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Social disorder

Amanda Elton, Christopher T Smith, Michael H Parrish, Charlotte A Boettiger
Excessively choosing immediate over larger future rewards, or delay discounting (DD), associates with multiple clinical conditions. Individual differences in DD likely depend on variations in the activation of and functional interactions between networks, representing possible endophenotypes for associated disorders, including alcohol use disorders. Numerous fMRI studies have probed the neural bases of DD, but investigations of large-scale networks remain scant. We addressed this gap by testing whether activation within large-scale networks during Now/Later decision-making predicts individual differences in DD...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
M Rincón-Cortés, R M Sullivan
Disrupted social behavior is a core symptom of multiple psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Many of these disorders are exacerbated by adverse infant experiences, including maltreatment and abuse, which negatively affect amygdala development. Although a link between impaired social behavior, abnormal amygdala function and depressive-like behavior following early adversity has been demonstrated in humans and animal models, the developmental emergence of maltreatment-related social deficits and associated amygdala neural activity are unknown...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
M Blankers
One of the main reasons for treating patients using internet interventions is that this modality is considered highly efficient. However, little is known about the actual cost-effectiveness of internet interventions for alcohol use disorders (aud).<br/> AIM: To provide insight in the cost-effectiveness of internet interventions for the treatment of aud.<br/> METHOD: Review of the relevant literature in this area.<br/> RESULTS: A considerable amount of research has been performed on the effectiveness of internet interventions for aud, with mostly positive findings...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Weiwei Zhong, Christopher Mychal Johnson, Yang Wu, Ningren Cui, Hao Xing, Shuang Zhang, Chun Jiang
BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused mostly by disruptions in the MECP2 gene. MECP2-null mice show imbalances in neuronal excitability and synaptic communications. Several previous studies indicate that augmenting synaptic GABA receptors (GABAARs) can alleviate RTT-like symptoms in mice. In addition to the synaptic GABAARs, there is a group of GABAARs found outside the synaptic cleft with the capability to produce sustained inhibition, which may be potential therapeutic targets for the control of neuronal excitability in RTT...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
T A Teemul, R Patel, A Kanatas, L M Carter
Oromandibular dystonia is a disorder of movement that is often misdiagnosed. We present our experience of six patients treated with botulinum A toxin, for whom we recorded the symptoms, the group of muscles targeted, and the quantity of botulinum toxin used. We used the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) questionnaire to record and analyse outcomes after treatment. Five of the six patients had a good outcome as recorded by the GBI, the mean (SD) score of which was +40 (28), which reflected that the patients were well satisfied...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Jordan P Davis, Tara M Dumas, Eric F Wagner, Gabriel J Merrin
PURPOSE: To examine the social-ecological determinants of substance use treatment entry among serious juvenile offenders over a 7 year period. Using the social-ecological framework, relevant predictors of substance use from the literature were used to assess risk (and protective) factors at the individual, parental, peer and neighborhood level. METHOD: Serious juvenile offenders (N=1354, Mage baseline=16.0 years, SD=1.14) were prospectively followed over 7 years (Mage Conclusion=23...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Pamela Jane Marsh, Vince Polito, Subba Singh, Max Coltheart, Robyn Langdon, Anthony W Harris
BACKGROUND: Impaired ability to make inferences about what another person might think or feel (i.e., social cognition impairment) is recognised as a core feature of schizophrenia and a key determinant of the poor social functioning that characterizes this illness. The development of treatments to target social cognitive impairments as a causal factor of impaired functioning in schizophrenia is of high priority. In this study, we investigated the acceptability, feasibility, and limited efficacy of 2 programs targeted at specific domains of social cognition in schizophrenia: "SoCog" Mental-State Reasoning Training (SoCog-MSRT) and "SoCog" Emotion Recognition Training (SoCog-ERT)...
October 24, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Tamanna Jahan Mony, Jae Won Lee, Cheryl Dreyfus, Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, Hee Jae Lee
Objective: We reported that postnatal exposure of rats to valproic acid (VPA) stimulated proliferation of glial precursors during cortical gliogenesis. However, there are no reports whether enhanced postnatal gliogenesis affects behaviors related to neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: After VPA treatment during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 4, four behavioral test, such as open field locomotor test, elevated plus maze test, three-chamber social interaction test, and passive avoidance test, were performed at PND 21 or 22...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Gianluca Macauda, Robin Bekrater-Bodmann, Peter Brugger, Bigna Lenggenhager
Individuals with xenomelia identify with an amputated rather than with their physically complete, healthy body. They often mimic amputees and show a strong admiration of and sexual attraction towards them. Here we investigated for the first time empirically whether such unusual preference for amputated bodies is present also on an implicit level. Using the well-validated Implicit Association Test we show that individuals with xenomelia manifested a stronger implicit and explicit preference for amputated bodies than a normally-limbed control group and a group of involuntary amputees did...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Namkee G Choi, Diana M DiNitto, C Nathan Marti
BACKGROUND: Given increasing numbers of older-adult marijuana users, this study examined the association of marijuana use and marijuana use disorder with life stressors and perceived social support in the 50+ age group. METHODS: Data came from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=14,715 respondents aged 50+). Life stressors were measured with 12 items related to interpersonal, legal, and financial problems and being a crime victim...
October 18, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Brian E Lacy, Michael D Crowell, Carole Mathis, David Bauer, Leslie J Heinberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastroparesis (GP) patients suffer from recurrent symptoms of nausea, vomiting, early satiety, and abdominal pain. The impact of GP on quality of life (QoL), health care utilization and daily activities is not well understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Part 1: 398 adult patients (≥18 y) with documented GP (symptoms >6 mo) were surveyed to assess QoL and pain using the Short Form 36 and McGill pain questionnaires. Part 2: 491 adult GP patients were surveyed to evaluate employment status, work and daily activities, medication use, physician visits, diagnostic testing, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations related to their GP symptoms...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Laura Campbell-Sills, Peter P Roy-Byrne, Michelle G Craske, Alexander Bystritsky, Greer Sullivan, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Many patients with anxiety disorders remain symptomatic after receiving evidence-based treatment, yet research on treatment-resistant anxiety is limited. We evaluated effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on outcomes of patients with medication-resistant anxiety disorders using data from the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) trial. METHODS: Primary care patients who met study entry criteria (including DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or social anxiety disorder) despite ongoing pharmacotherapy of appropriate type, dose, and duration were classified as medication resistant (n = 227)...
October 24, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Zuzana Novak, Mary Aglipay, Nick Barrowman, Keith O Yeates, Miriam H Beauchamp, Jocelyn Gravel, Stephen B Freedman, Isabelle Gagnon, Gerard Gioia, Kathy Boutis, Emma Burns, Andrée-Anne Ledoux, Martin H Osmond, Roger L Zemek
Importance: Persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCS) pose long-term challenges and can negatively affect patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). To date, no large comprehensive study has addressed the association between PPCS and HRQoL. Objectives: To determine the association between HRQoL and PPCS at 4 weeks after concussion and assess the degree of impairment of HRQoL in the subsequent 12 weeks. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a prospective, multicenter cohort study (Predicting Persistent Postconcussive Problems in Pediatrics [5P]) from August 14, 2013, to September 30, 2014, children aged 5 to 18 years who presented to the emergency department within 48 hours after head injury and were considered to have an acute concussion were enrolled across 9 pediatric emergency departments within the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada Network...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
John F Strang, Haley Meagher, Lauren Kenworthy, Annelou L C de Vries, Edgardo Menvielle, Scott Leibowitz, Aron Janssen, Peggy Cohen-Kettenis, Daniel E Shumer, Laura Edwards-Leeper, Richard R Pleak, Norman Spack, Dan H Karasic, Herbert Schreier, Anouk Balleur, Amy Tishelman, Diane Ehrensaft, Leslie Rodnan, Emily S Kuschner, Francie Mandel, Antonia Caretto, Hal C Lewis, Laura G Anthony
Evidence indicates an overrepresentation of youth with co-occurring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and gender dysphoria (GD). The clinical assessment and treatment of adolescents with this co-occurrence is often complex, related to the developmental aspects of ASD. There are no guidelines for clinical care when ASD and GD co-occur; however, there are clinicians and researchers experienced in this co-occurrence. This study develops initial clinical consensus guidelines for the assessment and care of adolescents with co-occurring ASD and GD, from the best clinical practices of current experts in the field...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Susanna Nuvoli, Angela Spanu, Giuseppe Madeddu
As well known, the increase in life expectancy and the better physical condition of people in western countries will lead in the next 20 years to a dramatic development of neurodegenerative diseases, especially of dementia that could be considered one of the most important problems in clinical, social and economic fields for the future. Therefore, the differential diagnosis of the various types of dementia is a critical step for patients, clinicians and researchers since an accurate "in vivo" diagnosis can lead to a better patients management...
October 19, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Y S Choi, E J Lee
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Panic disorder patients display various panic-related physical symptoms and catastrophic misinterpretation of bodily sensations, which lower their quality of life by interfering with daily activities. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a useful strategy for panic disorder patients to manage symptoms associated with inaccurate cognitive interpretation of situations resulting from the patient's cognitive vulnerability. In South Korea, however, despite the increasing prevalence of panic disorder, CBT is not a common element of nursing care plans for panic disorder patients...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Helen E Vuong, Elaine Y Hsiao
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in 45 children in the United States, with a similarly striking prevalence in countries around the world. However, mechanisms underlying its etiology and manifestations remain poorly understood. Although ASD is diagnosed based on the presence and severity of impaired social communication and repetitive behavior, immune dysregulation and gastrointestinal issues are common comorbidities. The microbiome is an integral part of human physiology; recent studies show that changes in the gut microbiota can modulate gastrointestinal physiology, immune function, and even behavior...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Angélica Torres-Berrío, Juan Pablo Lopez, Rosemary C Bagot, Dominique Nouel, Gregory Dal Bo, Santiago Cuesta, Lei Zhu, Colleen Manitt, Conrad Eng, Helen M Cooper, Kai-Florian Storch, Gustavo Turecki, Eric J Nestler, Cecilia Flores
BACKGROUD: Variations in the expression of the Netrin-1 guidance cue receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) appear to confer resilience or susceptibility to psychopathologies involving prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. METHODS: With the use of postmortem brain tissue, mouse models of defeat stress, and in vitro analysis, we assessed microRNA (miRNA) regulation of DCC and whether changes in DCC levels in the PFC lead to vulnerability to depression-like behaviors...
August 18, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Michael A Kraus, Richard J Fluck, Eric D Weinhandl, Sheru Kansal, Michael Copland, Paul Komenda, Fredric O Finkelstein
Diminished health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is common in dialysis patients and associated with increased risks for morbidity and mortality. Patients may present limitations in both physical and mental HRQoL. Poor physical HRQoL may be defined by limited physical function, role limitations due to physical health, dissatisfaction with physical ability, and impaired mobility. Sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs, and fatigue are typical manifestations of poor physical HRQoL in dialysis patients...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
James B Kirkbride, Yasir Hameed, Gayatri Ankireddypalli, Konstantinos Ioannidis, Carolyn M Crane, Mukhtar Nasir, Nikolett Kabacs, Antonio Metastasio, Oliver Jenkins, Ashkan Espandian, Styliani Spyridi, Danica Ralevic, Suneetha Siddabattuni, Ben Walden, Adewale Adeoye, Jesus Perez, Peter B Jones
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have characterized the epidemiology of first-episode psychoses in rural or urban settings since the introduction of early intervention psychosis services. To address this, the authors conducted a naturalistic cohort study in England, where such services are well established. METHOD: All new first-episode psychosis cases, 16-35 years old, presenting to early intervention psychosis services in the East of England were identified during 2 million person-years follow-up...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
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