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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430980/the-relationship-between-symptom-relief-and-psychosocial-functional-improvement-during-acute-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Ching-Hua Lin, Wei-Cheng Yang
Background: We aimed to compare the degree of symptom relief to psychosocial functional (abbreviated as "functional") improvement and explore the relationships between symptom relief and functional improvement during acute electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: MDD inpatients (N=130) requiring ECT were recruited. ECT was generally performed for a maximum of 12 treatments. Symptom severity, using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), and psychosocial functioning (abbreviated as "functioning"), using the Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale (MWSAS), were assessed before ECT, after every 3 ECT treatments, and after the final ECT...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430588/chronic-grouped-social-restriction-triggers-long-lasting-immune-system-adaptations
#2
Rui Tian, Gonglin Hou, Liuwei Song, Jianming Zhang, Ti-Fei Yuan
Chronic stress triggers rigorous psychological and physiological changes, including immunological system adaptations. However, the effects of long-term social restriction on human immune system have not been investigated. The present study is to investigate the effect of chronic stress on immune changes in human blood, with the stress stimuli controlled.10 male volunteers were group isolated from the modern society in a 50-meter-square room for 150 days, with enriched nutrition and good living conditions provided...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429620/physician-perspectives-on-decision-making-for-treatment-of-pediatric-sleep-disordered-breathing
#3
Emily F Boss, Anne R Links, Ron Saxton, Tina L Cheng, Mary Catherine Beach
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is prevalent in children and most commonly treated by surgery with adenotonsillectomy. We aimed to learn physician perspectives of social and communication factors that influence decision making for treatment of pediatric SDB. Purposive sampling identified 10 physician key informants across disciplines and practice settings, who participated in semistructured interviews regarding SDB care experiences and communication with parents. Interviews were analyzed using directed qualitative content analysis...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429618/the-clinician-perspective-on-sex-differences-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Rene Jamison, Somer L Bishop, Marisela Huerta, Alycia K Halladay
Research studies using existing samples of individuals with autism spectrum disorders have identified differences in symptoms between males and females. Differences are typically reported in school age and adolescence, with similarities in symptom presentation at earlier ages. However, existing studies on sex differences are significantly limited, making it challenging to discern if, how, and at what point in development females with autism spectrum disorder actually exhibit a different behavioral presentation than males...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429606/parent-and-patient-perceptions-of-functional-impairment-due-to-tourette-syndrome-development-of-a-shortened-version-of-the-child-tourette-syndrome-impairment-scale
#5
Kara S Francis Barfell, Ryan R Snyder, Kelly M Isaacs-Cloes, Jordan F Garris, Alyssa R Roeckner, Paul S Horn, Michael D Guthrie, Steve W Wu, Donald L Gilbert
The Child Tourette Syndrome Impairment Scale (CTIM) rates 37 problems in school, social, and home domains separately for tics and for comorbid diagnoses. However, a shorter version would be easier to implement in busy clinics. Using published data from 85 children with Tourette syndrome, 92 controls, and parents, factor analysis was used to generate a "mini-CTIM" composed of 12 items applied to tic and comorbid diagnoses. Child- and parent-rated mini-CTIM scores were compared and correlated across raters and accounting for clinician-rated tic severity and presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429385/risk-factors-proximate-to-suicide-and-suicide-risk-assessment-in-the-context-of-denied-suicide-ideation
#6
Alan L Berman
Health care providers have significant opportunities to identify individuals at near-term risk for suicide, but lack empirical data on near-term risk factors. This study aimed to identify dynamic, state-related risk factors observed by clinical practitioners within the last 30 days of life of 157 patients who died by suicide and to compare these near-term risk factors among patients who denied versus responded positively to having suicide ideation (SI) when last asked by a clinical practitioner prior to their death...
April 21, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428813/perinatal-depression-in-nigeria-perspectives-of-women-family-caregivers-and-health-care-providers
#7
Ademola Adeponle, Danielle Groleau, Lola Kola, Laurence J Kirmayer, Oye Gureje
BACKGROUND: Perinatal maternal depression is common and undertreated in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Nigeria. While culture shapes the social determinants and expression of depressive symptoms, there is a dearth of research investigating these processes in African contexts. METHODS: To address this gap, we conducted in-depth interviews with 14 women with perinatal depression, 14 of their family caregivers and 11 health providers, using the McGill Illness Narrative Interview as part of a larger trial of a stepped-care intervention...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428763/adhd-lifestyles-and-comorbidities-a-call-for-an-holistic-perspective-from-medical-to-societal-intervening-factors
#8
REVIEW
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch, Michal Goetz
The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428676/behavioral-problems-and-emotional-difficulties-at-children-and-early-adolescents-of-the-veterans-of-war-with-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Zihnet Selimbasic, Osman Sinanovic, Esmina Avdibegovic, Maja Brkic, Jasmin Hamidovic
INTRODUCTION: Behavioral problems and emotional difficulties at children of the veterans of war with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have not been researched entirely. In our country, which has a lot of persons suffering from some psychological traumas, this trauma seems to continue. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the exposure, manifestations of behavioral problems and emotional difficulties at children and early adolescents, whose fathers were the veterans of war demonstrating post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms...
February 2017: Medical Archives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428145/prior-treadmill-exercise-promotes-resilience-to-vicarious-trauma-in-rats
#10
Camila Kochi, Hesong Liu, Safiyya Zaidi, Fatin Atrooz, Phoebe Dantoin, Samina Salim
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychological condition, which can develop both from physically experiencing and also from witnessing traumatic events. There is evidence that physical exercise can have a positive impact on the symptoms of PTSD. Relevant to this, in our previous pre-clinical work, beneficial effects of treadmill exercise were reported on PTSD-like behaviors in a social defeat paradigm, a rat model of direct physical trauma. However, the role of exercise on vicariously acquired PTSD-like phenotype was not examined...
April 17, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427388/movement-cognition-and-narration-of-the-emotions-treatment-versus-standard-speech-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-children-with-borderline-intellectual-functioning-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
V Blasi, G Baglio, F Baglio, M P Canevini, M Zanette
BACKGROUND: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is defined as a "health meta-condition… characterized by various cognitive dysfunctions associated with an intellectual quotient (IQ) between 71 and 85 which determines a deficit in the individual's functioning both in the restriction of activities and in the limitation of social participation". It can be caused by many factors, including a disadvantaged background and prematurity. BIF affects 7-12% of primary school children that show academic difficulties due to poor executive functioning...
April 20, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427329/cross-disorder-comparative-analysis-of-comorbid-conditions-reveals-novel-autism-candidate-genes
#12
Leticia Diaz-Beltran, Francisco J Esteban, Maya Varma, Alp Ortuzk, Maude David, Dennis P Wall
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have highlighted the elevated degree of comorbidity associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These comorbid conditions may add further impairments to individuals with autism and are substantially more prevalent compared to neurotypical populations. These high rates of comorbidity are not surprising taking into account the overlap of symptoms that ASD shares with other pathologies. From a research perspective, this suggests common molecular mechanisms involved in these conditions...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427306/prefrontal-tdcs-and-sertraline-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Ulrich Palm, Bianka Leitner, Beatrice Kirsch, Nora Behler, Ulrike Kumpf, Linda Wulf, Frank Padberg, Alkomiet Hasan
Obsessive-compulsive (OC) disorder is a disabling disorder resulting in tremendous individual and social burden. It has a large overlap with depression and anxiety disorders and shows treatment resistance in a relevant proportion of patients. Since a couple of years, different noninvasive brain stimulation methods have been investigated to improve OC symptoms. The application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown inconsistent results which can probably be attributed to a lack in randomized controlled trials with adequate sample size...
April 21, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427035/associations-between-executive-functions-and-mental-health-outcomes-for-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
David Zimmerman, Tamara Ownsworth, Analise O'Donovan, Jacqueline Roberts, Matthew J Gullo
Associations between executive functions (EF) and mental-health in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were examined. Forty-two adults with ASD completed measures of EF, mood and self-concept. Better concept formation and social inference skills were significantly associated with fewer anxiety symptoms. Conversely, participants with better non-verbal reasoning, cognitive flexibility and social cognition reported more negative self-concept and lower self-esteem. Overall, individuals with impaired EF are more prone to anxiety, whereas those with stronger EF are more likely to experience negative self-concept...
April 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427032/social-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder-focus-on-emotional-intelligence
#15
C Varo, E Jimenez, B Solé, C M Bonnín, C Torrent, E Valls, I Morilla, G Lahera, A Martínez-Arán, E Vieta, M Reinares
BACKGROUND: The present study aims to characterize emotional intelligence (EI) variability in a sample of euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) patients through the Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). METHOD: A total of 134 euthymic BD outpatients were recruited and divided into three groups according to the total Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EIQ) score of the MSCEIT, following a statistical criterion of scores 1.5SDs above/below the normative group mean, as follows: a low performance (LP) group (EIQ <85), a normal performance (NP) group (85≤EIQ≤115), and a high performance (HP) group (EIQ >115)...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427024/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-about-epilepsy-among-teachers-at-ethio-national-school-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#16
Tesfaye Berhe, Bethlehem Yihun, Emebet Abebe, Hailu Abera
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders and is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its dramatic clinical manifestations, has resulted in a strong social stigma. Since teachers have a key role in society as educators, the purpose of this study was to find out the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards epilepsy among school teachers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of 135 teachers about epilepsy using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire...
April 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425776/development-of-the-aboriginal-communication-assessment-after-brain-injury-acaabi-a-screening-tool-for-identifying-acquired-communication-disorders-in-aboriginal-australians
#17
Elizabeth M Armstrong, Natalie Ciccone, Deborah Hersh, Judith Katzenellebogen, Juli Coffin, Sandra Thompson, Leon Flicker, Colleen Hayward, Deborah Woods, Meaghan McAllister
PURPOSE: Acquired communication disorders (ACD), following stroke and traumatic brain injury, may not be correctly identified in Aboriginal Australians due to a lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate assessment tools. Within this paper we explore key issues that were considered in the development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI) - a screening tool designed to assess the presence of ACD in Aboriginal populations. METHOD: A literature review and consultation with key stakeholders were undertaken to explore directions needed to develop a new tool, based on existing tools and recommendations for future developments...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425618/classifying-adults-with-binge-eating-disorder-based-on-severity-levels
#18
Antonios Dakanalis, Giuseppe Riva, Silvia Serino, Fabrizia Colmegna, Massimo Clerici
The clinical utility of the severity criterion for binge eating disorder (BED), introduced in the DSM-5 as a means of addressing heterogeneity and variability in the severity of this disorder, was evaluated in 189 treatment-seeking adults with (DSM-5) BED. Participants classified with mild, moderate, severe and extreme severity of BED, based on their weekly frequency of binge eating episodes, differed significantly from each other in body mass index (BMI), eating disorder features, putative factors involved in the maintenance process of the disorder, comorbid mood, anxiety and personality disorders, psychological distress, social maladjustment and illness-specific functional impairment (medium-to-large effect sizes)...
April 20, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425123/a-5-year-follow-up-of-a-cohort-of-italian-alcoholics-hospital-admissions-and-overall-survival
#19
Gabriele Bardazzi, Ines Zanna, Marco Ceroti, Benedetta Bendinelli, Adriana Iozzi, Saverio Caini, Gabriella Nesi, Calogero Saieva
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-use disorders (AUDs), including alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse defined according to specific DSM-IV and ICD-X criteria, can be potentially lethal, since they are associated with several medical and psychiatric conditions. This study aims to describe the causes of hospitalization of a large cohort of subjects with alcohol dependence (alcoholics) enrolled in Florence (Italy) over a 5-year follow-up period and to evaluate the effect of hospitalization on overall survival...
April 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425060/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#20
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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