycling-provides-new-insight-into-its-regulation-by-clock-genes-and-the-dormancy-related-genes-dog1-mft-cipk23-and-phya
#15
Steven Footitt, Hülya Ölcer-Footitt, Angela J Hambidge, William E Finch-Savage
Environmental signals drive seed dormancy cycling in the soil to synchronise germination with the optimal time of year; a process essential for species fitness and survival. Previous correlation of transcription profiles in exhumed seeds with annual environmental signals revealed the coordination of dormancy regulating mechanisms with the soil environment. Here, we developed a rapid and robust laboratory dormancy cycling simulation. The utility of this simulation was tested in two ways. Firstly using mutants in known dormancy-related genes (DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1), MOTHER OF FLOWERING TIME (MFT), CBL-INTERACTING PROTEIN KINASE 23 (CIPK23) and PHYTOCHROME A (PHYA))...
February 27, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240738/inflammation-induced-mirna-155-inhibits-self-renewal-of-neural-stem-cells-via-suppression-of-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-c-ebp%C3%AE-expression
#16
Kayoko Obora, Yuta Onodera, Toshiyuki Takehara, John Frampton, Joe Hasei, Toshifumi Ozaki, Takeshi Teramura, Kanji Fukuda
Intracerebral inflammation resulting from injury or disease is implicated in disruption of neural regeneration and may lead to irreversible neuronal dysfunction. Analysis of inflammation-related microRNA profiles in various tissues, including the brain, has identified miR-155 among the most prominent miRNAs linked to inflammation. Here, we hypothesize that miR-155 mediates inflammation-induced suppression of neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal. Using primary mouse NSCs and human NSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, we demonstrate that three important genes involved in NSC self-renewal (Msi1, Hes1 and Bmi1) are suppressed by miR-155...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240737/fatty-acid-synthase-regulates-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-signaling-in-breast-cancer-cells
#17
J A Menendez, R Lupu
Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the key enzyme for endogenous synthesis of fatty acids, is overexpressed and hyperactivated in a biologically aggressive subset of sex steroid-related tumors, including breast carcinomas. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we assessed the molecular relationship between FASN signaling and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in breast cancer. The small compound C75, a synthetic slow-binding inhibitor of FASN activity, induced a dramatic augmentation of estradiol (E2)-stimulated, ERα-driven transcription...
February 27, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240604/autocrine-lysophosphatidic-acid-signaling-activates-%C3%AE-catenin-and-promotes-lung-allograft-fibrosis
#18
Pengxiu Cao, Yoshiro Aoki, Linda Badri, Natalie M Walker, Casey M Manning, Amir Lagstein, Eric R Fearon, Vibha N Lama
Tissue fibrosis is the primary cause of long-term graft failure after organ transplantation. In lung allografts, progressive terminal airway fibrosis leads to an irreversible decline in lung function termed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Here, we have identified an autocrine pathway linking nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 (NFAT1), autotaxin (ATX), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and β-catenin that contributes to progression of fibrosis in lung allografts. Mesenchymal cells (MCs) derived from fibrotic lung allografts (BOS MCs) demonstrated constitutive nuclear β-catenin expression that was dependent on autocrine ATX secretion and LPA signaling...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240601/foxp1-controls-mesenchymal-stem-cell-commitment-and-senescence-during-skeletal-aging
#19
Hanjun Li, Pei Liu, Shuqin Xu, Yinghua Li, Joseph D Dekker, Baojie Li, Ying Fan, Zhenlin Zhang, Yang Hong, Gong Yang, Tingting Tang, Yongxin Ren, Haley O Tucker, Zhengju Yao, Xizhi Guo
A hallmark of aged mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) in bone marrow is the pivot of differentiation potency from osteoblast to adipocyte coupled with a decrease in self-renewal capacity. However, how these cellular events are orchestrated in the aging progress is not fully understood. In this study, we have used molecular and genetic approaches to investigate the role of forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) in transcriptional control of MSC senescence. In bone marrow MSCs, FOXP1 expression levels declined with age in an inverse manner with those of the senescence marker p16INK4A...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240360/melatonin-induced-increase-of-lipid-droplets-accumulation-and-in-vitro-maturation-in-porcine-oocytes-is-mediated-by-mitochondrial-quiescence
#20
Bin He, Chao Yin, Yabin Gong, Jie Liu, Huiduo Guo, Ruqian Zhao
Melatonin, the major pineal secretory product, has a significant impact on the female reproductive system. Recently, the beneficial effects of melatonin on mammalian oocyte maturation and embryonic development have drawn increased attention. However, the exact underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. This study demonstrates that supplementing melatonin to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium enhances IVM rate, lipid droplets (LDs) accumulation as well as triglyceride content in porcine oocytes. Decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV activity as well as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) content indicated that melatonin induced a decrease of mitochondrial activity...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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