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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458190/cannabinoids-prevent-depressive-like-symptoms-and-alterations-in-bdnf-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-ptsd
#1
Or Burstein, Noa Shoshan, Ravid Doron, Irit Akirav
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition highly comorbid with depression. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are suggestively involved in both disorders. We examined whether cannabinoids can prevent the long-term depressive-like symptoms induced by exposure to the shock and situational reminders (SRs) model of PTSD. The CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (0.5 mg/kg; i.p.), the fatty acid hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle were administered 2 h after severe shock...
February 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457672/gambling-related-cognitive-distortions-predict-level-of-function-among-us-veterans-seeking-treatment-for-gambling-disorders
#2
Steven D Shirk, Megan M Kelly, Shane W Kraus, Marc N Potenza, Kendra Pugh, Christopher Waltrous, Edward Federman, Christopher Krebs, Charles E Drebing
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gambling Disorder (GD) is characterized by recurrent gambling behavior that is associated with significant impairment and distress, high psychiatric comorbidities, and high functional disability. The military veteran population appears particularly susceptible to developing the disorder, but relatively little has been studied among this population. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the clinical psychopathologies and comorbidities of veterans seeking treatment for problem gambling and how problem gambling may impact functioning...
February 19, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457600/public-online-information-about-tinnitus-a-cross-sectional-study-of-youtube-videos
#3
Corey H Basch, Jingjing Yin, Betty Kollia, Adeyemi Adedokun, Stephanie Trusty, Felicia Yeboah, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung
Purpose: To examine the information about tinnitus contained in different video sources on YouTube. Materials and Methods: The 100 most widely viewed tinnitus videos were manually coded. Firstly, we identified the sources of upload: consumer, professional, television-based clip, and internet-based clip. Secondly, the videos were analyzed to ascertain what pertinent information they contained from a current National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders fact sheet...
January 2018: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457330/modeling-suicide-in-bipolar-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Gin S Malhi, Tim Outhred, Pritha Das, Grace Morris, Amber Hamilton, Zola Mannie
INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a multicausal human behavior, with devastating and immensely distressing consequences. Its prevalence is estimated to be 20-30 times greater in patients with bipolar disorders than in the general population. The burden of suicide and its high prevalence in bipolar disorders make it imperative that our current understanding be improved to facilitate prediction of suicide and its prevention. In this review, we provide a new perspective on the process of suicide in bipolar disorder, in the form of a novel integrated model that is derived from extant knowledge and recent evidence...
February 19, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457317/effects-of-alcohol-intoxication-on-self-reported-drinking-patterns-expectancies-motives-and-personality-a-randomized-controlled-experimental-study
#5
Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Elisabeth Obst, Ruth Schmidt, Christian Sommer, Paula T Kuitunen, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Ulrich S Zimmermann
Alcohol intoxication may affect self-reports of alcohol use and related constructs, such as impulsivity and dependence symptoms. Improved knowledge about potential systematic reporting biases induced by alcohol, e.g. through disinhibition, may be relevant for the assessment of intoxicated individuals both in clinical routine and research. We therefore randomly assigned 54 socially drinking males aged 18 to 19 without lifetime diagnosis of DSM-IV alcohol dependence to one of two experimental arms: either placebo infusion at day 1 and alcohol infusion at day 2, or vice versa...
February 19, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456827/impairment-of-social-behaviors-in-arhgef10-knockout-mice
#6
Dai-Hua Lu, Hsiao-Mei Liao, Chia-Hsiang Chen, Huang-Ju Tu, Houng-Chi Liou, Susan Shur-Fen Gau, Wen-Mei Fu
Background: Impaired social interaction is one of the essential features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our previous copy number variation (CNV) study discovered a novel deleted region associated with ASD. One of the genes included in the deleted region is ARHGEF10 . A missense mutation of ARHGEF10 has been reported to be one of the contributing factors in several diseases of the central nervous system. However, the relationship between the loss of ARHGEF10 and the clinical symptoms of ASD is unclear...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456286/examining-thematic-similarity-difference-and-membership-in-three-online-mental-health-communities-from-reddit-a-text-mining-and-visualization-approach
#7
Albert Park, Mike Conway, Annie T Chen
Objectives: Social media, including online health communities, have become popular platforms for individuals to discuss health challenges and exchange social support with others. These platforms can provide support for individuals who are concerned about social stigma and discrimination associated with their illness. Although mental health conditions can share similar symptoms and even co-occur, the extent to which discussion topics in online mental health communities are similar, different, or overlapping is unknown...
January 2018: Computers in Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456277/differential-attention-to-faces-in-infant-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-associations-with-later-social-and-language-ability
#8
Jennifer B Wagner, Rhiannon J Luyster, Hana Moustapha, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
A growing body of literature has begun to explore social attention in infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with hopes of identifying early differences that are associated with later ASD or other aspects of development. The present study used eye-tracking to familiar (mother) and unfamiliar (stranger) faces in two groups of 6-month-old infants: infants with no family history of ASD (low-risk controls; LRC), and infants at high risk for ASD (HRA), by virtue of having an older sibling with ASD...
2018: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455900/heart-rate-variability-is-associated-with-psychosocial-stress-in-distinct-social-domains
#9
Alexander Lischke, Robert Jacksteit, Anett Mau-Moeller, Rike Pahnke, Alfons O Hamm, Matthias Weippert
OBJECTIVE: Psychosocial stress is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, there is a growing interest in biomarkers that indicate whether individuals show adaptive (i.e., stress-buffering and health-promoting) or maladaptive (i.e., stress-escalating and health-impairing) stress reactions in social contexts. As heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested to be a biomarker of adaptive behavior during social encounters, it may be possible that inter-individual differences in HRV are associated with inter-individual differences regarding stress in distinct social domains...
March 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455724/adolescent-and-young-adult-male-mental-health-transforming-system-failures-into-proactive-models-of-engagement
#10
REVIEW
Simon M Rice, Rosemary Purcell, Patrick D McGorry
Adolescent and young adult men do poorly on indicators of mental health evidenced by elevated rates of suicide, conduct disorder, substance use, and interpersonal violence relative to their female peers. Data on global health burden clearly demonstrate that young men have a markedly distinct health risk profile from young women, underscoring different prevention and intervention needs. Evidence indicates that boys disconnect from health-care services during adolescence, marking the beginning of a progression of health-care disengagement and associated barriers to care, including presenting to services differently, experiencing an inadequate or poorly attuned clinical response, and needing to overcome pervasive societal attitudes and self-stigma to access available services...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455716/how-collegiate-fraternity-and-sorority-involvement-relates-to-substance-use-during-young-adulthood-and-substance-use-disorders-in-early-midlife-a-national-longitudinal-study
#11
Sean Esteban McCabe, Philip Veliz, John E Schulenberg
PURPOSE: To assess how social fraternity involvement (i.e., membership and residence) in college relates to substance use behaviors and substance use disorder symptoms during young adulthood and early midlife in a national sample. METHODS: National multi-cohort probability samples of US high school seniors from the Monitoring the Future study were assessed at baseline (age 18) and followed longitudinally via self-administered surveys across seven follow-up waves to age 35...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455410/can-patients-with-symptomatic-tarlov-cysts-be-differentiated-from-patients-with-specific-low-back-pain-based-on-comprehensive-history-taking
#12
Maria Anna Hulens, Wim Dankaerts, Ricky Rasschaert, Frans Bruyninckx, Marie-Laure Willaert, Charlotte Vereecke, Greet Vansant
BACKGROUND: Tarlov cysts (TCs) are expanded nerve root sheaths that occur near the dorsal root ganglion and result from increased intraspinal hydrostatic pressure. TCs most frequently affect the lumbosacral plexus and therefore may cause specific symptoms such as perineal pain and neurogenic bladder, bowel, and sphincter problems. It has been estimated that 1% of the population has symptomatic Tarlov cysts (STCs). However, STCs appear to be underdiagnosed, with the pain reported by patients commonly attributed to degenerative alterations seen on MRI...
February 17, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455215/stroke-and-seizure-continue-to-be-the-major-brunt-of-in-patient-neurology-care-an-observation-from-teaching-hospital
#13
Azra Zafar, Majed Alabdali, Rizwana Shahid, Danah Aljaafari, Fahd A Al-Khamis, Aishah I Albakr, Saima Nazish, Abdulla A Al-Sulaiman, Alon Abraham
OBJECTIVE: To assess the burden and describe the pattern of neurological disorders requiring admissions in a teaching hospital of Al Khobar. METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross sectional study, carried out in the Neurology Department of King Fahd Hospital of the University from January 2009 to December 2016. Neurological disorders were grouped as ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, seizure disorders, central nervous system infection, multiple sclerosis, neuropathies, myopathies, headache, dementia and miscellaneous group...
January 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455060/major-depressive-disorder-and-depressive-symptoms-in-intermittent-explosive-disorder
#14
Gustavo C Medeiros, Liliana Seger, Jon E Grant, Hermano Tavares
It is estimated that between 1.7 and 2.6 million people have had intermittent explosive disorder (IED) during their life in the United States alone. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders are very common in IED, being major depressive disorder arguably the most common. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical correlates of IED and depressive manifestations in 74 treatment-seeking subjects. After controlling for confounders, there were associations between major depressive disorder and severity of depressive symptoms, and (a) higher assault scores, (b) more severe hostile behavior and (c) worse social adjustment...
February 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454315/prevalence-and-correlates-of-positive-mental-health-in-chinese-adolescents
#15
Cheng Guo, Göran Tomson, Christina Keller, Fredrik Söderqvist
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the prevalence of positive mental health and its correlates are still scarce compared to the studies on mental disorders, although there is growing interest of assessing positive mental health in adolescents. So far, no other study examining the prevalence and determinants of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents has been found. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents...
February 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454178/caffeine-use-disorder-an-item-response-theory-analysis-of-proposed-dsm-5-criteria
#16
Csilla Ágoston, Róbert Urbán, Mara J Richman, Zsolt Demetrovics
INTRODUCTION: Caffeine is a common psychoactive substance with a documented addictive potential. Caffeine withdrawal has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), but caffeine use disorder (CUD) is considered to be a condition for further study. The aim of the current study is (1) to test the psychometric properties of the Caffeine Use Disorder Questionnaire (CUDQ) by using a confirmatory factor analysis and an item response theory (IRT) approach, (2) to compare IRT models with varying numbers of parameters and models with or without caffeine consumption criteria, and (3) to examine if the total daily caffeine consumption and the use of different caffeinated products can predict the magnitude of CUD symptomatology...
February 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453926/sleep-disorder-prevalence-in-at-risk-adolescents-and-potential-effects-of-nightmare-triad-syndrome
#17
Natalia D McIver, Barry Krakow, Jessica Krakow, Michael R Nadorff, Victor A Ulibarri, Robert Baade
Objective At-risk high school students, those considered to have a higher probability for academic failure or dropping out, were assessed for various sleep disorders. Effects were compared between students with and without the nightmare triad syndrome (NTS+), the sleep disorders' cluster of frequent nightmares, insomnia disorder and suspected sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Methods Data were gathered at a charter school for at-risk youth using: computer based surveys, physical airway exams, and mental health interviews by school social worker...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453711/prevalence-of-dsm-5-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-school-based-children-aged-3-12-years-in-shanghai-china
#18
Zhijuan Jin, You Yang, Shijian Liu, Hong Huang, Xingming Jin
We estimated the prevalence of ASD in a population-based sample comprising children aged 3-12 years (N = 74,252) in Shanghai. This included a high-risk group sampled from special education schools and a low-risk group randomly sampled from general schools. First, we asked parents and then teachers to complete the Social Communication Questionnaire for participating children. Children who screened positive based on both parental and teachers' reports were comprehensively assessed. ASD was identified based on DSM-5 criteria...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453708/exploring-the-effectiveness-of-a-peer-mediated-model-of-the-peers-curriculum-a-pilot-randomized-control-trial
#19
Nicole L Matthews, Beatriz C Orr, Katrina Warriner, Mary DeCarlo, Mia Sorensen, Jessica Laflin, Christopher J Smith
This study compared immediate and 4-month outcomes among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder randomly assigned to the PEERS curriculum (n = 10), a peer mediated PEERS curriculum (n = 12), or a delayed treatment control group (n = 12). Findings suggest a modest advantage in social skills knowledge and social functioning for participants in the peer-mediated PEERS curriculum relative to Traditional PEERS, and gains in social skills knowledge, social functioning, and reductions in loneliness were maintained in one or both treatment groups at a 4-month follow-up...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453707/brief-report-when-large-becomes-slow-zooming-out-visual-attention-is-associated-to-orienting-deficits-in-autism
#20
Luca Ronconi, Maria Devita, Massimo Molteni, Simone Gori, Andrea Facoetti
Previous studies independently demonstrated impairments in rapid orienting/disengagement and zooming-out of spatial attention in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These attentional mechanisms, however, are not completely independent. Aiming at a more complete picture of spatial attention deficits in ASD, we examined the relationship between orienting and zooming in participants with ASD and typically developing peers. We modified a classical spatial cuing task, presenting two small or large cues in the two visual hemifields and subsequently cueing attention to one of them...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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