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Social disorder

Aimee Mooney, Naomi Beale, Melanie Fried-Oken
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by insidious language deterioration. This young-onset disorder leaves adults with reduced communication skills for participation in social activities. There is limited evidence regarding group treatment for individuals with PPA, though the principles of chronic aphasia groups can be applied to this clinical population. We developed a PPA group treatment model incorporating compensatory strategies from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), communication partner training from aphasia rehabilitation, and systematic instruction from dementia management...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Dzenana Kartal, Nathan Alkemade, Maurice Eisenbruch, David Kissane
OBJECTIVE: Acculturation studies conducted with refugees have predominantly concentrated on investigating the impact of acculturative stress on mental health, and have neglected to investigate the impact of cultural orientations towards the host and ethnic cultures. Furthermore, exposure to traumas is highly prevalent in refugees and strongly associated with mental health outcomes, however, rarely included in investigations of acculturative process of refugees. METHOD: Using structural equation modelling, this study tested an integrated model of the relationship between traumatic exposure, acculturative stress, host and ethnic cultural orientations and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety symptoms among 138 Bosnian refugees resettled in Australia and Austria...
June 21, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Marwa Mohamed Zalat, Eman Mohamed Mortada, Omnia Samir El Seifi
This study was conducted to assess the level of mental health difference between working and non-working women, to explore their stigma and attitude toward seeking psychological help for mental-health problems. World Health Organization's Self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20), adoption of Discrimination-Devaluation scale (D-D) scale for measuring self-stigma and attitude toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS) Inventory were used. The sampled teachers reported a higher attitude towards seeking mental health services when compared to housewives...
June 21, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Ruth McGovern, Elaine Stamp, Mehdi Javanbakht, Elaine McColl, Matthew Hickman, Eileen Kaner
Background: Research estimates that 30% of children under the age of 16 years in the UK live with at least one parent with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). Parental AUDs are associated with adverse childhood experiences and poorer outcomes for children. The PAReNTS (Promoting Alcohol Reduction in Non-Treatment Seeking parents) trial aims to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a randomised controlled trial of brief alcohol interventions to reduce parental alcohol misuse. Methods: The cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted within early help family support and children's social care services in three local authorities in the North East of England: Newcastle, Durham and North Tyneside...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Gaia Sampogna, Andrea Fiorillo, Mario Luciano, Valeria Del Vecchio, Luca Steardo, Benedetta Pocai, Marina Barone, Mario Amore, Francesca Pacitti, Liliana Dell'Osso, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Mario Maj
Patients with severe mental disorders die on average 20 years prior to the general population. This mortality gap is mainly due to the higher prevalence of physical diseases and the adoption of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors.The LIFESTYLE trial aims to evaluate the efficacy of a new psychosocial group intervention (including psychoeducational, motivational, and problem-solving techniques) focused on healthy lifestyle behavior compared to a brief educational group intervention in a community sample of patients with severe mental disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Silviu Bacanu, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Previous high-risk family designs in psychiatry have focused largely on offspring of affected parents. We take a pedigree-based approach and examine the social, psychological, and psychiatric features of offspring from extended pedigrees selected for high-densities of alcohol use disorder (AUD) or drug abuse (DA). We identified, from the Swedish population, 665,715 pedigrees containing a mean of 17.9 parents, aunts/uncles, grandparents, and cousins of a core full-sibship we term the pedigree offspring. We then derived 13 empirical classes of these pedigrees based on the density of cases of AUD and DA...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Andrew E Arrant, Alexandra M Nicholson, Xiaolai Zhou, Rosa Rademakers, Erik D Roberson
BACKGROUND: Loss of function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that localizes to lysosomes and is critical for proper lysosomal function. Heterozygous GRN mutation carriers develop FTD with TDP-43 pathology and exhibit signs of lysosomal dysfunction in the brain, with increased levels of lysosomal proteins and lipofuscin accumulation. Homozygous GRN mutation carriers develop neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), an earlier-onset lysosomal storage disorder caused by severe lysosomal dysfunction...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Solveig Glestad Christiansen, Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen
BACKGROUND: There has been an absolute and relative increase in the number of patients with cannabis-related disorders as the principal diagnosis in many countries in recent years. Cannabis is now the most frequently mentioned problem drug reported by new patients in Europe, and cannabis patients constituted one third of all drug treatment patients in 2015. There is limited knowledge with regard to patient characteristics, the extent and types of health and psychosocial problems, as well as their association with long-term outcomes...
June 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
Adam M Reid, Andrew G Guzick, Alyka Glor Fernandez, Brett Deacon, Joseph P H McNamara, Gary R Geffken, Ryan McCarty, Catherine W Striley
Exposure therapy is a highly effective, evidence-based treatment technique for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Regardless, therapists in the community are reported to use exposure relatively rarely compared with other approaches. The goal of the present study was to identify how practicing clinicians treat youth with anxiety disorders across the United States and what factors contribute to their use of exposure therapy. Recruited from public directories, 257 private practice therapists who treat anxious youth were surveyed...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Preethi Premkumar, Juliana Onwumere, Lucy Betts, Fränze Kibowski, Elizabeth Kuipers
Schizotypal traits are a cluster of personality styles suggesting a potential liability for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Interpersonal schizotypal traits include cognitive disorganisation which consists of social anxiety, and introvertive anhedonia which consists of a lack of pleasure in social activities. Rejection sensitivity is evident all along this continuum. This study aimed to determine whether psychosocial quality of life (QOL), neuroticism and agreeableness mediates the relation between schizotypy and rejection sensitivity...
June 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Mia Atoui, Fatima El Jamil, Joseph El Khoury, Mark Doumit, Nathalie Syriani, Munir Khani, Ziad Nahas
Background: Schizophrenia is often associated with poor clinical insight (unawareness of mental illness and its symptoms) and deficits in empathy, which are important for social functioning. Cognitive empathy has been linked to clinical insight while affective empathy and its role in insight and pathology have received mixed evidence. Methods: Instruments assessing symptomatology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS), clinical insight (Scales to assess awareness of mental disorders; SUMD), and cognitive and affective empathy were administered to 22 participants with first episode and chronic schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Kiook Baek, Seonhee Yang, Miyoung Lee, Insung Chung
Background: Many studies have reported negative psychological or physical effects of emotional labor. Relationship between work-related musculoskeletal disorder and psychosocial factors has been reported. To manage organizational and psychosocial factors of musculoskeletal disorder with work place intervention among emotional laborers, the factors contributing to musculoskeletal pain must be identified and clarified. Methods: Data from the fourth Korean Working Conditions Survey was analyzed...
June 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Karolis Baronas, Tautvydas Rančelis, Aidas Pranculis, Ingrida Domarkienė, Laima Ambrozaitytė, Vaidutis Kučinskas
Background: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using (1). Abusive alcohol consumption directly affects a person's physical and psychological health and social life. The World Health Organization has shown that Lithuania is a leading country in pure alcohol consumption in the world (2). The aim of this study is to find novel genome variants that are associated with the AUD in the Lithuanian cohort...
2018: Acta Medica Lituanica
Luigi Russo, Francesco Craig, Marta Ruggiero, Claudio Mancuso, Rita Galluzzi, Alessandro Lorenzo, Isabella Fanizza, Antonio Trabacca
INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggests that impairments in social cognition are associated to the cognitive abilities needed to take several viewpoints in perceptual situations and body awareness. The aim of the current study was to investigate Visual Perspective Taking (VPT) and Body awareness performance in a group of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) compared with a group of children with Intellectual Disability (ID) and typically developing (TD) children. METHODS: Our groups were administered an IQ test and a VPT task, and body awareness tests...
June 21, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Wyatte C Hall, Dongmei Li, Timothy D V Dye
OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of hearing loss on child behavioral diagnoses, and socioemotional and behavior status. METHODS: We analyzed US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) child data, years 2011 to 2015, for associations between reported hearing loss and relevant NHIS items. RESULTS: Compared with hearing children, NHIS respondents with a deaf child were more likely to report developmental delays (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 11...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Pilib Ó Broin, Michael V Beckert, Tomohisa Takahashi, Takeshi Izumi, Kenny Ye, Gina Kang, Patricia Pouso, Mackenzie Topolski, Jose L Pena, Noboru Hiroi
Neonatal vocalization is structurally altered in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our published data showed that pup vocalization, under conditions of maternal separation, contains sequences whose alterations in a genetic mouse model of ASD impair social communication between pups and mothers. We describe details of a method which reveals the statistical structure of call sequences that are functionally critical for optimal maternal care. Entropy analysis determines the degree of non-random call sequencing...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
Ya A Latyshev, A D Kravchuk, L B Likhterman, N E Zakharova, O S Zaytsev, A G Gavrilov, V A Okhlopkov, A A Potapov
One of the frequent consequences of severe traumatic brain injury is posttraumatic hydrocephalus that not only hampers the processes of consciousness recovery, rehabilitation, and social adaptation of patients but also is the cause of disability. Pathological processes underlying the clinical picture of posttraumatic hydrocephalus and the relationship between CSF circulation disorders and structural changes in the brain substance have not been adequately studied. Of particular importance are patients in the chronic vegetative or minimally conscious state, recovery from which is blocked by posttraumatic hydrocephalus...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
A R Rasulov
AIM: To determine the factors that shape attitudes towards people with severe mental disorders as well as to establish correlations between these factors and socio-demographic variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study was conducted among 1000 respondents in five regions of the country. The questionnaire included different aspects concerning the relation of society towards people with mental disorders. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The study established three-factor structure of attitudes towards people with mental illness: social distance, perseption of social threat, tolerant attitude Older age and a personal acquaintance with the patient were associated with lower ratings of social distance, while female gender was associated with a greater level of perception of social threat...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Haang Jeung, Stephan Walther, Christoph W Korn, Katja Bertsch, Sabine C Herpertz
Although emotional reactivity to social rejection has been examined in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in several studies, the effects of other aspects of social feedback, such as evaluation of one's opinions that concern self-esteem, have not been addressed yet. The objective of this study was to examine emotional responses of BPD patients after exchanging personal opinions in a new, ecologically valid virtual peer interaction paradigm ("chatroom paradigm"). In this paradigm, 21 BPD patients and 21 healthy controls received peer feedback on their own statements and rated the intensity of their own emotional responses (happiness, sadness, anger, and shame) and the self or other affirmation in response to agreement, disagreement, and neutral statements...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Steven A Safren, Aaron J Blashill, Jasper S Lee, Conall O'Cleirigh, Julia Tomassili, Katie B Biello, Matthew J Mimiaga, Kenneth H Mayer
OBJECTIVE: Among men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV sexual risk and poor self-care behavior is associated with syndemics, or co-occurring psychosocial problems. Though prior research has demonstrated an additive total effect of syndemics on HIV risk behavior and infection, mostly within cross-sectional designs, it is possible that these associations are not direct but rather that syndemics disrupt relevant individual-level mediating psychological variables. One of the more common individual-level psychological variables that predicts health behavior generally, and HIV risk behavior specifically, is self-efficacy...
June 21, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
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