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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235554/morning-and-afternoon-appetite-and-gut-hormone-responses-to-meal-and-stress-challenges-in-obese-individuals-with-and-without-binge-eating-disorder
#1
S Carnell, C Grillot, T Ungredda, S Ellis, N Mehta, J Holst, A Geliebter
BACKGROUND: Eating late in the day is common, and stress can induce eating. Little is understood about how time of day and stress interact to affect appetite and thereby body weight. These may be particularly important influences in binge eaters, who tend to binge in the evening, and in response to stress. METHOD: Obese participants with (n=16) and without (n=16) Binge Eating Disorder (BED) participated in two identical test protocols beginning either in the morning or the afternoon (AM condition/PM condition), each following an 8 h fast...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235240/gender-differences-in-first-self-perceived-signs-and-symptoms-in-patients-with-an-at-risk-mental-state-and-first-episode-psychosis
#2
Ulrike Heitz, Erich Studerus, Stephanie Menghini-Müller, Martina Papmeyer, Laura Egloff, Sarah Ittig, Astrid Navarra, Christina Andreou, Anita Riecher-Rössler
AIM: Gender differences in the current symptomatology of patients with psychotic disorders have previously been described in the literature. However, it has not yet been investigated whether gender differences exist in the very first self-perceived signs or symptoms of illness onset. The aim of this study was to investigate this aspect in at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. METHODS: ARMS and FEP were recruited via the early detection of psychosis (FePsy) clinic Basel, Switzerland...
December 13, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235100/embryonic-exposure-to-valproic-acid-affects-the-histaminergic-system-and-the-social-behavior-of-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#3
Diego Baronio, Henri A J Puttonen, Maria Sundvik, Svetlana Semenova, Essi Lehtonen, Pertti Panula
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Histamine modulates several behaviors and physiological functions and its deficiency is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Gestational intake of valproic acid (VPA) is linked to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), which is characterized by impaired sociability and stereotypies. VPA effects on the neurochemistry and functional morphology of the histaminergic system in ASD are unclear. Zebrafish are highly social and given the similarities between zebrafish and human neurotransmitter systems, we decided to use zebrafish to study VPA effects on histamine...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234931/a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-access-program-a-group-intervention-to-improve-social-adaptive-functioning-stress-coping-and-self-determination-outcomes-in-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Tasha M Oswald, Breanna Winder-Patel, Steven Ruder, Guibo Xing, Aubyn Stahmer, Marjorie Solomon
The purpose of this pilot randomized controlled trial was to investigate the acceptability and efficacy of the Acquiring Career, Coping, Executive control, Social Skills (ACCESS) Program, a group intervention tailored for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to enhance critical skills and beliefs that promote adult functioning, including social and adaptive skills, self-determination skills, and coping self-efficacy. Forty-four adults with ASD (ages 18-38; 13 females) and their caregivers were randomly assigned to treatment or waitlist control...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234826/mental-health-impact-of-social-capital-interventions-a-systematic-review
#5
Elaine C Flores, Daniela C Fuhr, Angela M Bayer, Andres G Lescano, Nicki Thorogood, Victoria Simms
PURPOSE: Mental disorders are a major contributor to the global burden of disease and disability, and can be extremely costly at both individual and community level. Social capital, (SC) defined as an individual's social relationships and participation in community networks, may lower the risk of mental disorders while increasing resilience capacity, adaptation and recovery. SC interventions may be a cost-effective way of preventing and ameliorating these conditions. However, the impact of these SC interventions on mental health still needs research...
December 12, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234739/effects-of-cross-rearing-with-social-peers-on-myelination-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-a-mouse-model-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Manabu Makinodan, Kazuki Okumura, Daisuke Ikawa, Yasunori Yamashita, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Michihiro Toritsuka, Sohei Kimoto, Takahira Yamauchi, Takashi Komori, Yoshinori Kayashima, Hiroki Yoshino, Akio Wanaka, Toshifumi Kishimoto
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, poor communication skills, and repetitive/restrictive behaviors. Recent studies have indicated that early rehabilitative intervention can alleviate the symptoms of individuals with ASD. However, it remains unknown whether rehabilitative intervention can restore brain structures such as myelin, which generally shows abnormalities in individuals with ASD. Therefore, in the present study, we used a mouse model of ASD (BTBR mice) that demonstrated asocial behaviors and hypomyelination in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to investigate whether interaction with social peers (C57BL/6J mice) has an effect on myelination...
November 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234514/mental-capacity-act-northern-ireland-2016
#7
REVIEW
Gerard Lynch, Catherine Taggart, Philip Campbell
Mental health legislation in Northern Ireland has always been separate from legislation in the rest of the UK; the Mental Health (Northern Ireland) Order (MHO) had been in place since 1986. In common with other jurisdictions, this legislation utilises the presence of mental disorder and risk as criteria for detention and involuntary treatment. The MHO has been replaced by the Mental Capacity Act (Northern Ireland) 2016 (MCA), an example of 'fusion' legislation in which impairment of decision-making capacity and best interests are the only criteria to be used when making decisions across health and social care...
December 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234356/the-opportunities-of-virtual-reality-in-the-rehabilitation-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
Azadeh Bashiri, Marjan Ghazisaeedi, Leila Shahmoradi
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. This disorder, in addition to its main symptoms, creates significant difficulties in education, social performance, and personal relationships. Given the importance of rehabilitation for these patients to combat the above issues, the use of virtual reality (VR) technology is helpful. The aim of this study was to highlight the opportunities for VR in the rehabilitation of children with ADHD. This narrative review was conducted by searching for articles in scientific databases and e-Journals, using keywords including VR, children, and ADHD...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234278/effects-of-social-defeat-stress-on-sleep-in-mice
#9
Fiona Henderson, Vincent Vialou, Salah El Mestikawy, Véronique Fabre
Stress plays a key role in the development of psychiatric disorders and has a negative impact on sleep integrity. In mice, chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) is an ethologically valid model of stress-related disorders but little is known about its effects on sleep regulation. Here, we investigated the immediate and long-term effects of 10 consecutive days of social defeat (SD) on vigilance states in C57Bl/6J male mice. Social behavior was assessed to identify susceptible mice, i.e., mice that develop long-lasting social avoidance, and unsusceptible mice...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233622/underrepresentation-of-adolescents-with-respiratory-mental-health-and-developmental-disabilities-using-american-community-survey-acs-questions
#10
Catherine Ipsen, Cathy Chambless, Noelle Kurth, Sara McCormick, Rebecca Goe, Jean Hall
BACKGROUND: Disability prevalence estimates are used to identify populations, establish priorities and allocate funding for a broad range of federal, state, and local initiatives. Increasingly, these estimates are based on a set of six questions developed and tested for use in the American Community Survey (ACS). A key assumption about the ACS disability screeners is that they sufficiently capture the entire population of people with disabilities, but some studies indicate that certain disability groups are underrepresented...
November 29, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232967/a-latent-class-analysis-of-psychotic-symptoms-in-the-general-population
#11
Baptiste Pignon, Hugo Peyre, Andrei Szöke, Pierre A Geoffroy, Benjamin Rolland, Renaud Jardri, Pierre Thomas, Guillaume Vaiva, Jean-Luc Roelandt, Imane Benradia, Hélène Behal, Franck Schürhoff, Ali Amad
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with psychotic symptoms may actually correspond to various subgroups, characterized by different patterns of psychotic symptoms as well as specific sociodemographic and clinical correlates. We aimed to identify groups of individuals from the general population with specific patterns of psychotic symptoms. METHODS: In a 38,694-subject survey, a latent class analysis was performed to identify subgroups based on the distribution of seven psychotic symptoms taken from the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview...
December 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232962/meaning-in-hoarding-perspectives-of-people-who-hoard-on-clutter-culture-and-agency
#12
David M R Orr, Michael Preston-Shoot, Suzy Braye
Hoarding has become increasingly prominent in clinical practice and popular culture in recent years, giving rise to extensive research and commentary. Critical responses in the social sciences have criticised the cultural assumptions built in to the construct of 'hoarding disorder' and expressed fears that it may generate stigma outweighing its benefits; however, few of these studies have engaged directly with 'hoarders' themselves. This paper reports on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 individuals living in England, who received assessment and intervention for hoarding from Social Services...
December 12, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232961/friendships-and-social-participation-as-markers-of-quality-of-life-of-adolescents-and-adults-with-fragile-x-syndrome-and-autism
#13
Leann Smith DaWalt, Lauren V Usher, Jan S Greenberg, Marsha R Mailick
Friendships and social participation are key domains of quality of life for individuals with intellectual disabilities. This study examined the friendships, social and recreational activities, and family social networks of individuals with intellectual disabilities from two distinct diagnostic groups: individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (n = 81) compared with those diagnosed with autistic disorder (n = 226). Within each diagnostic group, individuals in two developmental stages were compared: adolescence and adulthood...
December 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232684/beyond-autism-introducing-the-dialectical-misattunement-hypothesis-and-a-bayesian-account-of-intersubjectivity
#14
Dimitris Bolis, Joshua Balsters, Nicole Wenderoth, Cristina Becchio, Leonhard Schilbach
Drawing on sociocultural theories and Bayesian accounts of brain function, in this article we construe psychiatric conditions as disorders of social interaction to fully account for their complexity and dynamicity across levels of description and temporal scales. After an introduction of the theoretical underpinnings of our integrative approach, we take autism spectrum conditions (ASC) as a paradigm example and discuss how neurocognitive hypotheses can be translated into a Bayesian formulation, i.e., in terms of predictive processing and active inference...
December 13, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232631/ambiguous-genitalia-a-social-dilemma-in-bangladesh-a-case-report
#15
Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, Rashidul Anwar, Arnab Saha
INTRODUCTION: Ambiguous Genitalia is a form of birth defect in which sex of the newborn cannot be readily distinguishable because of atypical appearance of the external genitalia. CASE REPORT-CLINICAL FINDINGS: The patient, an 8 months old baby, was identified as a female baby since birth; but, some senior members of their neighborhood raised confusion regarding sex differentiation of the child. On examination, there was enlarged clitoris or micropenis, bifid scrotum or labioscrotal fold, and separate presence of urethral and vaginal orifices...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232577/attachment-and-motivational-systems-relevance-of-sensitivity-to-punishment-for-eating-disorder-psychopathology
#16
Alessio Maria Monteleone, Valentina Cardi, Umberto Volpe, Giovanna Fico, Valeria Ruzzi, Francesca Pellegrino, Giovanni Castellini, Palmiero Monteleone, Mario Maj
An altered balance of reward and inhibition systems may explain Eating Disorder (ED) behaviors and could be related to difficulties in socio-emotional processing. According to attachment theory, early interaction with caregivers affects the ability to regulate emotion in adult interpersonal situation. The aim of our study was to investigate if insecure attachment may be related to ED symptomatology through changes in reward and inhibition systems. Seventy-eight people affected by EDs and 45 healthy controls (HC) filled in the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), the Behavioral Inhibition System-Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS-BAS) and the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) questionnaire...
December 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232576/effects-of-oxytocin-on-cortisol-reactivity-and-conflict-resolution-behaviors-among-couples-with-substance-misuse
#17
Julianne C Flanagan, Melanie S Fischer, Paul J Nietert, Sudie E Back, Megan Moran-Santa Maria, Alexandra Snead, Kathleen T Brady
Social stress, particularly in the form of dyadic conflict, is a well-established correlate of substance use disorders (SUD). The neuropeptide oxytocin can enhance prosocial behavior and mitigate addictive behaviors. These effects may be, in part, a result of oxytocin's ability to attenuate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. However, only one study to date has examined the effects of oxytocin on neuroendocrine reactivity or conflict resolution behavior among couples. Participants (N = 33 couples or 66 total participants) were heterosexual couples in which one or both partners endorsed substance misuse...
December 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232567/mapping-network-connectivity-among-symptoms-of-social-anxiety-and-comorbid-depression-in-people-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#18
Alexandre Heeren, Payton J Jones, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depressive symptoms often covary. Yet, uncertainty still abounds vis-à-vis the individual symptom-to-symptom associations between these two disorders. Inspired by the network approach to psychopathology that conceptualizes comorbidity as a natural consequence arising from bridge symptoms that can transmit activation from one disorder to the other, we applied network analytic methods to characterize the associations among core symptoms of SAD-i...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232329/cortisol-and-subjective-stress-responses-to-acute-psychosocial-stress-in-fibromyalgia-patients-and-control-participants
#19
Eline Coppens, Stefan Kempke, Peter Van Wambeke, Stephan Claes, Bart Morlion, Patrick Luyten, Lukas Van Oudenhove
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) pathogenesis, but remains understudied in this disorder. Furthermore, early childhood adversities (ECA) are common in FM, but whether they moderate stress reactivity is unknown. Hence, we investigated cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychosocial stress in FM and controls, while adjusting for ECA. METHODS: Twenty-seven female FM patients and 24 age-matched female controls were recruited in a tertiary care center and through advertisements, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232248/endocarditis-in-the-setting-of-idu-multidisciplinary-management
#20
Bobby Yanagawa, Anees Bahji, Wiplove Lamba, Darrell H Tan, Asim Cheema, Ishba Syed, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the medical and surgical management of infective endocarditis secondary to IDU, with a focus on the underlying substance use disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with infective endocarditis secondary to IDU are often young with unique comorbidities including mental illness, chronic hepatitis C, HIV infection, which are often compounded by limited social and familial supports. The focus of management has been treatment of endocarditis using IV antibiotics alongside surgery...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
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