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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332244/structural-insights-into-the-function-of-elongator
#1
REVIEW
Udit Dalwadi, Calvin K Yip
Conserved from yeast to humans, Elongator is a protein complex implicated in multiple processes including transcription regulation, α-tubulin acetylation, and tRNA modification, and its defects have been shown to cause human diseases such as familial dysautonomia. Elongator consists of two copies of six core subunits (Elp1, Elp2, Elp3, Elp4, Elp5, and Elp6) that are organized into two subcomplexes: Elp1/2/3 and Elp4/5/6 and form a stable assembly of ~ 850 kDa in size. Although the catalytic subunit of Elongator is Elp3, which contains a radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) domain and a putative histone acetyltransferase domain, the Elp4/5/6 subcomplex also possesses ATP-modulated tRNA binding activity...
January 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332189/the-arabidopsis-histone-chaperone-fact-is-required-for-stress-induced-expression-of-anthocyanin-biosynthetic-genes
#2
Alexander Pfab, Matthias Breindl, Klaus D Grasser
The histone chaperone FACT is involved in the expression of genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes also upon induction by moderate high-light and therefore contributes to the stress-induced plant pigmentation. The histone chaperone FACT consists of the SSRP1 and SPT16 proteins and associates with transcribing RNAPII (RNAPII) along the transcribed region of genes. FACT can promote transcriptional elongation by destabilising nucleosomes in the path of RNA polymerase II, thereby facilitating efficient transcription of chromatin templates...
January 13, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331858/down-regulation-of-long-non-coding-rna-afap1-as1-inhibits-tumor-growth-promotes-apoptosis-and-decreases-metastasis-in-thyroid-cancer
#3
Wencheng Dai, Ye Tian, Bin Jiang, Weixian Chen
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new type of transcripts, play important roles in various cellular biological processes, involving tumorigenesis. Previous studies showed that lncRNA AFAP1-AS1 was aberrantly expressed in numerous cancers. Nevertheless, we know quite a little about the expression pattern and biological function of AFAP1-AS1 in thyroid cancer. In this study, we adopted the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to detect the expression of AFAP1-AS1 in thyroid cancer tissues. We discovered that expression of AFAP1-AS1 was increased in thyroid cancer tissues...
January 11, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331803/caspases-are-key-regulators-of-inflammatory-and-innate-immune-responses-mediated-by-tlr3-in-vivo
#4
Abeer Shaalan, Guy Carpenter, Gordon Proctor
Understanding the key regulators which impact the innate immune response during initial phases of tissue injury, can advance the use of therapeutic approaches which aim at attenuating inflammation and organ damage. Recognition of microbial components by TLRs, initiates the transcription of innate immune signal pathways, that induce the expression of key inflammatory mediators: cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. Beside regulating apoptotic cell death, recent studies have revealed distinct roles for caspases in the optimal production of inflammatory cytokines and host defense against injurious infections...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331689/baicalin-inhibits-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-fibrosis-through-regulating-ampk-tgf-%C3%AE-smads-signaling-pathway
#5
Yichuan Xiao, Jiantao Ye, Ying Zhou, Junjun Huang, Xiawen Liu, Biyun Huang, Liu Zhu, Bo Wu, Genshui Zhang, Yi Cai
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of multiple metabolic pathways. It has been shown that activation of AMPK could inhibit fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, thereby suppressing cardiac fibrosis. Baicalin, the major component found in skullcap, possesses multiple protective effects on the cardiovascular system. However, little is known about the effect of baicalin on cardiac fibrosis and the molecular mechanism by which baicalin exerts its anti-fibrotic effects has not been investigated...
January 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331630/mrna-function-after-intracellular-delivery-and-release
#6
Vladimir P Zhdanov
Nanocarrier-mediated mRNA delivery and release into the cells with subsequent translation to protein is of interest in the context of the development of a new generation of drugs. In particular, this protein can play a role of a transcription factor and be used as a tool to regulate temporarily the genetic networks. The corresponding transient kinetics of gene expression are expected to depend on the mechanism and duration of mRNA release. Assuming the release to be rapid on the time scale of other steps, the author shows theoretically the mRNA-related transient features of gene expression occurring in stable, bistable, and oscillatory regimes in a single cell...
January 10, 2018: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331585/cathepsin-l-promotes-ionizing-radiation-induced-u251-glioma-cell-migration-and-invasion-through-regulating-the-gsk-3%C3%AE-cux1-pathway
#7
Yao Fei, Yajie Xiong, Xiao Shen, Yifan Zhao, Ying Zhu, Long Wang, Zhongqin Liang
Cathepsin L (CTSL) is a lysosomal cysteine protease overexpressed and secreted by tumor cells. Our previous study found that CTSL was involved in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the increase of glioma invasion and migration. However, the mechanisms by which CTSL promoted this IR-induced glioma migration and invasion remained unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that IR reduced glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity, via the CTSL-mediated phosphorylation of its serine-9 residue, in U251 cells...
January 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331583/importins-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-signaling-mediates-endothelial-cell-inflammation-and-barrier-disruption
#8
Antony Leonard, Arshad Rahman, Fabeha Fazal
Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling via importins is central to the function of eukaryotic cells and an integral part of the processes that lead to many human diseases. In this study, we addressed the role of α and β importins in the mechanism of endothelial cell (EC) inflammation and permeability, important pathogenic features of many inflammatory diseases such as acute lung injury and atherosclerosis. RNAi-mediated knockdown of importin α4 or α3 each inhibited NF-κB activation, proinflammatory gene (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and IL-6) expression, and thereby endothelial adhesivity towards HL-60 cells, upon thrombin challenge...
January 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331577/a-novel-encystation-specific-protein-kinase-regulates-chitin-synthesis-in-entamoeba-invadens
#9
Sintu Kumar Samanta, Sneha Susan Varghese, Deepak Krishnan, Mithu Baidya, Digant Nayak, Sumanta Mukherjee, Sudip K Ghosh
Phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins and is involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular events. The proteome of Entamoeba invadens, the reptilian counterpart of Entamoeba histolytica consists of an overwhelming number of putative protein kinases, and some may have a role to play in Entamoeba encystation. In this study, we have identified a novel protein kinase named as EiCSpk (Entamoeba invadenscyst specific protein kinase) which expressed almost exclusively during encystation...
January 10, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331540/plant-flowering-imposing-dna-specificity-on-histone-fold-subunits
#10
REVIEW
Nerina Gnesutta, Roberto Mantovani, Fabio Fornara
CONSTANS (CO) is a master regulator of flowering time, although the mechanisms underlying its role as a transcriptional regulator are not well understood. The DNA-binding domain of CO shares homology with that of NUCLEAR FACTOR YA (NF-YA), a subunit of the CCAAT-binding trimer NF-Y. Recent publications indicate that CO and its rice homolog HEADING DATE 1 (Hd1) form heterotrimers with the histone-fold subunits of NF-Y to efficiently bind promoter elements in the florigen genes. Differences in the DNA-binding specificities of NF-Y and NF-CO can be conceptualized based on our knowledge of the 3D structure of the NF-Y/CCAAT complex...
January 10, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331507/adropin-an-endocrine-link-between-the-biological-clock-and-cholesterol-homeostasis
#11
Sarbani Ghoshal, Joseph R Stevens, Cyrielle Billon, Clemence Girardet, Sadichha Sitaula, Arthur S Leon, D C Rao, James S Skinner, Tuomo Rankinen, Claude Bouchard, Marinelle V Nuñez, Kimber L Stanhope, Deborah A Howatt, Alan Daugherty, Jinsong Zhang, Matthew Schuelke, Edward P Weiss, Alisha R Coffey, Brian J Bennett, Praveen Sethupathy, Thomas P Burris, Peter J Havel, Andrew A Butler
OBJECTIVE: Identify determinants of plasma adropin concentrations, a secreted peptide translated from the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene linked to metabolic control and vascular function. METHODS: Associations between plasma adropin concentrations, demographics (sex, age, BMI) and circulating biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism were assessed in plasma obtained after an overnight fast in humans. The regulation of adropin expression was then assessed in silico, in cultured human cells, and in animal models...
December 30, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331483/gata4-is-a-transcriptional-regulator-of-r-spondin1-in-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#12
Xiumei Liu, Zan Li, Bo Wang, He Zhu, Yuezhong Liu, Jie Qi, Quanqi Zhang
GATA4 is a well-known transcription factor of the GATA family implicated in regulation of sex determination and gonadal development in mammals. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of Paralichthys olivaceus gata4 (Po-gata4). Phylogenetic, gene structure, and synteny analysis showed that Po-GATA4 is homologous to GATA4 of teleost and tetrapod. Po-gata4 transcripts were detected in Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, oogonia and oocytes, with higher transcript levels overall in the testis than the ovary. The promoter region of P...
January 10, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331478/comprehensive-analysis-of-lncrnas-and-mrnas-with-associated-co-expression-and-cerna-networks-in-c2c12-myoblasts-and-myotubes
#13
Rui Chen, Ting Jiang, Yanling She, Sidong Xie, Shanyao Zhou, Cheng Li, Jun Ou, Yulin Liu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators in the modulation of muscle development and muscle-related diseases. To explore potential regulators of muscle differentiation, we determined the expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs in C2C12 mouse myoblast cell line using microarray analysis. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were performed to explore their function. We also constructed co-expression, cis/trans-regulation, and competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks with bioinformatics methods...
January 10, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331418/non-coding-rnas-in-cancer-stem-cells
#14
Huiwen Yan, Pengcheng Bu
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been shown to play a key role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and therapy resistance. Despite their potential clinical importance, the mechanism of CSC regulation is not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that different types of non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), such as microRNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (LncRNA), play a role in regulating CSC growth and replication by modulating transcription factors and downstream signaling pathways activated in CSCs. Here, we review the recent major findings about how they affect stem cell quality acquisition and maintenance in CSCs, as well as metastasis and therapy resistance...
January 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331416/deubiquitinating-enzyme-psmd14-promotes-tumor-metastasis-through-stabilizing-snail-in-human-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Rui Zhu, Yongshuo Liu, Honghong Zhou, Lei Li, Yi Li, Fang Ding, Xiufeng Cao, Zhihua Liu
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transcription factor SNAIL is associated with distant metastasis and poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. The proteolysis of SNAIL is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Several E3 ligases have been characterized to promote SNAIL ubiquitination and degradation. However, the reverse process - deubiquitination of SNAIL remains largely unknown. In this study, we performed a mass spectrometry to examine the interaction between SNAIL and deubiquitinating enzyme(s)...
January 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331415/nogo-b-receptor-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-through-the-ras-erk-snail1-pathway
#16
Donghua Wu, Baofeng Zhao, Xiaoyu Qi, Fang Peng, Hailu Fu, Xinming Chi, Qing Robert Miao, Shujuan Shao
Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) is a specific receptor of Nogo-B that regulates vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. Previously, we found that NgBR promotes the membrane translocation and activation of Ras in breast cancer cells and enhances the chemoresistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil. However, the role of NgBR in lung cancer has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we found that NgBR knockdown inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and metastasis of NSCLC cells in vivo...
January 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331390/the-tet2-e-cadherin-%C3%AE-catenin-regulatory-loop-confers-growth-and-invasion-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#17
Guohua Yang, Xiang Zeng, Mengchuan Wang, Aiguo Wu
The poor outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is mainly due to the development of fast growth, invasion and metastasis. The role of TET2 has been implicated in some cancer types, but its role and mechanisms in HCC remains elusive. In this study, our findings indicated that TET2 expression frequently increased in HCC and that TET2 expressional upregulation correlated with HCC progression. TET2 knockdown inhibited HCC cells proliferation in vitro and growth in vivo, and inhibited the invasion potential of HCC cells...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331388/e4bp4-inhibits-angii-induced-apoptosis-in-h9c2-cardiomyoblasts-by-activating-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-and-promoting-calcium-uptake
#18
Bih-Cheng Chen, Marthandam Asokan Shibu, Chia-Hua Kuo, Chia-Yao Shen, Shu Nu Chang-Lee, Chao-Hung Lai, Ray-Jade Chen, Chun-Hsu Yao, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Jian-Shen Liu, Wei-Kung Chen, Chih-Yang Huang
The bZIP transcription factor E4BP4 is a survival factor that is known to be elevated in diseased heart and promote cell survival. In this study the role of E4BP4 on angiotensin-II (AngII)-induced apoptosis has been examined in in vitro cell model. H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells that overexpressed E4BP4 were exposed to AngII to observe the cardio-protective effects of E4BP4 on hypertension related apoptosis. The results from TUNEL assays revealed that E4BP4 significantly attenuated AngII-induced apoptosis. Further analysis by Western blot and RT-PCR showed that E4BP4 inhibited AngII-induced IGF-II mRNA expression and cleavage of caspase-3 through the PI3K-Akt pathway...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331378/loss-of-zebrafish-smyd1a-interferes-with-myofibrillar-integrity-without-triggering-the-misfolded-myosin-response
#19
Christoph Paone, Steven Rudeck, Christelle Etard, Uwe Strähle, Wolfgang Rottbauer, Steffen Just
Sarcomeric protein turnover needs to be tightly balanced to assure proper assembly and renewal of sarcomeric units within muscle tissues. The mechanisms regulating these fundamental processes are only poorly understood, but of great clinical importance since many cardiac and skeletal muscle diseases are associated with defective sarcomeric organization. The SET- and MYND domain containing protein 1b (Smyd1b) is known to play a crucial role in myofibrillogenesis by functionally interacting with the myosin chaperones Unc45b and Hsp90α1...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331322/expression-level-of-risk-genes-of-mhc-class-ii-is-a-susceptibility-factor-for-autoimmunity-new-insights
#20
REVIEW
Carmen Gianfran, Laura Pisapia, Stefania Picascia, Maria Strazzullo, Giovanna Del Pozzo
To date, the study of the impact of major hystocompatibility complex on autoimmunity has been prevalently focused on structural diversity of MHC molecules in binding and presentation of (auto)antigens to cognate T cells. Recently, a number of experimental evidences suggested new points of view to investigate the complex relationships between MHC gene expression and the individual predisposition to autoimmune diseases. Irrespective of the nature of the antigen, a threshold of MHC-peptide complexes needs to be reached, as well as a threshold of T cell receptors engaged is required, for the activation and proliferation of autoantigen-reactive T cells...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
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